Kōrero: Donnelly, Airini

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Donnelly, Airini

1854/1855?–1909

Nō Ngāti Kahungunu; he wahine whaimana, whaiwhenua

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e S. W. Grant,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1993.

Ko te whakaaro ko te tau 1854, 1855 rānei, te wā i whānau ai a Airini Karauria ki Puketapu wāhi o Heretaunga, arā, o te takiwā tuawhenua o Te Matau-a-Māui (Hawke's Bay). Ko Hāromi Te Ata tōna whaea, ā, ko te rangatira o Ngāti Kahungunu ko Karauria tana pāpā, e mōhiotia ana ki ētahi ko Karauria Pupu. He whanaunga tata nōna ētahi o te kāhui amorangi o Te Matau-a-Māui: ko tana tupuna ko Tiakitai tērā me tōna iwi e noho mai rā i ō rātou whenua i Waimārama; ko Kurupō Te Moananui tērā rātou ko Tāreha ko Rēnata Kawepō mā. He toronga nōna a Ngāti Te Whatuiāpiti rāua ko Ngāi Te Ūpokoiri, he iwi tarariki nei ki a rāua anō mō e hia nei whakatipuranga te roa; ka noho takawaenga ia i waenganui i a rāua.

I kuraina a Airini i ngā kura i Pākōwhai me Ōmāhu. I riro ia nā te tungāne o tōna tipuna, nā Rēnata Kawepō i whakatipu, ā, kāre kē i ārikarika ngā tohutohu a tana koroua i a ia. Ehara anake ko ngā kōrero tīpuna e pā ana ki ngā kōrero puri, ki ngā tāhuhu kōrero me te whakapapa i mau i a ia. Kāo. He ngāwari ki tōna arero te reo Māori me te reo Pākehā. Ka noho tēnei parapara hei taonga māna ā mate noa. Ko te nuinga o tōna whanaketanga i pau ki Waimārama, ki Ōmāhu, otirā, i puta ia ki tēnā, ki tēnā pā noho ai. He wā anō a ia i te rohe kāinga o Tāreha i Waiōhiki me tērā o Te Moananui i Matahiwi.

I te tata paunga o tana taiohinga ka hau tōna rongo mō āna mahi kaiwawao mō tōna iwi ki te aroaro o te Kōti Whenua Māori i Rangitīkei. I reira ka tautohea e ia he kerēme ki te poraka whenua o Ōtamakapua. Ahakoa ehara i te tikanga Māori kia tū he wahine ki ēnei momo tūranga, ka whakakīkī tonu ia i tana matua kēkē, i a Rēnata Kawepō kia tukua ko ia hei kanohi mōna me ērā atu o ngā kaikerēme. E noho māuiui ana tērā, ā, kīhai i pahure i a ia te tū ki te aroaro o te kōti. I momoho tana take, i tautohetia rā e ia, ā, 1,000 eka te rahi o te whenua i tukua motuhaketia mōna. Tae rawa ake ki tōna tū pakeketanga, kua pakari tēnei pūmanawa ōna ki te tautohe take i te kōti, i wawe rā te puāwaitanga i a ia e pūhou ana.

I te 6 o Tīhema 1877, ka moea e Airini a Hōri Tōnore (George Prior Donnelly) i te whare karakia Mihinare o Hoani Te Kaikauhau i Ahuriri. He Airihi tōna hoa tāne, i maunu mai i te rohe o Tipperary ki Niu Tīreni nei i te tau 1862. Nā te momoho o ā rāua mahi hoko whenua mai i Heretaunga me ērā atu wāhi, i kitea ai, ka mau kē te wehi o te mahi tahi a te haumi nei. I kerēmetia e Airini Tōnore ētahi pānga whenua i te poraka o Waimārama. Ko ētahi i tukua iho ki tōna tipuna tāne, ki a Tiakitai, ko ētahi nō tōna pāpā. I mate ia i te tau 1868 i te taotūnga i ngā whawhai ki a Te Kooti i Tūranganui‑ā‑Rua (Poverty Bay). Nā tōna whanaungatanga ki a Kawepō i kerēmetia ai e Airini ētahi whenua ki te raki o te awa o Ngaruroro. He tino kaingākau te kotahi o Hōri Tōnore ki te hoko whenua mai. Nāna i tuarā ngā kerēme a tana wahine; ā, nāna anō hoki i āwhina a Airini ki te whakatahuri mai i ōna whanaunga kia taka ki te awe o tōna hoa wahine.

Ahakoa i puta te kōrero i a Airini e kaha ana tana ātete i te mahi hoko whenua Māori, kīhai ngā kaiwhai pānga i whakaae i ētahi wā ki ā rāua tikanga, ā, ko te noho whakatauwehewehe i waenga i a rātou anō te hua. Nā tā rāua hokonga mai i te poraka o Mangaohane, otirā, me kī mārika, nā ā rāua mahi i Waimārama i tū ai te kōti ki te whakatau i tētahi take he roa e tautohetia ana. Na, he wāhanga whenua a Waipuka me Ōkaihau nō te poraka o Waimārama. Hui katoa e 35,000 eka te rahi. E tāpareparetia ana e te takutai moana ki te rāwhiti o Te Matau-a-Māui (Hawke's Bay), arā ki te taha tonga o Te Kauae-o-Māui (Cape Kidnappers). I tukua e ngā kaiwhai pānga o te poraka o Waimārama te rīhi ki a Frederick Meinertzhagen i te tau 1869. Rite tonu te ātete a ngā Tōnore i te hiahia o Meinertzhagen ki te whakahou i āna rīhi. Ka tīmata a Airini ki te whakariterite i tōna iwi kia tautohetia ngā whakahounga rīhi. Nā runga i te āwhina a tana tāne ka momoho ia ki te whakawhiti i ētahi o ngā rīhi ki a ia ake. Nō te matenga o Frederick Meinertzhagen i te tau 1895 ka whītiki tana tamāhine a Gertrude i a ia ki te tuki i ngā Tōnore. Me te aha hoki, ka mau tonu te whawhai. Ko ngā kōti te tāhuna o te riri. Arā, ko te Kōti Whenua Māori, ko te Kōmihana Whenua Māori, ko te Kōti Whakawā Tuarua (Māori Appellate Court), ko te Kōti Matua (Supreme Court), ā, tae rawa ki te Kōti Pīra (Court of Appeal). Ahakoa i riro i a Airini te tāhuna, i te mutunga he ōrite te utu o ngā raruraru i pīkautia e ngā hoa tauwhāinga nei. Kore i roa te rongo o Airini i te konakona o tana whakakaitoa ina raru nei i a ia a Gertrude Meinertzhagen, nō te mea, nō te 7 o Hune 1909 ka hemo mai a Airini ki Ōtātara. Nō muri nei, ka mahue i a Gertrude a Aotearoa kore tonu i hoki mai. Ko te hua whakamutunga i puta mai i ēnei whawhai i ngā kōti ko te wāwāhitanga i te poraka o Waimārama hei pāmu. Ko ētahi o ngā pāmu, he whenua here kore, ko ētahi he whenua rīhi. Ko te nuinga o aua whenua i riro i te Pākehā.

He whare ō Airini rāua ko Hōri Tōnore i Crissoge (e pātata ana ki Ōmāhu), i Waimārama, ā, i te mutunga ka noho rāua i te tūmomo noho a te rangatira Pākehā, i Ōtātara. He wahine ngākau mahara, he marere, he nihowera i āna mahi manaaki i ōna whanaunga, i ōna hoa Māori me te tini noa atu o te Pākehā. Tokorua ā rāua tamariki. Ko Maud Airini Tiakitai, he wahine, i whānau i te tau 1878. I muri mai i te matenga o ōna mātua arā a Maud i Waimārama e noho ana mō tētahi wā. Ko te tama ko Henry Prior, e toru marama noa iho tōna pakeke i te tau 1883, ka mate. E waru tau i mua i te hinganga o tana tāne ka mate a Airini. Nāna i wira ki tana hoa ōna whenua o Waimārama. Ahakoa te matangareka o tana āwhina i ngā mahi tango whenua a Airini, i whakakāhoretia e ia te wira. Nō te tau 1911 ka māketetia.

He pūkeke, he punenga me te marere ngā āhua o Airini Tōnore. Ka taea e ia te kī, arā, i ngā tāhuhu kōrero mō ngā rohe o Te Matau-a-Māui me Heretaunga, ko ia tonu te mea tino mataho o ngā wāhine o reira. He wahine rongonui mō te whānui o tana mōhio ki ngā kōrero puri me ngā kōrero tuku iho. Nā ēnei mōhiotanga i taea e ia te kōkiri āna kerēme whenua i te Kōti Whenua ā momoho noa. Horahora ana tōna awe i roto o Ngāti Kahungunu. Ahakoa ia rā, he rangirua kē tana whanonga ki ngā mahi e pā ana ki tōna iwi me ō rātou whenua. Arā, i ētahi wā he tino kaha tana ātete i ngā mahi rīhi whenua, hoko whenua rānei ki te Pākehā. Ā, i ētahi wā he pērā anō tōna kaha ki te tango whenua mai mō rāua ko tana tāne. I ētahi wā, nā tōna manawanui kia eke ki tāna i hiahia ai, ka taka ia ki te mahi hīanga, ki te tāwai, ki te hari rānei i ōna hoa tauwhāinga ki te kōti. Ka waiho mā ngā taumahatanga moni hei utunga e whakahauraro te hoa tauwhāinga. Ko ētahi o ōna hapori i whakatakariri ki a ia mō ēnei mahi āna.

Na, tērā tētahi whakaahua ātaahua o Airini Tōnore nā Gottfried Lindauer i whakairo. He tau te whakaatatanga mai i te amaru me te pūkeke o tōna āhua.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

S. W. Grant. 'Donnelly, Airini', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1993. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/2d14/donnelly-airini (accessed 20 January 2020)