Kōrero: Hītori

Whārangi 3. Te Karauna o Ingarangi me te whakanoho

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Te tutetute a Ingarangi

I te tekau tau atu i 1830, ka ngana te kāwanatanga o Ingarangi kia takoto he ture i Aotearoa, hei tiaki i āna kaihoko, me te kati atu i ngā Wīwī. Ko te hiahia o ngā mihinare, ki te tiaki i te iwi Māori i ngā kino o te noho a te Pākehā.

Te Tiriti o Waitangi

I te tau 1833 ka tonoa a Te Pūhipi (James Busby) ki Pēwhairangi hei Rehireneti (British Resident). Nā Te Pūhipi ngā rangatira o Te Tai Tokerau i whakahau i te tau 1834 ki te mahi mai he haki mō ratou, ā, i te tau 1835 ka haina rātou i tētahi whakaputanga o tō rātou rangatiratanga. E whitu tau i muri i te taenga o Te Pūhipi, ka tono te kāwana tuatahi o Niu Tīreni, a Wiremu Hopihona (William Hobson), kia hui ngā rangatira Māori ki Waitangi i te 6 o ngā rā o Pēpuere 1840, ki te haina i tētahi tiriti me te Karauna o Ingarangi. Neke atu i te e 500 ngā rangatira i haina. Kātahi ka mauria te tiriti ki ngā pito o te motu kia hainatia e ngā rangatira o ngā rohe. I kawea te tiriti ki Te Ara-o-Kiwa rā anō.

Te tino rangatiratanga me ngā tika

I raro i te tiriti, ka tukuna e te Māori te kāwanatanga ki a Ingarangi, ā, ka whakawhiwhia te Māori ki ngā tika o te tangata whenua o Ingarangi; ka puritia hoki ōna whenua me ētahi atu ‘taonga’. Nāwai ā, ka hua te raruraru i te mea he rerekē ngā kōrero o te takotoranga Pākehā o te tiriti ki ērā o te takotoranga Māori. Nō konei uaua ake ai te whakatikatika i ngā takahitanga o te tiriti.

Nā te whakaaetanga a ngā Māori, ka kauhautia te rangatiratanga o Ingarangi ki runga i a Aotearoa. Ka riro mai a Te Wai Pounamu i runga i te take tūhura.

Te ‘whakataetae’ mō Akaroa

I te rau tau atu i 1800, i whakataetae a Ingarangi rāua ko Wīwī, kei a wai te mana i Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. Iti noa ngā pānga o Wīwī ki Aotearoa, engari kei te haere tonu ngā kōrero e mea ana, nā te taenga o ngā Ingarihi ki Te Wai Pounamu i mua i te Wīwī, ka riro mai a Te Wai Pounamu ki te Ingarihi. Tirohia te whakataetae mō Akaroa. I te taenga o ngā tāngata whai o Wīwī ki Aotearoa, kua taka kē te whenua nei ki raro i te mana o Ingarangi. Heoi nō te mōhiotanga o Kāwana Hopihona kei te ahu ngā Wīwī ki Akaroa i Te Wai Pounamu, ka tonoa e ia a Kāpene Stanley i runga i te kaipuke Britomart ki te whakaatu i te mana o Ingarangi ki reira. Heoi, e kore rawa e rite Te Moana-o-Raukawa ki te moana i waenganui i a Ingarangi me Ūropi, arā, te roma e wehe ana i ngā iwi kōrero Ingarihi i ngā iwi kōrero Wīwī.

Te tīmatanga o te noho Pākehā

I mua noa atu i te hainatanga o te tiriti, nā runga i ngā whakahau a Edward Gibbon Wakefield, ka tonoa e te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni ētahi tāngata whai ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara. I ngā rua tau i muri mai, ka whakatūria e te kamupene ngā tāone o Wanganui, o Whakatū me Niu Paremata. Nā ētahi kamupene iti a te Kamupene ngā tāone o Ōtākou (1848) me Ōtautahi (1850) i whakatū. Ka tipu noa a Ākarana, te tāone matua o te Koroni i taua wā.

Ngā hōparatanga a te Pākehā

Kia taka ki te tekau tau atu i 1850, kua taea kē te nuinga o Te Ika-a-Māui e te Pākehā. I te nuinga o te wā ka arahina rātou e ngā Māori mōhio. Nui te whenua i takahia e Te Herewini (George Selwyn) te pīhopa tuatahi o Aotearoa. Kia taka rawa mai ki te wā o te keri koura i te tekau tau atu i 1860, kātahi anō ka taea ngā maunga whakahī o te tuawhenua o Te Wai Pounamu.

Te kāwanatanga motuhake

Nā te hiahia o ngā tāngata whai kia whakatū kāwanatanga mō rātau ake, i te tau 1852 ka whakamanahia e te paremata o Ingarangi te ture kāwanatanga mō Niu Tīreni. Nā tēnei ture ka tū he kāwanatanga mō te motu, he whare paremata, tāpae atu ngā kāwanatanga ā-rohe e ono. Tāria, ka riro mai te mana kāwanatanga (he rōpū whiriwhiri ki runga, e tautokona ana e te nuinga i roto i te whare paremata). Heoi i puritia tonutia e te kāwana me te tari koroni ki Rānana te mana whakahaere i ngā ture e pā ana ki ngā ‘Māori’.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

John Wilson, 'Hītori - Te Karauna o Ingarangi me te whakanoho', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/hitori/page-3 (accessed 16 November 2019)

He kōrero nā John Wilson, i tāngia i te 8 Feb 2005