Kōrero: Kawepō, Rēnata Tama-ki-Hikurangi

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Ngā whakaahua

Kawepo, Renata Tama-ki-Hikurangi

?–1888

Nō Ngāi Te Ūpokoiri, nō Ngāti Kahungunu; he kaiārahi, he mihingare

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Angela Ballara and Patrick Parsons,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1990.

Ko tōna īngoa i a ia e tamariki ana, ko Tama-ki-Hikurangi. I whānau i te tīmatanga o te rau tau 1800–1899 ki Taumata-ō-hē pā, i te pūtahitanga o ngā awa o Mangatahi, o Maraekākaho me Ngaruroro. Ko tōna whaea ko Te Pakapaka, he uri rangatira; he tamāhine nā Te Uamairangi, hei tuahine ki a Tūhotoariki. Ko ngā tino rangatira ēnei o Ngāi Te Ūpokoiri o Heretaunga tae atu ki Pātea o roto o Rangitīkei. I te taha ki tōna matua, ki a Tūmanokia, i pā a Kawepō ki a Ngāti Hinemanu, ki a Ngāti Whiti me Ngāti Tama o Pātea, ki a Ngāti Honomōkai me Ngāti Mahuika. I whai mana rawa ia ki Heretaunga, puta rawa ki uta, i runga i ana toronga ki a Te Whatuiāpiti, ki a Tāraia I me Whatumamoa.

I a ia e tamariki tonu ana, ka whakaekengia e Ngāti Raukawa a Ngāi Te Ūpokoiri me Ngāti Hinemanu i Pātea. Ka mate ngā rangatira a Hoeroa rāua ko Te Hīanga. E kōrerohia ana, he mea kawe tētahi wāhi o te tinana o Hoeroa ki Taupō i te pō; tapaina ana a Tama-ki-Hikurangi ko Kawepō. Mai i tōna tamarikitanga, he mātakitaki tā Kawepō i ngā pakanga i waenganui i tōna iwi me Ngāti Kahungunu rāua ko Ngāti Te Whatuiāpiti; ko ngā tino iwi ēnei o Heretaunga. Nō te pakanga o Te Whiti-ō-Tū, ka hinga a Ngāi Te Ūpokoiri me ō rātau hoa whawhai; kātahi ka haere ki Taupō ruru ai. Ka haere a Tiakitai, he rangatira nō Waimārama, e huānga ana ki a Kawepō, ki Waikato ki te tono kia tukuna mai ngā rangatira o Heretaunga i mau hereheretia i te horonga o te pā o Te Pakake i 1824. Nō te taenga ki Taupō ka inoi atu ki a Ngāi Te Ūpokoiri kia hoki rātau ki te kāinga; nā tō rātau kaha wehi, kāore te nuinga i whakaae. Ko ētahi o te hunga i whakawhirinaki atu ki a ia, ko Kawepō rāua ko tōna tuahine ko Mekemeke, nō muri nei i iriirihia ai ki a Ērena. I moe a Mekemeke i a Tiakitai. Ko 1824, ko 1825 rānei te tau i tae mai he ope nō Ngāti Te Koherā, e huānga ana ki a Ngāti Raukawa, ki Te Roto-a-Tara e tata ana ki Te Aute. Nā Te Momo-a-Irawaru i ārahi ake. Ko Kawepō rātau ko tōna iwi, kei te motu i Te Roto-a-Tara e noho ana.

Ko te nuinga o Ngāti Te Whatuiāpiti me ētahi anō o Ngāti Kahungunu, kua rere ki Nukutaurua i Te Māhia kei pākia e Waikato. Nō te rongonga kua whakanoho a Ngāti Raukawa rāua ko Ngāi Te Ūpokoiri ki Te Roto-a-Tara, kātahi ka hoki ake ki te pana. Ka hinga a Ngāi Te Ūpokoiri. Kite rawa ake, kua nanao atu ki a Kawepō, kua whakatārewangia ki runga i te ahi. Nō te inoitanga a Tātere, i runga i te tono a tana tuakana a Tiakitai, ka tukuna a Kawepō i te ahi; kātahi ka whiua ki a Ngā Puhi, ngā haumi o Ngāti Te Whatuiāpiti, hei herehere mā rātau.

Ka haria e Ngā Puhi a Kawepō ki Nukutaurua; nuku atu i 10 tau tana roa ki reira. Nā te momo rangatira, ka manaakihia; i tāia rawatia ki te moko; ka puta ōna rongo mō te mamau. Nō 1837, ka noho ia ki Te Waimate i Pēwhairangi (Bay of Islands), mō tētehi wā roa. Nō reira tana iriiringa ki te īngoa Rēnata (Leonard).

Ka haere a Pīhopa Herewini (G. A. Selwyn), i āna haere tuatahi porotiti i te motu, i ngā tau 1842 me te 1843, ka whakapiri atu a Kawepō. Nō te kitenga, kei raro a Ngāi Te Ūpokoiri i te maru o Rangitāne i Manawatū e noho ana, ka whakahaungia kia hoki ki Heretaunga. Ākuanei, nō taua wā nei pea, a Kawepō i kī atu ai ki te kanohi o Mananui Te Heuheu Tūkino II, kia whakahokia ki tana iwi ngā whenua o Pātea e apohia ana e Ngāti Tūwharetoa. Nō taua wā nei, ka hoki a Kawepō ki Pēwhairangi.

Haere ai ia i te taha o te mihingare o Te Koreneho (William Colenso), ki Heretaunga mā runga i te kaipuke i a Nimrod i Tīhema 1844. Nō te hokinga o ngā kaiwhakaako Māori tokorima ki tō rātau kāinga ki Tūranganui-a-Kiwa (Poverty Bay), ka tohia ko Kawepō hei tango i tērā tūranga i te marama o Hune i te tau 1845. Nuku atu i te whā tau a ia e whakaako ana, e kauwhau ana i Pātea, i Tarawera, i Tāngōio, i Te Hāwera, i Manawatū, me ngā kāinga marara o Te Wairarapa. Ahakoa te hiahia o Kawepō ki a Hārata Keokeo (kei tā Te Koreneho, ko Charlotte Tawhi) hei wahine māna, moe kē ana i a Alexander Alexander, he Pākehā hoko taonga nō Onepoto. Moe rawa kē a Kawepō i a Māora nō Ngāti Hinemanu; e ono ngā tau o tā rāua tama, ka mate.

Nanakia rawa atu te hunga i hoki ki Heretaunga i runga i ana tono, i a ia e hāpai haere ana i te Rongopai. Noho rawa ētahi i tana taha i Pokonao, kei runga atu o te mīhana o Waitangi, kei Ahuriri (Napier). He kaha mārō nō ngā tikanga a Te Koroneho, ka tupu te kino i waenganui i a rāua i te 1849. Nō te taenga ki Hānuere 1850, ka mutu tā rāua whakapiri ki a rāua, he karanga nō Kawepō ko te pīrangi ia ki te tūrere i a Te Koreneho i Te Ika-a-Māui.

He hikaka tonu a Kawepō ki te hoko whenua ki a Te Mākarini (Donald McLean), arā, mō te Karauna, i tōna taenga mai ki Heretaunga i te 1850. Kia roa kē, nō ngā tau whakamutunga o 1850, kua tīmata tana whakahē i a Tāreha, i a Kurupō Te Moananui, ēngari ko te mea kino rawa ko Te Hāpuku; he nui nō ngā whenua e hokona ana e rātau. Ka riro i a ia ngā whakaaro o Tāreha rāua ko Te Moananui he whakatakariri nō rāua ki a Te Hāpuku, he whakamanamana nōna i ngā hokonga whenua; otiia, he tuku hoki nōna i ō rātau whenua i roto i ōna ki te hoko. Nā runga i ana tohe kia whakamutua te hoko whenua, ka noho ia hei kaitiaki mō ngā whenua o Te Matau-a-Māui (Hawke's Bay), mai i Maraekākaho ki ngā pae maunga, whakawhiti atu ki te rohe o Murimotu kei waenganui o Te Ika-a-Māui. Nā Te Moananui rāua ko Tāreha a Ngāti Kahungunu i ārahi, i te huakitanga i a Te Hāpuku i Ākuhata o te tau 1857, he poka noa nōna ki te aurara atu i te ngāhere i Te Pakiaka. Ko Kawepō tētahi o ngā kaiārahi; nō te rangi tuatahi tonu o te riri ka whara. I houhia te rongo i 1858.

Kāore a Kawepō i whakaae ki tā Te Moananui i tautoko rā ia i te Kīngitanga i te tau 1859; heoi, i rata rawa atu ia ki te kōrero mō te Rūnanga e riro ai mā te Māori anō e whakahaere. I atawhaitia a Kawepō e te Pākehā; i kōrero haere tonutia e rātau ngā whakaaro o te kaumātua rā mō ngā take e pā ana ki te motu. I hua ai ōna whakaaro, nā runga i te āta titiro i ngā take; ka mutu, ko āna whakatau, he ōrite ki ngā taha e rua. Whakamihi rawa atu te Pākehā ki ōna māramatanga, ki tōna mau ki te tika, me ōna mōhiotanga hoki. Ēngari, mō te kore rawa atu ia e noho hei pononga mā te kāwanatanga. I puta tōna aroha mō Wiremu Kīngi Te Rangitāke o Te Āti Awa. Ka riro nā tana mataku, kei kore te Kāwana e whakaū i te mana Māori motuhake ki ō rātau whenua, i āhua whakahinga atu ia ki te tautoko i te Kīngi Māori i ngā tau tīmatanga o 1860.

I noho kino tonu a Kawepō ki te Pai Mārire i Te Matau-a-Māui. I pērā ai, nā tana whakamau ki a Te Hāpuku, e whakamanawa rā i te Hauhau kia noho i tōna taha hei āwhina i a ia ki ngā riri. Nō te nōhanga o te Hauhau i Ōmarunui i Ahuriri i te marama o Oketopa 1866, ka whakauru atu a Kawepō rāua ko Karaitiana Takamoana ki te ope a Kānara G. S. Whitmore, ki te pana i te Hauhau. I kitea ai te toa o Kawepō, nō taua pakanga nei.

I tū rawa a Kawepō hei kaihautū, i roto i ngā pakanga ki a Te Kooti mai i 1868 ki te 1870. Ko ia tētahi o ngā kaiārahi o te ope taua o Te Matau-a-Māui, i tae ki Tūranganui-a-Kiwa i ngā tautohetanga ki a Te Kooti i Noema 1868. Tata tonu ia ka mate i te pakanga i Mākāretu, he kaha rawa nō te āki mai o te matā. He ngenge nōna, he pota hoki nō ngā kai, he haumāku nō te ngahere, ka kore ia e pai ki te haere ki Taupō ki te whai i a Te Kooti i te marama o Hune 1869. I kī atu anō ia, kāore he hua o ērā tikanga. Nō Hepetema o te tau 1869, ka tae rāua ko Hēnare Tōmoana mē tā rāua ope taua ki Tokaanu ki te whakataetae ki a Te Kooti.

Nō te matenga o Paurini, he rangatira nō Ngāti Tūwharetoa, i Te Pōrere i Oketopa, ka rere atu te pouaru ki a Kawepō, kātahi ka hāua atu ā muri o te māhunga ki te patu. He whakamomori nōna i te hinganga o te hoa, ka tikarohia te kanohi katau. Ka hopukina atu e Kawepō kia tae rawa mai he hoa; ēngari, kāore ia i pai kia patua, he kite nōna i te tika o ana mahi. Te mutunga iho, ka moe rāua. Hei kāpeneheihana mō te matenga o tana kanohi, hei whakamihi hoki mō ana manaaki i te Karauna, ka utua te £100 hei penihana mōna. Nā runga i ngā taumahatanga o te pakanga ki a ia, ka hokona e ia he whenua hei utu i ana raruraru.

I roto i ngā tau o 1860 me 1870, i tukuna e Kawepō he whenua mō te rīhi, me te hoko; ēngari kāore ia i pai ki te whakapau moni huakore noa iho, kia uru rānei ki te nama pērā i ōna hoa. I pōuri rawa atu ia, he memeha noa iho nō te kōmihana o te tau 1873, uiui ai i ngā whenua tuku i Te Matau-a-Māui. Ko ia tētahi i uru atu ki ngā tono mō tētahi kōmihana hou, kia nui kē atu ōna mana, hei uiui, hei whakatau i ngā amuamu whenua. Nō te tīmatanga, i whakahē ia i te whakaaro kia takahia atu ngā kirimini hoko whenua, i tīmatahia i Heretaunga i ngā tau 1871–72. Nō Mei 1873, ka tautokona e ia aua iwi ki moni. Tae rawa ki 1874, kua noho motuhake ia i te hunga Whakahētanga Hoko Whenua (Repudiation Movement). Haere ai a Kawepō ki te Whare Pāremata i Pōneke (Wellington), i Hepetema me Oketopa o te tau 1873; nō te hokinga mai, kua kite kē ia, ko tā ngā ture hou i whakaaria ai i reira, hei muru i ngā whenua Māori. Kātahi tēnā, tuarua ko te riro mā ngā moni ka utua mō ngā whenua hei patu i ngā rūri.

He puta whānui ngā mahara o Rēnata Kawepō. I uru ia i ngā whakawhitiwhiti kōrero ki ngā iwi o Whanganui mō ngā rohe e tautohengia ana ki te takiwā ki Murimotu. Nāna te tohatohatanga o ngā hipi ki tana iwi, i tīmatahia ai te mahi whāngai kararehe. Nāna i whakatū ētahi mira hei mahi parāoa. I āwhinatia hoki e ia ngā mahi hanga i ngā rori, me ngā piriti. Ōrite tonu tana tohatoha ki tana iwi i ngā moni rēti o ngā whenua. Nōna tētahi o ngā reo nui o roto o ngā whakatikatika i kaupapatia ai te 60,000 eka mō te kura Māori o Ōwhāoko. I manaaki rawa ia i te kura o Ōmāhu, tana kāinga tupu, i whakatūria i 1867. I manaaki hoki ia i te kura o Te Aute, ēngari me tana whakahau kia whakaakona ngā tamariki ki te mātauranga a te Pākehā, aua e aro katoa atu ki ngā mahi ā tinana. Nō 1877, ka tukuna he petihana ki te kāwanatanga kia hangaia he kura hei whakaako i ngā tamariki Māori ki te kōrero Pākehā, kia rite ai ki a tauiwi. I whakaaro moni ia mō te Hāhi, kā mutu ka whakatūria e ia te whare karakia o Hoani i Ōmāhu.

Nō te tau 1880, kua mate katoa a Tāreha, a Takamoana me Te Hāpuku, ka noho a Kawepō hei tino rangatira mō ngā iwi Māori o Te Matau-a-Māui. Nāna a Tāwhiao, te Kīngi tuarua, i pōhiri i manaaki i te tau 1883, i tana haerenga ki Heretaunga.

I mate a Rēnata Kawepō ki Ōmāhu i te 14 Āperire 1888. Ka tangihia ia e te 6,000 iwi. Nā ngā hōia ia i pīkau ki te urupā i tana whare karakia. E kōrerohia ana, 80 ōna tau i tōna matenga.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Angela Ballara and Patrick Parsons. 'Kawepō, Rēnata Tama-ki-Hikurangi - Kawepo, Renata Tama-ki-Hikurangi', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1990. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/1k3/kawepo-renata-tama-ki-hikurangi (accessed 24 August 2019)