Kōrero: Tūnuiārangi, Hoani Parāone

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Tunuiarangi, Hoani Paraone

1843/1844?–1933

Nō Ngāti Kahungunu, nō Rangitāne; he kaihautū, he kaiārahi, he kaiwhakamāori, he āteha, he kaitōrangapū, he kaituhituhi

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Angela Ballara,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1996.

Nō te tau 1843, 1844 pea i whānau ai a Hoani Parāone Tūnuiārangi i te awaawa o Whakatomotomo e pātata ana ki te kokoru o Palliser, ki Te Wairarapa ki te tonga. Ko te kī, he tangata hopu parāoa tana pāpā a John Robert Brown; tērā pea, ko ia anō tētahi o ngā tāngata a John Wade i noho ki Te Kopi-a-Uenuku i te tau 1843. I tuhituhia e Tūnuiārangi te īngoa o tōna whaea ko Hine-i-whakaruhia (arā ko Ruhi), he tamāhine nā Tiramehameha o Ngāti Rākairangi; kei ētahi atu kōrero e kī ana, ko Kaipāoe III o Ngāti Kahukuranui kē tōna whaea. Arā anō ērā o ōna hapū ko Ngāti Hinewaka, ko Ngāti Hikarāhui, ko Ngāi Tūkoko o Rangitāne me Ngāi Tahu o Tāmaki me Palliser. Ahakoa he toronga anō ōna mai i a Tahu, i a Ira me Rangitāne, ko te mea i tino mōhio whānuitia, he rangatira a ia nō Ngāti Kahungunu. Ko tōna tuahine ko Hera Te Miha, ākuanei pea i mōhiotia anō ko Hine-ki-te-rangi. Nā te whaea kē, nā Kaipāoe, ka puta ōna tāina ko Pūhara rāua ko Taiāwhio Te Tau.

He iti noa iho ngā kōrero kei te mōhiotia e pā ana ki te wā e tamariki ana, e whakatupuria ana rānei a Tūnuiārangi, hāunga hoki tōna Mihinaretanga me tōna matatau ki te tuhituhi kōrero. Ko ōna kaiwhakaako mō ngā āhuatanga Māori, ko ōna pakeke anō, ko Paratene Te Okawhare rāua ko Āporo Piritaha. E ai ki te kōrero, nō te tekau tau atu i 1860, i a Tūnuiārangi e taitama tonu ana, ka tū ia hei kaiārahi, hei kaiwhakamāori hoki mō ngā hōia a te kāwanatanga. Nō taua wā nei anō, i riro nāna a J. G. Holdsworth i ārahi ki te tihi o Taratahi, te maunga i kīia i muri nei ko Maunga Holdsworth. I te kōngutu awa o te moana o Ōnoke te kāinga o Tūnuiārangi, ēngari taka rawa ki te tau 1880, kua heke kē ia ki Hīnana, e tata ana ki Āhinekōhai (Gladstone), ki te wāhi i whakaīngoatia a ia hei āteha mō te Kōti Whenua Māori. Nā te tono pea a te Kotahitanga kia whakakorehia taua tūranga, i unu ai ia i a ia i taua tūnga i te tau 1892. Pērā anō i ōna hoa o aua wā tonu i pau i a Tūnuiārangi tētahi wā roa i te Kōti Whenua, i ngā tekau tau e rua atu i te 1880, e whakatakoto ana i ana kerēme me ērā a tōna iwi. Ko ia tētahi i whakaīngoatia i runga i te rārangi īngoa o ngā moana o Te Wairarapa i te tau 1883; ā, nāna anō hoki ētahi o ngā whakaaturanga i whakatakoto ki te aroaro o te kōmihana uiui mō aua moana i te tau 1891.

Nō ngā hui tīmatanga o te Kotahitanga i Pēwhairangi (Bay of Islands) i te tau 1892, ko Tūnuiārangi tētahi o ngā reo kōrero mō ngā iwi o Te Wairarapa. Nāna tonu i kī, e tautoko ana a ia i te kaupapa kōrero a Rāniera Te Wharerau, kia whakamahia te Tiriti o Waitangi hei whakaruruhau mō te iwi Māori, ā, kia whakaritea te noho tahi a te iwi Māori me te iwi Pākehā āmua ake nei. I noho ia hei mema mō te Pāremata Māori ki Te Wairarapa, hei minita hoki mō te kāwanatanga o te Kotahitanga, atu i te tau 1892. Nō te wā i whakamātau ētahi o ngā Māori ki te pupuri i ngā moana o Te Wairarapa, i whakaaro ētahi o rātau, kāre a Tūnuiārangi i tino tautoko i a rātau, ā, nō te Pāremata o te Kotahitanga o te tau 1893, ka tautokona e Tūnuiārangi ngā whakataunga a te kōmihana o 1891, nā rātau nei i whakarite te kaupapa e pai ana ki te Māori me te Pākehā. He kaiwhakauru a ia ki te tūru Māori o Te Tai Rāwhiti ki te Whare Pāremata i te tau 1893, ēngari i noho tuarua a ia ki a Wī Pere.

Nō te tau 1894, ka haria e Tūnuiārangi te inoi a tōna kaiwhakaako, a Hāmuera Tamahau Mahupuku, me ētahi anō o ngā kaihautū o Te Wairarapa ki te huihuinga tuatoru a te Kotahitanga ki Pākirikiri, i Tūranganui-a-Rua (Poverty Bay), e tono moni ana hei āwhina i a rātau ki te hoko mai i tētahi mīhini perehi, hei whakaputa i tētahi nūpepa hei hāpai i ngā whāinga a te Kotahitanga. He iti rawa atu te tautoko mai i tāna i tono ai, ā, nā tēnei pea i whakatahuri ngā whakaaro o rāua ko Mahupuku i ngā whāinga a te Kotahitanga. Nō te tau 1893, i pōti kē a Tūnuiārangi mō te kaupapa a Hōne Heke Ngāpua ina te mutunga mai, e mea ana kia wehea mai te rūnanga hanga ture a te Kotahitanga kia tū wātea mai i te mana o te Kāwana. Ka whai i muri i te tau 1894, ka āta tirohia e Tūnuiārangi rāua ko Mahupuku te Tiriti o Waitangi, ka whakaae tahi rāua, arā, ko tā te Tiriti e tuku kē ana ko te mana noa iho ki te Māori ki te huihui i raro i te mana o te kāwanatanga a Kuini Wikitōria.

Nā tēnei rerenga kētanga – arā, he rūnanga te pāremata Māori ko tana tikanga kē kia mahi tahi rāua ko te kāwanatanga, kaua e noho wehe kē, mana motuhake ake i te kāwanatanga – ka mau kē te wehi o ngā tukunga iho i pā ki a Tūnuiārangi me ngā iwi o te rohe o Te Wairarapa ngātahi. Nō te marama o Hānuere o te tau 1896, ka whakatūria tētahi kirimini i waenganui i a Tūnuiārangi rāua ko Mahupuku me te kāwanatanga e āta whakahua ana, arā, hei utu mō ngā moana kua riro, me utu e te kāwanatanga tētahi moni kamupeneheihana ki ngā kaiwhiwhi Māori o aua moana nei; me te whakawātea mai hoki i tētahi whenua i tētahi wāhi kē hei kōwhiringa mā rātau. Nō te kitenga o te Pākehā i taua wā, arā, he hoa a Tūnuiārangi nō te kāwanatanga, ka manaakitia a ia e rātau. Nō te 22 o Āperira 1897 ka whakaīngoatia a ia hei kāpene i roto i te ope hōia tūao mau raiwhara eke hōiho o Heretaunga (Heretaunga Mounted Rifle Volunteers), hei hari i te Pirimia, i a Te Hētana (Richard Seddon), ki te rā nui o te Tiupiri Taimana o Kuini Wikitōria. I muri i te whakaakoranga i te ope Māori, 18 te tokomaha, hei kaitiaki whakahōnore, ka rere katoa rātau mā runga kaipuke ki Te Whakaraupō (Lyttelton) i te 27 o Āperira. E toru rā i muri mai, ka rere anō mā te waka Ruahine ki Rānana (London). Hei whakahōnore i te rā nui, i taki noho rātau ki te whakangungu, ā, ki te tito i tētahi waiata. He maha ngā whakatūtū kātipa i uru atu te ope Māori hei whakanui i te Tiupiri i te 22 o Hune 1897. Nō te tirohanga ōkawatanga a Kuini Wikitōria i ngā hōia o tāwāhi i te 2 o Hūrae, ka whakamōhiotia atu a Kāpene Tūnuiārangi ki a ia. I kohatia ki a ia he mētara tiupiri me tētahi hoari whai kawa, he mea āta whakairo mō taua rā.

Ahakoa āna kōrero mō ngā moana o Te Wairarapa, ehara ia i te pononga ā-kāwanatanga, ā, i te wā ki tāwāhi he kaupapa kē noa atu tā Tūnuiārangi. Nō mua i tōna wehenga atu, i tūtaki rātau ko Wī Pere, ko Mahupuku, ki a Timi Kara (James Carroll) i Pōneke (Wellington), i Āperira. I kōkiritia i reira te whakaaro kia hangaia tētahi pānui piripono, pānui Māori ki te Kuini, e whai wāhi ana mō tētahi petihana kia whakarāhuitia ngā whenua Māori, e rima miriona eka te nui e toitū ana, mō ake tonu atu. I takahia te petihana me te pānui i Pāpāwai. Ka oti i a Tūnuiārangi me ētahi atu 17 te tokomaha te haina, ka tukua te petihana nei e 'Rōre' Kene (John M. Denny), tētahi o ngā mema Pāremata o Peretānia, ki a 'Rōre' Temurene (Joseph Chamberlain), te hēkeretari mō ngā whenua o tāwāhi; kātahi ka tae te tono ki a Tūnuiārangi kia tae atu ki te Whare Pāremata i Wehiminita (Westminster) ki te whakamārama i ana āwangawanga. Ahakoa i whakamōhiotia atu ki a ia, arā, e kore te kāwanatanga o Peretānia e kaha ki te wawao atu, ko tāna i whakamārama atu ai, mehemea e whakauru atu ana a Peretānia hei waha kōrero ki te taha Māori, arā, ki te iwi i arohaina e te Kuini, tēnā pea ka whakarongo te kāwanatanga o Niu Tīreni.

Nō te rā o muri mai, he mea tohutohu a Tūnuiārangi nā te kairīpoata pea, kia tāia tana petihana ki ngā nūpepa; ka mutu, kia tangohia ētahi tauira hei tohatoha haere i Aotearoa, kia kaha ake te akiaki i te kāwanatanga. Nā Temurene i tuku tētahi kape o te petihana ki a Te Hētana; i Rānana tonu ia i taua wā; heoti, he pīrangi tonu nōna ki te wawao i tana kaupapa Māori, i peia ai a Te Hētana ki te tuku whakautu ki a Temurene. Ko te mutunga mai o ngā mahi a Tūnuiārangi ko te pānga o te whakamā ki te kāwanatanga o Niu Tīreni me te whānautanga mai o tētahi pire a Te Hētana, arā, te Pire Whakatautau, Whakahaere hoki i ngā Whenua Māori (Native Lands Settlement and Administration Bill) o 1898. Ko te Ture Whakahaere i ngā Whenua Māori (Native Lands Administration Act) o 1900, te mutunga iho o taua pire nei.

Nō tana hokinga ki Aotearoa, ka tapaina e ia tōna whenua i te huarahi o Whakatomotomo i Pirinoa ki te īngoa Rānana II, hei whakamaharatanga mōna ki ngā mahi ihiihi i mahia i te tau 1897. E hia kē nei ngā tau e whakanuia ana te Rā Tiupiri hei tino rā whakanui, kitekitea ai e whakatūtū ana ngā hōia o ngā rōpū tūao, e mau kākahu hōia ana. He wāhi nui tō Tūnuiārangi i roto i aua rā nei, ēngari ka tae ki te tau 1906 kua iti rawa atu te ngākaunui o te iwi Māori ki te mahi nei. Nō te tau 1900, ka whakawhitia a Tūnuiārangi ki te ope hōia tūao mau raiwhara eke hōiho o Te Wairarapa (Wairarapa Mounted Rifle Volunteers) i Pāpāwai. E rua tau i muri mai, ka whakawātea pea ia i tana tūranga. I te nuinga o te wā, ko Major Brown (Meiha Parāone) te īngoa kārangaranga a te Pākehā mōna.

Ahakoa i noho tonu a Tūnuiārangi hei Mihinare, kua kaha haere kē te riro o ōna whakaaro i te awe o ngā poropititanga a Pāora Te Pōtangaroa, nāna rā i poropiti i te tau 1881: arā, te hanganga o tētahi pāremata Māori, te taenga mai o te Tiriti o Waitangi ki Te Wairarapa, me te tonotanga mā te moana ki tāwāhi o tētahi karere hōia ki te kāwanatanga o Peretānia, hei whakahau i te kāwanatanga o Aotearoa ki te whakarite tikanga hei painga mō te Māori. Ki te whakaaro o te iwi Māori o Te Wairarapa ko Tūnuiārangi te whakatinanatanga o ētahi o aua poropititanga, ā, koia pū ōna whakaaro. He mea poropiti anō nā Te Pōtangaroa ka poua anō tētahi hāhi Māori hou. I te tau 1912 i pānuitia e Tūnuiārangi ko te hāhi nei ko te Hāhi o te Rūri Tuawhitu o Ihowā, arā, he hāhi e pā ana ki ngā whakapono Karaitiana katoa.

I taua wā nei kua whakaaetia ko Tūnuiārangi tētahi o ngā kaihautū tino whai mana i roto i Te Wairarapa me te iwi Māori nui tonu. E hia kē nei ngā komiti me ngā kaunihera o Te Wairarapa me ētahi atu wāhi, i noho ia hei mema; he huhua hoki ngā hui i tae atu ia i runga i tōna tūranga kaumātua whai mana. Nō te tau 1901, ka whakatūria e ia he kura ki Tūranganui e tata ana ki tōna kāinga i Pirinoa, ā, i whakaīngoatia a ia hei kaiwhakahaere mō ngā tāpui i ngā moana i Te Wairarapa. Hei kamupeneheihana anō mō ngā moana i riro atu, ka whakamātau ia i te tau 1907 ki te whakahau i te kāwanatanga, kia tahuri ki te hoko mai i tētahi wāhi o Whāngaimoana i te kokoru o Palliser. Ko ia tētahi o ngā mema tokorima o te Kōmihana Rāhui Whenua Purotu (Scenery Preservation Commission), mai i te 1904 ki te 1906. Nō taua wā nei, ka tāia e whā o ana pukapuka ki te Journal of the Polynesian Society, he mea whakapākehā nā Te Mete (S. Percy Smith), arā, tētahi o ōna hoa i runga i te kōmihana; nāna i whakahauhau a Tūnuiārangi ki te tuhituhi kōrero mō ngā tikanga me ngā tāhuhu kōrero a te Māori. Kei ngā whare pukapuka maha e tiakina ana ngā tuhinga ā-ringa o ēnei pukapuka me ērā atu anō o āna tuhituhinga. He maha ngā hui whakapapa i whai wāhi atu a Tūnuiārangi. Nō te tau 1907, ka whakaīngoatia a ia hei tiamana mō te komiti o Tānenui-a-Rangi, hei tiaki, hei ohi i ngā pukapuka o ngā tikanga Māori.

Ko Tūnuiārangi tētahi o ngā rangatira tokomaha i kōrero i te tangihanga o Mahuta, te Kīngi Māori, i te tau 1912. I inoi atu a ia ki te Kīngitanga me whakanoho te īngoa o te ariki ki te tama a Mahuta, ēngari kāre i momoho. I whakauru atu a Tūnuiārangi ki ngā mahi a Te Tai Rāwhiti i te wā o te Pakanga Tuatahi, ki te whakatakoto i tētahi tahua moni mō ngā hōia Māori. Nō te hokinga mai o ngā hōia o te ope taua o Niu Tīreni ki Tūranga (Gisborne) i te tau 1919, i tonoa atu a ia hei manuhiri mana tiketike, ki te pōwhiri i a rātau. I Karipori (Gallipoli), ka taotū tana tama, a Hēmi Kara (James Carroll) Tūnuiārangi. I te tau 1922 kua tata kē ōna tau ki te 80, ka whakauru atu a ia me ngā iwi maha o Te Wairarapa ki te Hāhi Rātana. Nā rātau i tautoko a Taranaki Te Uamairangi hei mema mō Te Tai Rāwhiti ki te whakataetae ki a Āpirana Ngata mō te Whare Pāremata.

I noho anō pea a Tūnuiārangi i Whakaoriori (Masterton) mō tētahi wā i a ia ka kaumātua, ēngari i hoki anō ia ki tōna kāinga i Katatāone (Carterton), ki reira noho ai i te wāhi i nohoia e ia i te tau 1912, i muri iho hoki. He roa tana māuiuitanga i mua i tōna matenga i te 29 o Maehe 1933. Ka mahue mai ki muri ko ā rāua tamariki ko tana wahine tuatahi, ko Tarita Cameron, arā ko Hēmi me te tamāhine, me Inuwai Te Wharepūrangi (Kōkiri). I whai tamāhine anō pea rāua ko Taiewiwaru, tana wahine tuarua, ēngari anō tana wahine tuatoru a Te Turiraro (ko Turiaru pea, ko Iwiraru rānei), kāre kau. Kei Hīnana ia e takoto ana.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Angela Ballara. 'Tūnuiārangi, Hoani Parāone - Tunuiarangi, Hoani Paraone', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1996. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/3t44/tunuiarangi-hoani-paraone (accessed 20 October 2019)