Kōrero: Matua, Hēnare

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Matua, Henare

?–1894

Nō Ngāti Kahungunu; he kaihautū, he kaiwhakapai tikanga, he kaitōrangapū

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Angela Ballara,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1990.

Kāore e tino mōhiotia ana te wāhi whānau o Hēnare Matua. Ākuanei, i whānau pea ki Nukutaurua i Te Māhia, i ngā tau tekau mai i te 1830. Ki te kōrero a tāna tamāhine atawhai, a Airini Tōnore (Donnelly), i hoki mai a Hēnare i Nukutaurua ki Heretaunga, i te wā kua kaha kē ia ki te horoi i a ia anō, kāore he āwhina mai a tana whaea. I tīmata te hokinga nui ki te tonga i te tau 1838.

Nā tana pāpā, nā Hoani, ka noho a Hēnare Matua hei uri whakaheke i a Kahungunu, mā roto i a Rākaipaaka rāua ko Te Huki; ka pā anō ia ki a Te Whatuiāpiti, ki a Kere hoki. Nā tana whaea, nā Hēnikura, i noho uri ia mā Hāmua rāua ko Rangitāne. Ko Hēnare tonu e kī ana, he uri anō ia nō Ngāti Te Tau. Kei tā Te Koreneho (William Colenso), he uri a Hēnare nō Tuanui (ko Tainui rānei), he rangatira i tūpono ki a Kāpene Kuki (James Cook), i Oketopa 1773, i Pourere.

I te hokinga mai o Matua (arā anō tētahi o ōna īngoa ko Te Kōura) i Nukutaurua, ka noho ia ki Waimārama i raro i te maru o Tiakitai. I mau i a ia ngā tohu mātauranga a te Pākehā, i matatau hoki ia ki ngā tikanga kaipakihi, puta rā anō ōna toa ki ngā take kāwanatanga.

Nō ngā tau o mua tata i te 1850, kua whakanōhia e Tiakitai a Ngāti Kere me ētahi atu hapū ki Pōrangahau, ki Tautāne me Ākitio. I Ākitio a Hēnare Matua e noho ana. Nō taua wā nei, kua matainaina katoa te Pākehā ki ngā whenua o Te Matau-a-Māui (Hawke's Bay); ka whakaritea e Matua ngā rīhi mō te whenua o Pōrangahau me ētahi poraka anō i reira. Nāna i whakahaere ngā tikanga kaipakihi mō tana iwi, i te wā e pai ana te tupu o te witi, he nui ngā utu rēti a te Pākehā, ā, e hoko ana ngā Māori whiwhi whenua i te hipi me te kau.

Kāti, kāore ngā tau pai i roa, ka mutu. Nō ngā tau tekau mai i 1850, ka tīmata te mahi hokohoko whenua ki te Karauna. Ahakoa i haina a Hēnare Matua i te pukapuka e hokona ai te poraka o Waipukurau, ēngari ko tōna ture ake, he whakahē i tēnei mea te hoko. I whakahē tonu ia ki ngā whakamātau kia riro a Pōrangahau. Nō te 1854, nō te haerenga o ētahi o ngā rangatira o tana rohe ki Pōneke (Wellington), ka hokona ki a Te Mākarini (Donald McLean), ki te Kōmihana Tumuaki Hoko Whenua, e hia nei ngā poraka whenua, i Pōrangahau. I runga i te tikanga, kāore ia e tika ana ki te hoko i aua whenua, me mātua whakapā rā anō ki te katoa o te hunga nōna nei te whenua. E riro atu ana ngā whenua nei, kei te nuku haere te noho a Matua mai i Ākitio ki Tautāne; kātahi ka heke ki Whangaehuki ki te taha o Whakaoriori (Masterton). Ko te mutunga iho, nāna ka whakaae a Te Mākarini ki te whakahoki i ētahi whenua o rātau.

Ko tētahi o ngā Pākehā i noho ki Pōrangahau, ko Ōmana (J. D. Ormond). Nāna te tono ki a Te Mākarini, kia ākina atu ngā Māori, kia hokona ngā whenua mānia e karapoti ana i ngā kāinga Pākehā, ki te whakawātea hoki i te whenua e tae atu ai ki te ngāherehere, kia riro mai he papa. Ko te hiahia o Matua kia mau tonu tana iwi ki ngā whenua mārakerake me ngā whenua kei te takutai moana, kia waiho ai ko ngā whenua o uta ki te Pākehā. Nō Maehe 1858, ka whakaae a Matua me ētahi o ngā rangatira kia hokona ngā poraka o Tautāne me Pōrangahau, ēngari kia rahi tonu ngā whenua e rāhuitia.

Tērā tētahi ope kawe kōrero a Kīngi Pōtatau Te Wherowhero, i tae mai ki Te Matau-a-Māui. Tautoko ai a Tāreha, a Karaitiana Takamoana me ētahi atu i te kaupapa a te Kīngi mō te rūnanga, arā, kia riro mā te Māori anō ia e whakahaere; ēngari, e kore rātau e taka atu ki raro i te mana o te Kīngi. Ka whakamauru atu a Kurupō Te Moananui rātau ko ana iwi o te takutai moana, puta atu ki Te Matau-a-Māui ki te tonga, ki Pōrangahau tonu, ki te Kīngi Māori. He mea whakahau a Matua ki te whakahaere i ngā whenua mō te rūnanga o te Kīngi. Ko tāna mahi tuatahi, ko te whakakōrero i a Te Mākarini kia tangohia atu ngā moni i utua mō te poraka o Pōrangahau. Heoti kāore a Te Mākarini i nanao, ahakoa kua kohikohia kētia rā i te hunga hoko.

E whakahoahoa ana a Hēnare Matua ki te Kīngitanga, me te kaingākau o ngā tāngata a te kāwanatanga mōna, mō ana māramatanga kaipakihi, he mōhio tonu hoki, he matatau ki te ture. E rua ngā tau, nō te 1863 me te 1866, i whakaaria ia hei āteha. Ka whakaae ngā iwi o Pōrangahau kia riro mā te Kōti Whenua Māori ō rātau whenua e whakahaere, he whakaaro nō rātau tērā e noho ko Matua hei āteha mō rātau. Whakatūria rawa ia hei āteha, nō te tau 1870, ēngari i raro kē i te Ture Whakarite Kōti Māori (Native Circuit Courts Act) o 1858, kāore i raro i te Kōti Whenua Māori.

Nā Matua ka kore te Pai Mārire e tae ki Pōrangahau i te pokapūtanga o ngā tau tekau mai i 1860; i āwhina hoki ia i a Ōmana ki te whakarata i te Māori rāua ko te Pākehā. Nō 1864, nō te werowerotanga o Ngairo Takatakapūtea, te rangatira Pai Mārire o Te Wairarapa, kia pakanga te Māori ki te Pākehā; ka takahia e Matua te takutai moana ki te whakamōhio i ngā iwi, e kore ngā hunga kawe riri ki te Pākehā e āwhinatia. Nō Oketopa o 1866, kua rongo a Matua e whakaekengia ana a Te Matau-a-Māui e te Hauhau o Te Wairarapa, ka aukatia rātau kia kore e haere mai mā Pōrangahau. I tua atu i tēnā, kātahi ka whakahaungia te Hauhau i Rangiwhakaoma (Castlepoint) me Mātaikona kia unu rātau i tō rātau whakapono, ka kore, me heke ki te tonga. He nui i unu i te Pai Mārire, ka taki heke ki te marangai ki raro i te maru o Matua; ka whakatūria te tatau pounamu hei aukati atu i te Hauhau o Te Wairarapa. Nāwai, ka whakakorehia tō rātau whakaaro ki te whakaeke i a Te Matau-a-Māui.

Heoi, ko te tangata i kīia rā e te kāwanatanga i te 1866, he pou whirinaki nō rātou, he hoa tūturu, he aha rā; nō 1871, kua tahuri kē ia ki te whakakore i ngā hoko whenua a te Karauna, a te tangata kotahi rānei. Ko tana whakapae, he mahi tinihanga nā te Karauna. Kua kite kē a Hēnare Matua e riro noa iho ana ngā whenua o tana iwi, ina hoki he takatakahi nō te Karauna i te hunga e whakahē ana i te hoko. Kua tīmata kē te rūri o ngā whenua i pēneitia ai. Ko ētahi whenua he mea tango, kāore he kōrero, hei mahi rerewē, hei rori, hei whakatū pou waea. Kua kite a Matua i te Kōti Whenua Māori, he rākau nā te Karauna, nā ngā tāngata hokohoko rānei; tono rawa ia kia tukuna mai ōna mana ki raro i ō te rūnanga.

Nā ēnei āhuatanga, ka ara ake te Whakahētanga Hoko Whenua (Repudiation Movement) o Te Matau-a-Māui. Nō te taenga ki te 1871, e āwhinatia ana e Hēnare a Henry rāua ko Purvis Russell, he tuakana he teina ēnei, ki te turaki i ngā hoko whenua i runga i te ture. Ahakoa te aroha o te tokorua Pākehā nei mō ngā mahi hē ki te Māori, ēngari e whai ana hoki rāua i ō rāua tikanga anō e pā ana ki te moni me te kāwanatanga, i runga i te mōhio iho kei te taka kē i ngā tikanga o Te Mākarini rāua ko Ōmana; ko ngā tāngata ēnei o Te Matau-a-Māui e rangatira ana ki te whenua. He nui ngā iwi o Te Matau-a-Māui i whakaaro nui ki te Whakahētanga Hoko Whenua. I whai kupu a Hēnare Matua, te waha kōrero o taua komiti, ki ngā huihuinga; me tana kī e taea noatia e Russell rāua ko tana teina te whakahoki mai ō rātau whenua, menā ki te whakapupūngia he moni.

Ka tū tētahi hui nui i Pākōwhai i Hūrae o 1872. Ka whakawehewehengia ki te taura ngā iwi o Matua i ngā iwi o Karaitiana Takamoana, arā, te hunga whakahē i te kaupapa. E hia nei te roa o Matua e whaikōrero ana, me tana whakapae, mā te tono rawa kātahi anō te kāwanatanga ka āwhina i te Māori. Me tana kī anō he nui ngā ture e pā ana ki te Māori e whakakaupapatia ana, ēngari kāore anō kia kōrero ngātahi rātau ko te kāwanatanga. Nā runga i ngā mōkete, he tuku noatanga iho e te kāwanatanga te Māori kia murua ana, kia tinihangatia ana i ō rātau whenua. Nō te tūnga o Karaitiana ki te kōrero, i taunu tonutia atu a Matua. Ka tohutohungia atu e Te Koreneho, e kore ō rātau whenua e hoki mai mā ēnā tikanga; ko te mutunga iho, he uru kē ki te nama ki ngā rōia.

Nā runga i ēnei āhuatanga, ka whakatūria he kōmihana uiui i te tau 1872. Tae rawa ake ki te mutunga o te tau, kua nui kē ngā hui kua kārangarangatia e Matua, i te takutai moana, hei whakatikatika i ō rātau take mō te Kōmihana. I roto i aua whakahaeretanga, ka tukuna e Matua tētahi rārangi roa tonu e whakaatu ana i ngā tangi a te Māori; kore rawa i arongia atu. Ka mutu, nō te mōhiotanga kua kore te Kōmihana e tiro i ērā o ana take, kātahi ka puta te ongaonga. I tino ongaonga rawa atu ia nō te kitenga kua whakaaro nui kē tō rātau rōia, a Hōne Hīhana (John Sheehan), he mema Pāremata, ki te poraka o Heretaunga, kāore rā ōna take ki reira. Kotahi rau pāuna tāna moni i whakaaro ai ia hei utu i a Hīhana, kāore he hua i hoki mai. Kore rawa ngā whakahē a ngā Māori, me ngā whenua i riro noa atu, i rite i te kōmihana.

Nō te tau 1873, ka tīkina e Matua ka whakanuingia te Whakahētanga Hoko Whenua. Whakatū rawa ia i tētahi hui ki Pakipaki; ka oti te kōrero kia tonohia anō he kōmihana uiui, ka hoatu he mana ki a ia, haunga te mana tirotiro; ka mutu, kia turakina atu te kāwanatanga o Julius Vogel rāua ko Te Mākarini. Nō te hui i Mei ki Waimārama, ka oti anō te kōrero kia tukuna te kaupapa nei kia hōrapa ana i te motu, kia tū he kāwanatanga Māori, kia riro mai ai te whakahaere o ngā whenua. Ka ū mai tēnā ope e 200 o Ngāti Raukawa, i haere mai i Te Tai Hauāuru ki te tautoko i a Matua. Nō muri i a rātau, ka haere ia ki Te Wairoa, ā, ki Tauranga hoki ki te whakapāpā haere.

Nā ana rāwekeweke, ka puta ōna rongo ki te motu. Nō Mei 1874, ka tae rātau ko tāna ope 100, ki te kōrero ki a Ngāti Apa me ngā iwi o Whanganui. He aha te hihiko ai o ngā iwi; i pau katoa ō rātau kaha ki te taka kai māna, ki te whakangahau hoki i a ia. Kotahi tonu tāna whakatakoto kōrero ki te whakaminenga, e kore e riro mā te riri e whakaea ngā tūkinotanga i te Māori, ēngari tonu, mā te whakatika i te ture. I tohutohungia anō ia, me mutu te hoko me te rīhi whenua, ā, kia matatau rā anō te Māori ki te whakahaere i ō rātau take. Me whakakore te Kōti Whenua Māori; e tika ana kia whakanōhia he mema nō tēnā iwi, o tēnā iwi ki te Pāremata; me kaua ngā rori, ngā rerewē me ngā pou waea e haere mā runga i te whenua Māori.

Takitahi noa iho ngā hunga i tautoko i a Matua; he mataku nō te nuinga, e pakangatia ai tāna kaupapa rā, kua putu. Ehara, kātahi ka tautokohia ā-tinana e ngā iwi 300 o Whanganui, ka whakaaria he kaunihera, 12 ngā mema, hei kōrero i ō rātau pōuritanga me ō rātau hiahia ki te Pāremata. Kua whakamauru kē te tokomaha o roto o Te Wairarapa ki a Matua, hei kaiārahi mō ngā take e pā ana ki te kāwanatanga. Nōna i Te Wairoa, ka kōrero ia ki a Pāora Te Apatū kia whakamutua te hanga i ngā pou waea, kia utua rā anō he rēti mō te whenua e haerengia rā e te taonga rā. Kua hiahia hoki ia ki te haukoti i te rerewē e hangaia ana i runga i ngā whenua o Tāmaki, ki te tonga mā uru o Dannevirke, me ngā whenua o Te Aute.

I whakataetae tonu a Hēnare Matua ki te kāwanatanga, e noho rā a Te Mākarini hei Minita Mō Ngā Take Māori. Ka hangaia e ia he rārangi īngoa o te hunga e whakaaro kotahi ana rātau kia tūrerengia te kāwanatanga. Ka tata ki te wā o te pōti 1875–76, ka mahi tahi rāua ko Hōri Kerei (George Grey) ki te kimi tangata pai hei mema. I manaaki rawa ia i a Karaitiana Takamoana, e whakataetae ana ki a Hōtene Porourangi, hei mema mō Te Tai Rāwhiti. Ka tae anō ia ki Te Tai Hauāuru, ki reira whakataetae ana ki a Wī Parata, kua kitea kētia he pononga nā te kāwanatanga.

I tōna takiwā anō, nā te māia o Matua, ka manaakitia te rūnanga. Nō te taenga ki te 1875, kua riro kē mā aua rūnanga hei whakatau ngā tautohetohe whenua; i ētahi wā e tohaina ana e rātau ngā tiwhikete taitara, me te kohikohi hoki i ngā utu. He mea whakawā ngā hara, kātahi ka whiua; ko ngā nama me ngā tono kua rite katoa. He nui ngā wā, ehara noa iho te Kōti Whenua Māori i roto i ngā whakaaro o te rūnanga; he nui ngā Māori kāore i nanao ki ngā moni aroha a te Karauna i ahu mai i te Kōti. Nō taua tau anō, ka tahuri ngā apataki a Matua ki te hanga nūpepa, hei whakataetae ki Te Waka Māori a te kāwanatanga, ki Te Wānanga hoki, nā Hēnare Tōmoana rātau ko te iwi o te Whakahētanga Hoko Whenua i whakaari. Nō te paunga o ngā moni a te rōpū rā, kātahi ka tono moni, whenua hoki, i ngā iwi hei utu i ō rātau raruraru; ka heke i konei te mana o Hēnare Matua. Kua kitea kētia, kua kore he hua o ā rātau kōrero, kua whakapono kore hoki te tangata. Nō te whakataetaetanga a Matua mō te tūranga o te mema o Te Tai Rāwhiti, ka tuatoru noa iho ia.

I roto i ngā tau tekau mai i 1880, i ētahi wā ka noho a Matua ki Waipāwa, kāore i tawhiti atu i a Henry Russell rāua ko tana teina. Ko ōna raruraru ake kua pūkai noa iho nā ngā nama. Kātahi ka whakapaetia e tāna tamāhine atawhai, e Airini Tōnore, te mea e takakinohia ana e ia ngā rawa o tō Airini whaea, o Hāromi Te Ata; me tana kī, me kāore ake ngā āwhina a tana tāne, kua mau kē ia ki te whare herehere mō ana nama. Ahakoa ēnei pōreareatanga, ka ngana tonu ia ki te whakatikatika i tana iwi. He taetae tonu ia ki ngā hui a te Kōti Whenua Māori. Nō reira ētahi take ōna i whiwhi rawa atu ia, i te 1886 me te 1887, i te wā i waihangatia ai te wāhi nui o Pōrangahau mō te rīhi anake, kāore mō te hoko.

I mate a Hēnare Matua ki te tāone o Heretaunga (Hastings) i te tīmatanga o Hepetema 1894. He mea tangi ki Waipatu, kātahi ka nehua ki Pōrangahau. E hia nei ngā kākahu ātaahua i ūhia ki runga i tana kāwhena; e aratakina ana e tētahi tangata eke hōiho e pupuri ana i te haki whero, e piri rā ngā kupu mā i runga, arā, ko Te Tiriti o Waitangi.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Angela Ballara. 'Matua, Hēnare - Matua, Henare', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1990. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/1m27/matua-henare (accessed 24 July 2019)