Kōrero: Te hākari

Whārangi 3. Ngā hākari o te rautau 1800

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Taka mai ki te rautau 1800 kua nui rawa atu ngā hākari. Nā ngā kaimātai Pākehā o te wā i tuhi ngā momo kai, te rahi o ngā tāngata i tae, tae atu ki ngā kawa tohatoha kai i waenganui i ngā hapū me ngā iwi.

Te tītari i ngā kai

Mā te rangatira e wāwāhi ngā kai mā tēnā, mā tēnā. Kua putua mai ngā tahua kai, ā, mā te rangatira anō e tohu nō tēhea hapū, iwi rānei aua kai.

Anei te tauira a te mihinare a Richard Taylor:

I te taunga mai o te manuhiri kua pōwhiritia rātou, ā, i muri mai kua puta te rangatira me te mau rākau haere mai. Ka hīkoi haere ia i te taha o ngā kai kua whakaputua ki runga i te marae, ā, ka tohua ngā putunga kai a tēnā iwi, a tēnā iwi. I te wā ka tohu ia i te iwi, kua pātuki ia i tana rākau ki te putunga kai rā. Kia whiti rā anō ngā kai, kātahi te rangatira o te manuhiri ka wāwāhi i ngā kai rā mā tēnā, mā tēnā o tōna tira haere. I muri mai kua haria ngā kai ki ngā kāinga o tēnā o tēnā.1

He tono karere

Ka whakatau ana te rangatira ki te whakatū hākari, kua tono ia i tētahi uri hei whakamōhio i te manuhiri. I te wā ka rokohia mai he pā, kua waiata ia, ‘Uea uea i te pou o tou whare, kia wiriwiri, kia tutangatanga wakairi kapua naku, ki runga moeahu taku kira ka tongia e te anu matao e taku e – nau mai e waha i taku tua he karere taua, he karere wainga.’2

Te pukahu o te kai

Nāwai ka pukahu rawa te kai o ngā hākari. Tērā tētahi hākari nui nā Te Waharoa i whakatū mō ngā iwi o Tauranga Moana ki Matamata i te tau 1837. E ai ki tētahi kaituhi:

He nui ngā kai o te hākari. Arā e ono ngā toroa nunui, e 19 ngā tahā hinu pioke, e hia tone (tonnes) ika tae rawa atu ki ngā pioke pakupaku, he tino kai tēnei ki te iwi Māori. Arā anō ngā tuna pāwhara rua tekau mano, ngā poaka maha me te tini noa iho o te kete rīwai.’3

Ngā whata kai

I ngā wā o mua ka hoatu ngā kai ki runga whata. Mai i waenganui i te rautau 1800 he nui rawa ēnei whata kai, anō nei he tapatoru nui whakahirahira. E 30 mita te teitei o ētahi, ā, e 2 maero te roa o tētahi.

Te Kaihaukai

He hākari tauutuutu te kaihaukai, i waenganui i ngā iwi e rua. Arā, he whakawhiti kai, he tūmahana te mahi. E whakamārama ana a Teone (Hōne) Taare Tīkao:

Kua tuku te iwi i te karere ā tōna rā kua tū he kaihaukai. Ākuanei kua haere te iwi o Kaiapoi ki Rāpaki, e ō mai ana i te tuna, te kiore, te kauru, te kurī, te aruhe, te kūmara me ētahi atu kai. Ko tā te iwi kāinga kua whakataka i te pipi, te kuku, te mangō, te maraki me ētahi atu kaimoana. Kāore i kainga wawetia te kai, engari ka whiti ngā kai a tētahi ki tētahi atu. Ka āwhina anō te iwi o Rāpaki ki te waha i ngā kai ki Kaiapoi. Kia hoki rā anō ngā hāpai ō kātahi ka kai ngā mea o Rāpaki i ā rātou kai. E rua, e toru rānei ngā tau i muri mai, kua hiki te iwi o Rāpaki ki te kawe kai mā ngā iwi o Kaiāpoi.4

Te Poukai

Nā Kīngi Tāwhiao i tīmata ngā poukai i tōna hokinga mai i Ingarangi i te tau 1885 hei whāngai i te pouaru, te pani me te rawakore. I Whatiwhatihoe, ki Pirongia, te poukai tuatahi. I muri mai ka haere ki Pārāwera ki Te Awamutu. Nō te tau ruamano, e 30 ngā marae tū ai te poukai ki roto, ki waho anō hoki o Waikato.

Kupu tāpiri
  1. Richard Taylor, Te Ika a Māui, or, New Zealand and its inhabitants: illustrating the origin, manners, customs, mythology, religion, rites, songs, proverbs, fables, and language of the natives; together with the geology, natural history, productions, and climate of the country, its state as regards Christianity: sketches of the principal chiefs, and their present position. Wellington: Reed, 1974 (originally published 1855), p. 169. Back
  2. Te Ika a Māui, p. 170. Back
  3. Quoted in ‘1842, William Wade, A journey in the North Island of New Zealand’, p. 120, http://www.enzb.auckland.ac.nz/document?wid=394 (last accessed 6 May 2013). Back
  4. Teone Taare Tikao, Tikao talks: ka taoka tapu o te ao kohatu: treasures from the ancient world of the Maori. Auckland: Penguin, 1990, p. 130. Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Basil Keane, 'Te hākari - Ngā hākari o te rautau 1800', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-hakari/page-3 (accessed 23 November 2019)

He kōrero nā Basil Keane, i tāngia i te 5 Sep 2013