Kōrero: Te Puni-kōkopu, Hōniana

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Te Puni-kokopu, Honiana

?–1870

Nō Te Āti Awa; he rangatira, he kaiwhakamaherehere i te kāwanatanga

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Angela Ballara,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1990.

Ko Hōniana Te Puni nō ngā kāwai rangatira o Te Āti Awa. I heke mai i a Te Whiti-o-Rongomai I rāua ko Tāwhirikura. Ka puta ko te tama a Te Whiti, ko Āniwaniwa, ko tana wahine ko Tāwhhirikura. Ko tā rāua mātāmua, ko Rerewha-i-te-rangi, ka moe i a Te Puku, ko Hōniana tō mua. Nō ērā wā i te tau 1780 pea i whānau ai a Hōniana, ina hoki i whakaaro a Ernst Dieffenbach tata ki te 60 ngā tau o Hōniana i a rāua i noho tahi ai i te tau 1839. Ko Ngāti Te Whiti, ko Ngāti Tāwhirikura ōna hapū.

Na, i whakaekengia e Taranaki te pā i Rewarewa i te takiwā ki Ngāmotu, ka hinga a Rerewha-i-te-rangi me ngā rangatira tokorua atu anō. Nā te pekenga iho i te pari ka kau i te awa o Waiwhakaiho i ora ai a Hōniana rāua ko Rauakitua, te teina o tōna matua. Nō konei ka tapaina a Hōniana ko Te Puni-kōkopu. He whakarite i a ia ki te ika waimāori, ki te kōkopu. Ko tērā īngoa kei te nōhanga tangata i te takiwā ki Te Awakairangi (Hutt Valley) e mau ana – i takahuringia ki a Epuni.

Ko Te Puni, he ihorei, he tangata māhaki, he tangata ngāwari. Heoi, i whakamau kē atu te iwi ki tōna karangatanga teina, ki a Te Wharepōuri, hei kaihautū mō rātou. He toa mau rākau hoki, he tangata hikareia. I tū tahi rāua i ngā pakanga ki a Taranaki, ki a Te Āti Awa i Pukerangiora i te tau 1820; ki a Waikato i Motunui i te tau 1822. Nō te taenga mai o ngā tāngata whaiwhai tohorā i te tau 1828, ka whakapā atu rāua ki a Hakirau (Jacky Love) me Tiki Pārete (Dicky Barrett). Ka tukuna he wāhine rangatira hei paihere mai i ngā tokorua nei. Nō ērā wā anō, ka whakawhiti a Te Puni ki Poihākena (Port Jackson) mā runga i te kaipuke whaiwhai tohorā, ko te Tohorā tonu te īngoa. Nō te putanga mai o Waikato ki te tuki i te pā i Ōtaka, tata atu ki Ngāmotu, i te tau 1831, ka tū atu a Te Puni rāua ko Te Wharepōuri ki te wawao. Ka mauria mai e Hakirau rāua ko Pārete ā rāua tāngata me ā rāua pū mai o ngā kaipuke, hei āwhina i a Te Puni mā.

Mōhio tonu iho ētahi o Te Āti Awa tērā e hoki mai anō a Waikato, i te mea kāore he kōrero ā whare. Ka whakataungia me hono atu rātou ki ērā o rātou e noho mai rā i Waikanae. Nō te tau 1832 pea, i taki heke mai ai a Rauakitua, a Te Wharepōuri, a Te Puni, a Matangi, a Ngātata-i-te-rangi me tana tama a Wī Tako, me ngā whānau a Hakirau rāua ko Tiki Pārete. Ko Te Heke Tama-te-uaua tērā tira nui.

Ka tau atu a Te Puni, a Te Wharepōuri me Wī Tako Ngātata mā ki Waikanae. Ko Matangi rāua ko tana tama, ko Te Mānihera Te Toru, me Ngātata-i-te-rangi i haere tonu i runga i te tono whanaunga mai a Ngāti Mutunga, kia haere atu ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara (Wellington Harbour). Nā tō rātou tokomaha rawa, ka tupu te kino i waenganui i a Ngāti Raukawa me ngā karangatanga maha o Taranaki. Ko te mutunga atu ko te pakanga i Haowhenua. Ko Te Puni, ko Te Wharepōuri me Wī Tako Ngātata kua taki heke kē ki Te Koanga-ā-umu i te takiwā ki Pari-ā-rua (Porirua). I reira hoki ngā mahinga kai a Te Puni. I muri mai ka heke anō, ki Ōkiwi i te taha rāwhiti o Te Whanganui-a-Tara. Mā te tuawhenua ētahi haere ai, mā runga waka ētahi. Ā, he aha rā ka nuku anō, mā te takutai moana ki Palliser Bay. I tae atu rātou ki Te Wairarapa i muri i te horonga o Pēhikatea ki a Te Kāeaea o Ngāti Tama me ētahi atu o Taranaki. Ko te hunga o Te Wairarapa ake, i raru i a rātou, ka taui ki te raki.

Ka noho a Te Puni mā ki Kaiwaewae (Featherston), he tārai waka tā rātou mahi. Ka puta atu a Nuku-pewapewa rangatira o Te Wairarapa, ka whakaekea. He maha i mau hereheretia. Hoki atu ana ngā mōrehu ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara, ka tau atu ki Matiu (Somes Island). Kua pahemo atu te ope tuatahi o Ngāti Mutunga ki Rēkohu, arā ko Wharekauri (Chatham Islands) i te marama o Noema 1835, mā runga i te kaipuke, te Rodney. I mua i tō rātou haerenga, ka āta tukuna e Ngāti Mutunga ō rātou whenua i Pito-one (Petone), i Waiwhetū, ki a Matangi. I a Tīhema, ka karangahia e ia ōna whanaunga o Ngāti Tāwhirikura kia haere mai ki Pito-one, ki Waiwhetū noho ai. Ko Te Puni i noho tonu ki Matiu. Taka rawa atu ki te tau 1836, kua tau te noho a Te Wharepōuri ki Ngāūranga. Ka tono anō a Matangi rāua ko Te Mānihera kia haere mai a Te Puni ki Pito-one noho ai. Ka whakatūngia tōna pā tūwatawata ki reira, e tata ana ki te huarahi e īngoatia nei i nāianei ko Te Puni.

Mōrearea noa te noho a Te Āti Awa. He tokoiti rawa hoki rātou ki te tū atu ki a Ngāti Raukawa. Ko Ngāti Mutunga me Ngāti Tama kua riro kē ki Ōhariu, ki Te Wairarapa, ki Rēkohu rānei. Kīhai hoki i taea e Te Rauparaha te whakakotahi i ngā iwi, i te mea ko tōna toa he toa pāhekeheke. Ka noho āwangawanga a Te Āti Awa kei puta mai te hunga o Te Wairarapa. I hoki anō a Te Puni ki te ngangare ki ngā mōrehu o Kaiwaewae ki Te Wairarapa. Ēngari ko Te Āti Awa, tomo ai ki te whārua i Ōrongorongo ki te māhanga manu, ki te mahi tuna, ki te whaiwhai poaka, ki te tua rākau hei tārai waka. Me te wehi anō kei puta mai he taua.

He koanga ngākau ki a Te Puni te ūnga mai o te Tory me ngā tāngata o tauiwi ki te whakatakoto i te kaupapa whakanohonoho tāngata a te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni (New Zealand Company) ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara. Nā Tiki Pārete i ārahi mai te Tory ki te wahapū i te 20 o Hepetema 1839. Ka piki a Te Puni rāua ko Te Wharepōuri atu i ō rāua waka ki te Tory. Nā Tiki Pārete i whakamōhio te kaihautū o te Kamupene, a Kānara Wairaweke (William Wakefield) ki a Te Puni – tōna hoa tū mōrearea i ngā pakanga whakamataku i Taranaki. E ai ki tā Wairaweke, kakama atu a Te Puni ki te patapatai ki ngā āhuatanga o te haere a te Tory. Me tōna koa hoki kei te haere mai a tauiwi ki te hoko whenua ka noho ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara. Moea rawa te pō e Te Puni rāua ko Te Wharepōuri i runga i te Tory. Ka tohungia atu e rāua te whenua i tukuna ki a rāua i te hekenga o Ngāti Mutunga; me ētahi atu whenua anō kāore kē nei ō rāua pānga. I tō rāua hokinga ki te kāinga, ka waiho iho te kupu kia haere atu ngā kaiwhakahaere o te Kamupene ki te tirotiro haere i aua whenua.

E rua ngā rangi i muri mai, ka tae mai te karere me te kupu kei te takatū te taua a Ngāti Raukawa. Tere tonu te huihui a te iwi i Ngāūranga, i Pito-one i taua rangi tonu rā, ki te whiriwhiri kia hokona te whenua ki ngā Pākehā. He maha ngā mea i whakakāhore; me te whakamahara atu anō ehara kē i a Te Wharepōuri rāua ko Te Puni ētahi o aua whenua. Ahakoa tonu, ko Te Puni tētahi i haina i te kirimini kia hokona te whenua atu i Tūrakirae ki Rimurapa (Sinclair Head), ka ahu whakaroto ki ngā maunga. Ēngari, i whakaritea me rāhui ake ētahi o ngā whenua motuhake mō te iwi. Nō te 27 o Hepetema 1839 i hainatia ai te hoko i runga i te Tory.

Kāore kē i mārama te whakamāori a Tiki Pārete i ngā whakariteritenga. Ina hoki, tino kore a Te Wharepōuri rāua ko Te Puni i mōhio he maha noa atu te hunga Pākehā ka ū mai a tōna wā. Pērā anō ngā whenua rāhui. Kāore kē i whakatauria me āta whakauru mārika katoa ngā pā me ngā mahinga kai. Ahakoa rā, ko rāua hoki ngā mea i ngana ki te hoko i te whenua. Me te aha hoki, i taupua tonu a Te Puni i a Wairaweke i ngā tau o muri mai. Nāna hoki tērā Pākehā. Tūpono tonu, nō Te Puni mā anake ngā kāinga me ngā māra kai i uru ki ō rātou whenua rāhui. Nā reira pea ia i tautoko ai i a Wairaweke.

Pūmau tonu te hoahoa o Te Puni ki ngā Pākehā whakanohonoho. Ko tana mātāmua, ko Te Whare, e mōhiotia nei ko Hēnare Te Puni. I tonoa hei hoa haere mō ngā āpiha a te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni, hei whakakīkī i a Te Āti Awa kia hokona ō rātou whenua. Taka rawa atu ki Hānuere o te tau 1840, kua tū he whare whakaputu taputapu, rahi tonu nei, i a Te Puni hei nohoanga mō Wairaweke ki roto ki tōna pā. Āta tiakina rawatia e ia. I mua o te taenga mai o ngā hōia nāna anō i āwhina a Wairaweke kia tau ai te noho a te katoa. I te marama o Maehe, ka ū mai ngā kaipuke e toru, kī tonu i te Pākehā. E noho atu ana a Wairaweke i te kei o te waka o Te Puni mihi atu ai ki a rātou. Anā, nā te iwi o Te Puni i hanga ngā whare mō rātou. Nā rātou anō i hoko atu he kai: he poaka, he ika, he rīwai. Ko te utu he taputapu, he pūeru nō Ōropi. Ka pā te tūpuhi, te hau tonga, ka pākia mai te Jewess ka pae ki te ākau i Pito-one. He kaipuke iti noa nei tēnei hei kawe taputapu hokohoko. Ka riro nā te hunga o Te Āti Awa i ora ai ngā mea o runga i te Jewess, nā rātou anō i whakamānu. Na, i te pānga o te ringa o tētahi o ngā hēramana ki te tamāhine tonu a Te Puni, tukuna ana e ia mā te pirihimana a te Kamupene e whakawhiu.

I hainatia e Te Puni te Tiriti o Waitangi i te taenga mai ki Pōneke (Port Nicholson) i te 29 o ngā rā o Āperira 1840. Heoi, nā te nui ake o tōna mana i tō te hunga i aro atu ai te kāwanatanga, kore ana a Te Puni i rata atu ki te kāwanatanga. Āpiti atu hoki, kua kitea e ngā kaiwhakahaere ana mahi nanakia ki ngā whenua. Nō te marama o Ākuhata rā anō kātahi ia ka kōrero e hara nōna ētahi o ngā whenua i hokona rā. Kāti, e taea te pēhea, i tōna matapopore ki ngā paraikete, ki ngā pū a ngā Pākehā!

I te tūnga o te whakawā a te kōmihana, a William Spain, mō te hokonga o aua whenua e te Kamupene, ko Te Puni anake te tangata Māori i karangahia e Wairaweke kia patapataia. Ka whakataungia me utu ki te hunga o Pōneke £1,500 mō ngā whenua, ā, kia whakaurua mai hoki ō rātou pā me ā rātou māra kai ki ngā whenua rāhui. Ko te nuinga o ēnei moni i tukuna ki a Wī Tako, ki a Te Rangihaeata rāua ko Te Rauparaha, ki te hunga o Te Aro, o Pipitea me Kumutoto. I whakaritea anō hoki kia £30 noa iho ki tēnā, ki tēnā o ngā uri o Te Puni, o Te Wharepōuri. Kāore a Te Puni i whātoro atu. Hei tāna, me whakakāhore kē te hokonga tuatahi, nā te mea kīhai rawa kē i mārama ki a ia ngā whakaritenga. Nā reira, ko te utu kua whakaritea nei e te kōmihana, koia nei kē te hokonga tūturu; anā kia ōrite te utu ki a rātou katoa. Ahakoa tōna whakatakariri, ngāwari noa tana kupu atu: 'Kauaka hei pōuri, e kore tonu au e tango i tō moni'.

Ahakoa rā, i noho hoahoa tonu ia ki ngā Pākehā kua tau te noho. Ēngari a Te Rangihaeata. Kore rawa ia i whakaae kia tukuna e Ngāti Rangatahi, e Ngāti Tama rānei ō rātou whenua i Te Awakairangi. I ohiti rawa a Te Puni tērā e tū mai te taua a Te Rangihaeata. Ka whakatūpato atu i a Meiha Mathew Richmond, ka mea atu māna e āwhina ngā Pākehā mehemea ka hōmai he pū mā tana iwi. Kāore i hōmai. E rua wiki i muri mai ka whakaekea e Te Rangihaeata te pāmu a Almon Boulcott i te 16 o Mei 1846. Ā waia! Kātahi rā anō ka tukuna mai he pū e 100 ki a Te Puni. Heoi, ka hangaia he rāihe i waenganui o Fort Richmond me te pāmu rā. Ka tahuri hoki ki te whakakaha i tōna pā i Pito-one. Na, i te 2 o Hune 1846 ka puta ko Te Mamaku o Whanganui ki te āwhina i a Ngāti Rangatahi, ka ngangare mai ki a Te Puni mā. Ko tā Te Puni, he āwhina kau, he taupua i ana Pākehā mehemea ka pā he raruraru. Ehara nāna te riri. Tāwaitia ana mai e Richmond a Te Puni mō tana kore i pana atu te hunga whakaeke. Ka rere te pātai a tana tama, a Hēnare: 'I te mea nā te Kāwana kē te riri, he aha i kore ai e peia e ngā hōia?' Ka whakawhiti a Hēnare ki rāwāhi o Te Awakairangi, ki te nohoanga o Kāparatehau me tana iwi o Ngāti Rangatahi. Whakataui ana rātou, kāore i whawhai. Nō te marama o Hūrae ka ārahina e ngā toa a Te Puni ngā hōia me ngā pirihimana mau pū ki te putanga atu i Te Awakairangi ki Pāuatahanui, kia whakatahi atu ai a Te Rangihaeata me ōna haumi.

Na, kātahi ka aronui mai te kāwana me ngā Pākehā ki a Te Puni. Kātahi rā ia te tino tangata! Kua kitea atu tōna rite ki a Patuone rāua ko Tāmati Wāka Nene o Ngā Puhi, me Te Wherowhero o Waikato. He kaiāwhina, he kaiwhāmanawa katoa rātou nō te kāwana, kua mahi tahi ō rātou iwi me ngā Pākehā. Ka utua a Te Puni mō ana āwhina i Te Awakairangi; ka whakawhiwhia hoki ki te penihana, £50 i te tau. Ko Alexander Currie, he tangata nō Rānana (London), whai hea hoki i te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni. Nāna i tuku mai he kapu hiriwa hei koha ki a Te Puni mō tana pūmau ki ngā mema o te Kamupene. I te tau 1847, ka tono a Kāwana Hōri Kerei (George Grey) i a Te Puni hei hoa haere mōna ki Taranaki, hei whakapati i ngā iwi kia hokona mai anō he whenua ki a ia. I te ūhinga o te tohu 'Tā' ki a Hōri Kerei i te tau 1848, ka tono ia ko Te Puni rāua ko Patuone hei kaiārahi i a ia. I taua tau anō, ko Te Puni tētahi i te taha i a Wairaweke i tōna matenga; ā, ko ia anō tētahi o ngā kaiamo i te tūpāpaku ki te urupā. I whakaritea hoki ko ia hei torotoro i te hunga māuiui i te hōhipera o Te Whanganui-a-Tara. Mai anō i te ūranga o te Tory i te tau 1839, ka tīmata a Te Puni ki te mau kākahu Pākehā, ki te whai hoki i ā rātou tikanga. Auau tonu te torotoro i ōna hoa o tauiwi. Tae rawa ake ki te tau 1850, kua pai rawa atu te noho a tōna iwi. E 70 ā rātou kararehe i tua atu i ngā poaka; ā, e 25 eka tā rātou māra.

Nō te tau 1850 anō i hoki ai a Te Puni ki Taranaki. Anā, ahakoa ngā papatu a Te Āti Awa ki te Karauna, i tautoko tonu ia i te kāwana. Ēngari nō te tau 1853, ka whakahēngia e ia te hoko o te whenua i Waiwhakaiho. Heoi, hokona atu ana e ia tōna hea. Ēngari i tonoa e ia tana tama, a Hēnare, kia noho ki Waiwhakaiho ki te pupuri i te nuinga atu o taua whenua mō Ngāti Tāwhirikura. I te haerenga o Meiha C. L. Nugent me ngā hōia a te Karauna i ū mai ki Nū Pāremata (New Plymouth), ka haere tahi atu a Te Puni. E taki haere ana ki te tiaki i te hunga pūwhenua i ngā whakaātete a Te Āti Awa i te matenga o Rāwiri Waiaua. Ko ia anō te kaiwhakatara i a Kānara R. H. Wynyard, te kaiwhakahaere i te motu i te wehenga atu o Kāwana Kerei i te tau 1853. Ka taka ki te tau 1856, ko Te Puni rāua ko Wī Tako Ngātata i haere i te taha o Stephen Carkeek te kaikohi tāke mō ngā taputapu o tāwāhi i Pōneke. I haere rātou ki Rēkohu ki te whakarite i tērā āhua ki reira, ki te whakatū hoki i te kaiwhakawā takiwā, i a Archibald Watson Shand. Ko tā rāua he whakarata i ngā iwi ki te āhuatanga, ki te mana o te kaiwhakawā; ā, kia whakaarohia hoki he āteha hei āwhina i a Shand.

I te tau 1868 ka puta atu te kāwana, a G. F. Bowen rāua ko te pīhopa o Te Whanganui-a-Tara, a C. J. Abraham, ki te torotoro i a Te Puni. Rokohanga atu e noho ngākau pōuri rawa atu ana. Ko tētahi o ngā take i tohea e ia, ko te whakareretanga a Te Mākarini (Donald McLean) i a rātou o Te Āti Awa ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara ki waho i ngā whiriwhiringa kia hokona te whenua i Waitara. Nō te 5 o ngā rā o Tīhema 1870, ka mate a Te Puni. Kua tino kaumātuatia. Ko Wikitōria Muritūwakaroto tana pouaru, tokowhitu ā rāua tamariki, he maha ngā mokopuna. I whakanuia te rā o te nehu, ka katikatia ngā pēke, me ngā toa. Ko Te Mākarini rāua ko William Fitzherbert, te kaiwhakahaere o Pōneke, ētahi o ngā kaiamo i te tūpāpaku ki te urupā i Pito-one. Ko Te Harawira (Octavius Hadfield) te pīhopa i tēnei wā. Nāna i whakahaere ngā karakia tuku. E toru ngā waiwaipū a ngā hōia o te Hutt Volunteers i te rua. Taro ake, ka whakatūria e te kāwanatanga he kōwhatu whakamaharatanga ki a Te Puni i taua urupā. Kei te tū tonu.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Angela Ballara. 'Te Puni-kōkopu, Hōniana - Te Puni-kokopu, Honiana', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1990. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/1t58/te-puni-kokopu-honiana (accessed 7 December 2019)