Kōrero: Te Kāeaea

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Te Kaeaea

?–1871

Nō Ngāti Tama; he rangatira

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Angela Ballara,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1990.

He rangatira a Te Kāeaea nō Ngāti Tama o te rohe ki te raki o Taranaki. Nō te tata paunga o te rau tau 1700–1799 a ia i whānau ai. Ka moea e tōna matua, e Whangataki II, a Hinewairoro, ka puta ko rāua ko tōna tuakana ko Te Pūoho-o-te-rangi. He tino tata tō rātou pākanga atu ki a Ngāti Toa.

Atu ki te tau 1820, kīhai tōna īngoa e rangona ana, ēngari anō o Raparapa rāua ko Tūpoki. Nō te matenga o Raparapa rāua ko Tūpoki i te pakanga o 1821, ka noho ko Te Pūoho-o-te-rangi hei whakahaere i ngā take a Ngāti Tama. Otirā, i mua atu i 1821, he kaiārahi taua mana motuhake a Te Kāeaea, i ngā whawhai auau ki a Ngāti Maniapoto i te raki. Hei ngaki i ō rātou mate o mua atu, ka takina e Te Kāeaea he taua ki te tuki i a Ngāti Maniapoto i 1821; heoi, he mate anō mō Ngāti Tama tōna hua. I tēnei waitaua kē a ia, i te wā e whakamanuhiritia ana e Ngāti Tama ngā iwi o Kāwhia, o te heke tuatahi a Te Rauparaha.

Nō te tau 1822, ka takina e Te Kāeaea he taua hikutoto ki uta o Mōkau i te raki, ki te huaki i a Ngāti Urunumia hapū o Ngāti Maniapoto. I a ia e hoki ake ana i tēnei waitaua, ka tino patua rawatia a Waikato e Te Rauparaha me ōna uku o Taranaki, i Motunui. E whai mai ana a Waikato i a Ngāti Toa ki roto o Taranaki, ina patua nei. Ē ai ki ngā tikanga o te riri, ka whakaohiti a Te Rauparaha i ōna hoariri o Waikato i mate nei i a ia, kia kaua e taui whaka-te-raki. Otirā, e ora rātou mā te tonga hoki ai. Mehemea ka hoki whakararo rātou, ka kati iho te kauaerunga ki te kauaeraro. E taki whakarunga ana a Te Kāeaea i tāna waitaua i taua wā, ā, ko ia te kauaerunga e kōrerohia nei.

Ko ngā whenua o Ngāti Tama te pākai i waenga i ngā hoariri o Te Rauparaha ki te raki, me ōna uku o Taranaki ki te tonga. Nā ngā tini patunga i a rātou, me tā rātou noho mōrearea, i ngākau kore ai a Ngāti Tama. Nō te tekau tau atu i 1820, ka piri atu ētahi o ō rātou ope ki ngā tira e heke atu ana ki te takutai moana o Kapiti. Pērā i tōna tuakana i a Te Pūoho rā, tērā pea he maha tonu ngā haerenga o Te Kāeaea i roto i ngā ope nei, me ōna hokinga ake ki te kāinga. Ko tētahi o ēnei ope, i noho rawa atu ki Te Wairarapa. He wāhanga i noho ki Te Tarata, i te taha uru, ki uta o te tāwaha o Ōnoke. He wāhanga i noho ki Wharepapa; kāore i tino tawhiti rawa atu i Te Tarata, ēngari, e pātata atu ana ki te ngahere. Ko te Ōnoke nei, he roto, kei te pito tonga o Te Wairarapa. Ahakoa e noho manawa-rau ana a Ngāti Tama me te tangata whenua ake o reira, arā, a Ngāti Kahungunu me Rangitāne, i hora tonu te rangimārie ā tata noa ki te tau 1830. I taua wā, ka patua a Ngāti Tama i ō rātou pā e rua e te waitaua a Nuku-pewapewa, a Pēhi Tūtepākihirangi me ētahi atu rangatira o Te Wairarapa. Nō muri tonu mai, i tētahi wāhi e tata ana ki Hūpēnui (Greytown), ka whakaarahia e te waitaua nei a Pēhikatea pā mō rātou. Nō te taenga o te rongo o tēnei parekura ki a Te Kāeaea, ka takina mai e ia ki Te Wairarapa, he matua iti nei o Ngāti Tama me ōna uku o Ngāti Toa me Ngāti Mutunga. Nō te ata a Pēhikatea ka tukia. Poupou rawa ake te rā kua horo te pā ki a Te Kāeaea. Kātahi ka whāia rātou i puta, e te ope a Te Kāeaea ā, ka whakahokia mai te maha o Ngāti Tama i mau herehere.

I te tau 1831, kua hoki kē a Te Kāeaea ki Taranaki. I taua tau anō, ka urutomokia anō a Taranaki e ngā waitaua o Waikato. Ka riro te pā whakahirahira nei, a Pukerangiora. He tokomaha ngā mōrehu i whakaruruhia e Te Wharepōuri me Te Āti Awa ki Ōtaka pā i Ngāmotu wāhi o Nū Pāremata (New Plymouth). I waimarie tā rātou wawao i a Ōtaka i te tuki a Waikato. I waenganui o te toru wiki e pakipakitia ana a Ōtaka, ka puta ake te ope a Te Kāeaea mā runga waka. I hiki ake me tāna apataki o te 30 ki te 40 tāngata, i Pātangata pā, i hangā rā ki tētahi motu kōhatuhatu i te ngutu awa o Tongapōrutu. Ka wāhia e Te Kāeaea a Waikato, ehara, kua uru atu ki te āwhina i ngā kaiwawao o Ōtaka.

Nā te mataku kei tukia anō rātou, ka heke whakarunga te nuinga o Ngāti Tama me ētahi atu o Taranaki. I karangahia tēnei ko Te Heke Hauhaua, ā, ko Te Kāeaea tonu tētahi o ngā rangatira. Koia nei pea te wā i hoki ai a ia ki Te Wairarapa. Ko 1834 te tau o te pakanga nui a Te Āti Awa rāua ko Ngāti Raukawa ki Haowhenua pā i Ōtaki. Nō muri i taua riri, ka haria e Te Kāeaea tōna hapū o Ngāti Tama ki te takutai moana o Kapiti. Ko te pūtake, he whakamātau ki te kōhaki mai he wāhi noho mō rātou i te hunga i riri i Haowhenua. Ko te whakaaro o Te Kāeaea, e kore taua hunga e kaha ki te ātete i a ia. Ka whakatūria e ia tōna puni ki te tonga o Paremata. Heoti, ka takina mai e Te Rangihaeata rāua ko Te Rauparaha a Ngāti Kimihia hapū o Ngāti Toa, me Ngāti Raukawa mā runga i ngā waka e rua, ki te whakaangaanga i a Te Kāeaea. Kīhai i pakanga, ēngari, i panaia a ia e Te Rangihaeata. Kātahi a Te Kāeaea ka whakamātau ki te whakatū kāinga anō mō tōna iwi ki te motu o Mana. Ka panaia anō e Te Rangihaeata. Nā tēnei raruraru ka mau a Taringakurī hei īngoa mō Te Kāeaea, arā, nā te kī rōrā a Te Rangihaeata ki a ia: 'Taringakurī, he turinga ki te kupu a Mokau'. Na, ko Mokau tētahi o ngā īngoa o Te Rangihaeata.

I peia a Ngāti Tama ki Ōhariu noho ai, ā, i te tekau tau atu i 1840, tokomaha tonu rātou i reira e noho ana. Na, ko Te Kāeaea, e mōhiotia nei ko Taringakurī, arā kē pea i Te Wairarapa e noho ana. I reira a ia i ngā tau whakamutunga o te tekau tau atu i 1830, arā, i te wā e whakawhere ana a Te Wharepōuri i a Taranaki whānui, kia whakawhitia a Te Wairarapa ki a Ngāti Kahungunu me Rangitāne, mō Rīpeka Te Kakapi. He irāmutu a Rīpeka nā Te Wharepōuri; ēngari, i whakatipua ake e ia hei tamāhine taurima māna. Kore rawa a Te Kāeaea i whakaae ki tēnei. Nā te whakaaro o Te Wharepōuri ka tukia anō rātou e Nuku-pewapewa, ka kī atu a ia ki a Te Kāeaea kia noho iho hei toutou, ā, hei wahie hoki mō ngā ahi a Nuku. Ka whakahoki atu tērā, he rite a ia ki te rākau whakarae, e kore e ngiha.

Otirā, ahakoa ana kōrero i runga ake nei, tae rawa atu ki 1839, kua neke kē mai rātou ko tōna iwi i Te Wairarapa ki Kaiwharawhara i Pōneke (Port Nicholson) noho ai. Nō muri i te taenga mai o te Tory, te kaipuke a te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni (New Zealand Company), i te Hepetema o 1839, ko Te Kāeaea tētahi o ngā rangatira i utua mō ngā whenua i hokona i Te Whanganui-a-Tara (Wellington Harbour) whānui tonu. He kaupapa i kaingākautia e ia te taetaenga mai o te tangata whai. Nō te 29 o Āperira 1840, ka hainatia e ia te Tiriti o Waitangi. Heoti, kāore i pau te rua tau kua hē tā rātou noho tahi ko te tangata whai. Ahakoa i kī taurangitia, kua rāhuitia tōna kāinga me ana māra mō rātou ko tōna iwi, ka kokorahotia tonutia e te tangata whai ana ngakinga, ā, takatakahia ana e ā rātou kau ana mahinga kai.

Nā ēnei mahi takakino, ka whakawātea mai a Te Kāeaea i a ia i ngā whakarite hoko whenua o mua atu. He hiahia nō Te Rangihaeata mā Ngāti Tama e whakawhiwhi a Ngāti Rangatahi hapū o Whanganui ki tētahi wāhi noho, ka whakahauhautia e ia a Te Kāeaea. Ko te whanaungatanga o Te Rangihaeata ki a Ngāti Rangatahi he pērā ki tō Te Whatanui rāua ko Mua-ūpoko. Neke paku atu i te 30 te ope a Te Kāeaea i whakatika atu ki te whakarake wāhi i Te Awakairangi (Hutt Valley) hei māra mā rātou. Ēngari, e kokorahotia ana taua wāhi e William Swainson. Ka tāia e Swainson he reta ki te nūpepa e whakahē ana i tēnei mahi, me te inoi āwhina anō hoki i ngā mana whakahaere. I te tau 1842, ka mahi tahi a William Spain, te kōmihana mō ngā whenua taupatupatu, a Michael Murphy, te kaiwhakawā tumuaki o ngā pirihimana, me ētahi atu, kia whakatahi a Te Kāeaea. Kīhai rātou i momoho. Ahakoa te kaumātua o Te Kāeaea i taua wā, ka tūkinotia a ia e Swainson. He kaha whakatakariri nōna tērā, mō te turakitanga a Te Kāeaea i ētahi rākau, e tū tata ana ki tōna whare.

Nō muri i te whakawākanga o tēnei raruraru, ka whakatauria e Spain e tika ana te take a te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni, ēngari, nā tā rātou mahi tinihanga i ngā Māori whai pānga, me utu he moni tāpiri ki a rātou. E £400 i utua ki a Te Rauparaha rāua ko Te Rangihaeata, otirā, kīhai he whenua, he moni rānei i whakawhiwhia ki a Ngāti Tama rāua ko Ngāti Rangatahi. Atu i 1842 ki 1845, ka āta whakatūturutia e Te Kāeaea tana noho ki Te Awakairangi. Ka hangā e ia a Maraenuka pā ki Lower Hutt o ēnei rā, ā, ka whakatūria e ia ētahi whare ki te wāhi i kokorahotia rā e Swainson.

I Maehe o 1844, ka toro atu anō a Spain i a Te Kāeaea. I tōna taenga atu, e topea ana e rātou ko tōna iwi he paranga, 30 ki te 40 iāri te whānui, ā, tata ana ki te māero te roa. Nō te uinga atu mō te kaupapa o tana mahi, ka whakautu a Te Kāeaea, 'Nā Te Rauparaha te whakahau kia topea tēnei paranga hei tohu i te rohe o ngā whenua Pākehā i ō mātou'. I te tohetohenga o Spain ki tēnei, ka whakamahara atu a Te Kāeaea, kīhai a Te Rauparaha rāua ko Te Rangihaeata i whakaae ki ngā rohenga i whakatauria e Spain mā te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni. Ko tā Te Kāeaea, ka para haere tonu a ia a puta noa i te awaawa.

Ko te noho pūkeke a Te Kāeaea kia mau tonu ki a ia te mana whenua o Te Awakairangi, kīhai i taea e te ture te aha. Nō te taenga rawatanga mai o te kāwana hou, o Hōri Kerei (George Grey) i 1846, kātahi anō ka taea. He whiwhi hōia nāna i tatū ai tēnei take. E rua rā i muri i tōna taenga mai, ka meinga e ia a Te Kāeaea kia kī taurangi, ka whakatahi mai rātou ko tōna iwi i Te Awakairangi. Heoti, ko tā Te Kāeaea, me utu ia mō te 300 eka rīwai e tipu tonu ana. Kāore te kāwana i whakaae kia wānangahia te take utu, kia whakatahi mārika rā anō a Te Kāeaea. I whakatahi mārika rātou, ēngari, nō tāna kitenga atu i te tangata whai i namata e tango ana i taua wāhi, ko tōna hokinga atu tēnā. I te 24 o Pēpuere 1846, ka rangatū atu he hōia ki reira. Auina rawa ake, ka tae mai te mihingare o te Rōpū Hāhi Mihingare (Church Missionary Society) o Whanganui rā, a Te Teira (Richard Taylor), hei kaiwhakarite. I taea e ia te whakawhere a Ngāti Tama rāua ko Ngāti Rangatahi kia whakatahi, otirā, i kī a ia, nā te hunga Pākehā tūtūā: i mūrei ngā kāinga me ngā mahinga kai, i maoho te whare karakia, i taumanu ō rātou waka. Ka kī a Te Kāeaea,' I pōhēhē au he tapu te kupu a te kāwana. Kua kite au i nāianei, he kurumetometo noa iho a ia ki tōna iwi'.

Tae rawa ake ki Mei o te tau 1846, kua momoho i a Kerei te wehe a Te Kāeaea me Ngāti Tama i a Ngāti Rangatahi. Nā ngā 300 eka i Kaiwharawhara me ngā utunga moni mō ā rātou māra, i whiwhi oranga ai Te Kāeaea mā, mō taua wā. Hei whakawātea i a Te Kāeaea, ka tonoa a ia ki Ākarana (Auckland) torotoro haere ai.

I te tekau tau atu i 1850, ka māharahara ngā āpiha a te kāwanatanga kei kuhu atu a Te Kāeaea ki te ope o Taranaki e hoki ana ki ngā whenua o ō rātou tīpuna. Kia kore ai a ia e haere, ka hokona mai e Te Mākarini (Donald McLean) he wāhanga whenua mō rātou ko Ngāti Tama i Te Awakairangi mō te £400. Tae rawa atu ki 1860 kua ea i ā rātou te moni a Te Mākarini. I te tau 1856, i noho noa ihotia e ētahi o tōna iwi o Taranaki te whenua rāhui o Pākuratahi, kia tata atu ai rātou ki a ia. I te whakakorenga o tā rātou inoi ki a Kerei mō ētahi whenua tāpui, ko tō rātou hokinga atu tērā ki Taranaki i 1868. I hoki tahi atu rātou ko Te Kāeaea, ā, koia nei tōna hokinga whakamutunga ki te hau kāinga. I taua tau anō, e tango penihana ā tau ana a ia i te kāwanatanga mō āna mahi mā rātou. Ko tōna īngoa e mau ana i ngā rārangi īngoa, ko Wikitoa Taringa Kurī. I mate a ia i te 5 o Oketopa 1871. Kāore i waitohua te wāhi o tōna nehunga, i te urupā o te whānau a Te Puni. Kei te taha rāwhiti o te tiriti o Te Puni i Pito-one (Petone) tēnei urupā. Nā te pīhopa o Pōneke, nā Te Harawira (Octavius Hadfield), te karakia nehunga i whakahaere.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Angela Ballara. 'Te Kāeaea - Te Kaeaea', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1990. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/1t38/te-kaeaea (accessed 18 November 2019)