Kōrero: Tāreha, Kurupō and Tāreha, Te Roera

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Ngā whakaahua

Tareha, Kurupo

1871–1938

Nō Ngāti Kahungunu; he kaihautū, he tangata whai whenua, he kaitākaro korowha

Tareha, Te Roera

?–1941

Nō Ngāti Kahungunu; he kaihautū, he tangata whai whenua

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Angela Ballara and Taape Tareha-O'Reilly, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia 1996.

He tama nā Tāreha Te Moananui, tētahi o ngā tino rangatira o Ngāti Kahungunu, a Te Roera rāua ko Kurupō Tāreha; he rangatira tino whai whenua rāua nō Te Matau-a-Māui (Hawke's Bay). Mai i te wā i a ia e taiohi ana, ka moe a Tāreha, e hia kē nei āna wāhine, ēngari tae rawa ake ki te tau 1850, kua matemate katoa ngā tamariki a aua wāhine rā. Kia kaumātua kētia a Tāreha, kātahi anō ka whānau mai a Te Roera rāua ko Kurupō. Nō te tekau tau atu i 1850 a Te Roera i whānau ai. Ko tōna whaea ko Mere Te Huia Te Apatari. I whānau a Kurupō i te tau 1871; ko tōna whaea ko Hārata Te Apatari, he tamāhine nā Mere Te Huia. Nā konei, i noho matua kēkē ai a Te Roera ki a Kurupō, ā, nā te mea kotahi tonu tō rāua pāpā, ka tuakana tērā ki a ia. Koirā te take, i āta tiakina e ia tana taina, me ko te matua tonu ia. Ko ngā tino hapū o te whānau o Tāreha i te takiwā o Ahuriri (Napier), ko Ngāti Hinemoa, ko Ngā Tuku-a-te-rangi, ko Ngāi Tākaro, ko Ngāti Te Rēhunga, ko Ngāti Te Rangikāmangungu me Ngāti Hinepare. Ahakoa anō, i pā rātou ki te iwi nui tonu, ki a Ngāti Te Whatuiāpiti me tōna karangatanga hapū, me Ngāti Parau. Ka hoki te īngoa o tēnei hapū ki te wā i ngaro ai tētahi o ngā tama a Tāreha i roto i te kākaho, e pātata ana ki te pūroto o Ahuriri.

Ākuanei pea, i Waiōhiki e tata ana ki Ōtātara (Taradale), te wāhi whānau mai o ngā tokorua nei. Ko Te Roera i whakaakona ki ngā tikanga Māori; ko Kurupō i tukua ki te kura mīhana Katorika i Papakura (Meeanee), ā, nō muri iho, i tukua atu ki te Kāreti o Te Aute kura ai. Ka mutu tana kura, ka noho tahi rāua ko Te Roera ki te whakatikatika i ngā whenua i waiho mai e Tāreha mōna, kua mate noa atu rā i te tau 1880.

He takaoraora nui tonu tā te tokorua nei ki te wawao i ō rāua mana tuku iho ki ngā whenua i riro mai i tō rāua pāpā. Atu i te tau 1868 ki te 1870, ka noho ko Tāreha te mema Pāremata tuatahi mō te rohe Māori o Te Tai Rāwhiti. Nō te pakanga a te kāwanatanga ki ngā iwi Hauhau me ngā pononga a Te Kooti i ngā tau tekau atu i 1860 me ngā tau tīmatanga o te tekau tau atu i 1870, tautoko ana a Tāreha i te kāwanatanga koroni. Nā te mahi hoko whenua, me te pōkaitanga o te nama, ka ngaro ngā pānga whenua o Tāreha i ngā poraka o Ahuriri me Heretaunga; heoi, nā tōna pūmau ki te Karauna, i whakawhiwhia a ia ki ngā hea i roto i ngā poraka maha i ngā whenua i raupatutia i te rohe o Mōhaka–Waikare. Taka rawa ki te poraka o Kaiwaka, ka whakanōhia ko ia anake te tangata nōna taua whenua rā.

I runga i ngā kohākī o te wira o tana pāpā o te 20 o Mei o te tau 1885, i tono a Te Roera ki te Kōti Whenua Māori ki te whakawhiti mai i ngā pānga o Tāreha i te poraka o Kaiwaka ki a ia. Kīhai i whakaaetia kia noho ko ia anake te kaiwhakauru, whakataua ana e te Kōti kia whakaurua atu anō ētahi i tana taha ki taua whenua rā, wāwāhia rawatia ana e te Kōti taua poraka rā. Nō muri tata iho, i tonoa e Toha Rahurahu me ētahi atu kia āta tirohia e te Kōti te taitara o te whenua o Mōhaka–Waikare, i runga i tā rātou whakapae, ina koa ko te whakaurutanga o Tāreha ki aua whenua rā, he kaha te rite ki tō Kaiwaka, arā, he kaitiaki kē ia mō te hunga i pūmau ki te Karauna i te wā o ngā riri i te tekau tau atu i 1860. Ēngari mō te taha ki tēnei, nō te tau 1894, tukua ā-murimatetia ana te tiwhikete taitara ki a Tāreha; nō te tau 1895, ka riro i ngā uri o Tāreha te karāti Karauna ki ngā whenua nei. Tautohetohea ana e Te Teira Te Paea, he rangatira nō Mōhaka, te kerēme a Te Roera mō Kaiwaka ki te Kōti Matua (Supreme Court), ka mutu, ka haria atu hoki ki te Kōti Pīra (Appeal Court); riro ana te tāhuna i a Te Roera. Ahakoa whakahokia atu anō ki te Kōti Matua i te tau 1898, kīhai i rerekē atu. I tae rawa te kēhi nei ki te Kaunihera Motuhake a te Kīngi (Privy Council) i te tau 1901; ehara, ka riro anō i a Te Roera.

Ka haere tonu ngā tautohetohe mō ngā whenua, kāre i mutu i konei. Nā te mea, he whai take nō ētahi atu ki ngā whenua o Tātara-ā-kina – he pānga anō hoki ō ngā tama a Tāreha ki reira – ka tae he petihana ki te Kōti Whenua Māori i te tau 1924 kia tirohia anō te taitara o aua whenua e te Kōti Whenua Māori i runga i tā te ahikāroa, kaupapa tūpuna tuku iho hoki. He waihotanga iho nō Te Roera rāua ko Kurupō i ngā petihana nei kia whakahaerea tonutia, i tupu ai te whakaaro, tērā pea kei te whakaae rāua ki aua petihana rā. Ahakoa rā, whakahaerea ana anō aua whakawā, me ētahi atu petihana anō i muri iho, ka whakamāramatia anō hoki e te Kōti Whenua Māori i te tau 1929 te āhua anō o ngā pānga o ngā kaikerēme. Ko tōna mutunga iho, inā kē te tino whakaitinga o ngā pānga o ngā tama a Tāreha.

Ka tae ki te tau 1936, ka tonoa e Te Roera rāua ko Kurupō ō rāua pānga i Tātara-ā-kina kia whakahokia mai, ā, me ka kore me utu rāua. Ko tā rāua kī i roto i ā rāua tuhituhinga, kua whakapōharatia rāua kia noho tika ai ngā uri o te hunga tutū, me tā rāua whakamahara ake anō i te kāwanatanga, i tāna i oati ai i te tau 1870, kia whakahokia ētahi wāhanga o ngā whenua i murua ki ngā iwi Māori nā rātou i tautāwhi te kāwanatanga. Kua mate kē a Kurupō i te tau 1940, kātahi ka kawea atu te petihana nei ki te kāwanatanga, ā, whakatūria ana he kōmihana i te tau 1949, hei āta tirotiro i te take nei. Nō te tatūtangā ka whakahokia anō ki te āhua o ngā whakarite o mua atu o te tau 1920; nō konei i whakahokia atu ai ngā pānga whenua o Tāreha ki tōna whānau.

Ahakoa ngā pōraruraru ā-ture i pā ki a Te Roera rāua ko Kurupō, i eke tonu rāua ki te taumata mō te ahu whenua me te whakahaere pāmu. E tata ana ki te 400 ā rāua kau e taka ana i Waiōhiki i te tau 1908, i tō rāua whenua 500 eka te rahi. Iwa tekau eka te rahi o tā rāua pāmu anō i Pākōwhai, 70 ngā kau e miraka ana i reira. Ko ō rāua whenua i Kaiwaka, nuku atu i te 30,000 eka te nui, he mea rīhi mō tētahi wā ki a Hōri Tōnore (George Prior Donnelly). I hokona e Te Roera tōna whenua, nōna ake, i Kaiwaka Nama 2A ki te Karauna i te tau 1910, ā, i pērātia anō e Kurupō rāua me tētahi atu te whenua i Kaiwaka Nama 1, kia riro mai ai he moni hei whakahaere i te pāmu miraka kau. Tērā anō ngā pitopito whenua i hokona e rāua.

Tau ana te noho a te tokorua nei i runga i ngā hua o te whakahaere pāmu me te hoko whenua. Tekau ngā rūma o te kāinga o Kurupō i tū ki te whenua i Waiōhiki, ā, he aha rā, ka wera i te ahi. Ka mahia he kāinga tuarua, itiiti noa iho nei, i runga i tētahi toropuke e anga ana ki te huarahi matua: he rūma kaukau wehe nei tētahi wāhi (i te wā o te takahuritanga o te rau tau, kāore anō kia kitea he mea pērā) me tētahi taupoki, he mea huna. E whā ngā hōiho rērehi o Kurupō i mōhiotia ai he kaingākau tōna ki te hōiho, ā, riro ana nāna tētahi o ngā motokā tuatahi, he Wolseley, i kitea ai i Te Matau-a-Māui.

Ahakoa te kore mōhio o te ao Pākehā ki a ia, he tino kaumātua a Te Roera ki tōna iwi Māori. Ko te āhua nei, kāre ia i kōrero i te reo Pākehā. Ēngari anō a Kurupō. Ko ia kē te kanohi o te whānau Tāreha i roto i te ao Pākehā. He tangata rongonui ia i roto i ngā iwi o Te Matau-a-Māui, he mema hoki ia nō ētahi momo karapu tākaro, me te rōpū mahi pāmu o Te Matau-a-Māui, arā, te Hawke's Bay Agricultural and Pastoral Society, me te Whare Meihana o Mataruahou (Scinde Masonic Lodge). Ko ia tētahi o te ope hōia o Aotearoa mō te huritau ono tekau o Kuini Wikitōria (New Zealand Diamond Jubilee Contingent), i tukua ki Ingarangi i te tau 1897, hei takoha mō te pūmautanga o te whānau Tāreha ki te Karauna. Ko tōna tūranga, he haehana meiha nō te kamupene; ko te kāpene, ko Hoani Parāone Tūnuiārangi. Hei whakanui i te rā, he mea tuku anō ki a ia tētahi hoari nō muri ka meinga ki roto i te whare kai o te whare i Waiōhiki, takoto ai. E rima tau i muri mai, kua tū nei a ia hei kāpene mō te rōpū o ngā māngai Māori, ka haere ia ki te hui koroneihana mō Eruera Te Tuawhitu.

I a ia i Peretānia i te tau 1897, ka haria a ia kia kite i te karapu korowha roera, tawhito hoki o Ānaru (St Andrews Royal and Ancient Golf Club), ā, e ai ki ngā kōrero a te whānau, nō reira ka tupu tōna hiahia ki te hahau paoro. Ēngari, kua tino toa kē nei ia ki ētahi atu o ngā mahi tākaro, ā, e hia kē nei ngā mētara me ngā paraihe i riro mai i a ia mō te whutupaoro, mō te eke paihikara, mō te mekemeke me ērā atu whakataetae. Nōna ka hoki mai ki Aotearoa, ka hangaia e rāua ko Te Roera he papa korowha i runga i tētahi wāhanga o ō rāua whenua, 100 eka te rahi, i Waiōhiki; ka whakaīngoatia ko te papatākaro korowha o Waiōhiki (Waiōhiki Links), ā, nō muri nei ka hurihia te īngoa ki te papatākaro korowha o Ahuriri (Napier Golf Links). Nō te whakataetae i Tūranga (Gisborne) i te tau 1899, uru tahi ana a Te Roera rāua ko Kurupō ki te tīma o Te Matau-a-Māui. Tērā anō ētahi rangatira taitamariki tokorua nō Te Matau-a-Māui anō, ko Paraire Tomoana rāua ko Taranaki Te Uamairangi, i roto i te tīma.

Mataku ana a Kurupō mō te hahau paoro. Nō te whakataetae toa korowha runaruna o Aotearoa (New Zealand Amateur Golf Championship) i te papatākaro o Waiōhiki i te tau 1903, wikitōria ana ko ia, pērā anō i ngā whakataetae i Manawatū i te tau 1905. I whakauru ia ki ngā whakataetae i Ōtepoti (Dunedin), i Ākarana (Auckland) hoki. He maha tonu ngā tau e noho mema ngoi ana ia i te karapu korowha o Ahuriri (Napier Golf Club); ā, nōna kua kore e kaha ki te hahau paoro, ka noho ia hei kaiwhakaako. Ko Kurupō tētahi o ngā kaiwhakatū i te Rōpū Korowha Māori o Aotearoa (New Zealand Māori Golf Association), ā, ko ia tonu te kaiwhakaruruhau ā mate noa. I puta hoki te mea pakeke o āna tama, a Ngā-whakapinga‑o-te-rangi Tāreha, arā, ko Kapi te īngoa i mōhiotia whānuitia, hei toa mō te tākaro nei, ā, e hia kē ngā whakataetae korowha i riro i a ia; mutu rawa ake, ka huri ia hei ngaio whai utu.

E rua, nuku atu rānei, ngā wāhine a Te Roera. He uri nō Te Hauwaho, he rangatira rongonui nō Heretaunga, tana wahine tuatahi a Tuhitio. Kotahi anake tā rāua tamaiti, ko Tuiri. Nō te tau 1929, ka mate a Tuhitio. Ko tana wahine tuarua, ko Hera Greening, ā, mate rawa ake a Te Roera, e ora tonu ana a ia. Kāre rāua i whiwhi tamariki. Nō te moenga wahine anō, ka puta āna tamāhine, he māhanga. Ko tētahi, ko Ārepa (Alpha) nā Kurupō i atawhai, ā, riro kē ana a Ōmeka (Omega) nā Airini Tōnore i whakatipu.

Tokotoru rawa nuku atu pea ngā wāhine i moea e Kurupō. He taha Pākehā tō tana wahine tuatahi, tō Paranihia Pānapa. Ki ngā kōrero tuku iho a te iwi, ko te āhua nei nō muri i tana moenga i tana wahine, ka haere a Kurupō ki te tono ki ngā iwi o te tai moana, me kore e whai uri rāua (i āta tohu tonu ana kāwai whakapapa ki a Tangaroa, te atua o te moana, ki a Pānia o te iwi moana me tana tama taniwha, me Moremore). Nōna ka whakapā atu ki ngā iwi o te moana, ka piri rāua ko tētahi o rātou he wahine pākākā nei, ko Hinewera te īngoa. Mā te whakahoki rawa atu o tā rāua tama mātāmua ki te hunga nei, kātahi anō ka whakaae rātou ki te āwhina i a Kurupō. Nō te whānautanga o tana tama, o Kapi i te tau 1888, i te 1889 rānei, kāre a Kurupō i pai ki te tuku i a ia ki te iwi moana rā; nō muri ka kitea, kāre a Kurupō i kaha ki te whai tamariki. He wā nei, kārangarangatia ana ngā uri o Kapi ko Ngāti Hinewera.

Nō Ngāti Raukawa ki Ōtaki tana wahine o muri mai nei, ko Arihia Ranapiri (Alice Ransfield) te īngoa. Mai anō i ā rātou pakanga nui o ngā tau tekau atu i te 1820 ki a Ngāti Kahungunu ki Te Pakake me Te Roto-a-Tara, kāre anō kia āta hohouhia te rongo e Ngāti Raukawa, ēngari nā tēnei hononga, kātahi anō. Kāre tonu rāua i whiwhi uri. Ka tīkina atu e Kurupō rāua ko Arihia a Ārepa, te tamāhine a Te Roera, me Takarihi (Douglas), tētahi o ngā māhanga mea tāne a tana taokete, a Mēpara (Mabel), hei whāngai mā rāua. Ka mate tēnei o ngā māhanga, ka tīkina atu anō ko tētahi rā, ko Hoani (John). Kāre rāua i roa e moe ana, ka mate a Arihia. Ka moe anō a Kurupō i a Hiraina Puano, nō Ngā Rauru ki Te Hāwera i Taranaki. Koirā anō te mutunga iho, kāre he uri. Ka tangohia e rāua te tama a Kapi, a Hōri Ngākāwhe Tāreha me tētahi mea wahine, a Hine Pene, hei tamariki mā rāua.

He roa tonu a Kurupō e okeoke ana i roto i te māuiui, kātahi anō ka mate ki Waiōhiki i te 18 o Mei i te tau 1938, ā, nehua ana hoki ki te urupā i Waiōhiki i te 21 o Mei. Nō te tangihanga, muia ana tana rā e te iwi Māori, tae atu ki te nui o ōna hoa Pākehā hoki, ki tana wahine me ā rāua tamariki. Nō muri i a Kurupō a Te Roera i mate ai. Haruru ana te motu i te matenga o tana taina, o Kurupō, ēngari taka rawa mai ki tōna rā matenga i Ahuriri, i te 21 o Noema o te tau 1941, korekore ana te kōrero mōna i ngā nūpepa. Kei Waiōhiki, kei te taha o tana taina a Te Roera Tāreha e takoto ana.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Angela Ballara and Taape Tareha-O'Reilly. 'Tāreha, Kurupō and Tāreha, Te Roera - Tareha, Kurupo and Tāreha, Te Roera', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1996. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/3t5/tareha-kurupo (accessed 17 October 2019)