Kōrero: Te Arawa

Whārangi 6. Ka tipu, ka pakari te ōhanga me te noho a te iwi

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

I te tau 1987 ka takoto ngā kerēme a Te Arawa ki Te Rōpū Whakamana i Te Tiriti o Waitangi mō ngā mahi hē a te Karauna i te rau tau atu i 1800. Nā ngā pakanga o ngā tekau tau 1860 me 1870, tāpae atu ki te rironga o ngā whenua ki te Karauna, ka heke te kaha me te oranga o Te Arawa; nō te hū o Tarawera kātahi ka tino hē rawa atu. Nā ēnei mate ka tāmia ngā mahi kaipakihi, ka haere mai te Karauna ka hokona ngā whenua o Te Arawa hei hoko atu ki ngā tāngata arumoni. I te mutunga o Te Pakanga Tuatahi o te Ao, i te hokinga mai o ngā hōia ki Aotearoa, ka mau mai te mate kohi (tuberculosis). Tini te tangata i mate nā te whurū o te tau 1918.

Koinei te wā pōuri rawa mō Te Arawa. Kia tae ki te mutunga o Te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao, kua hōhā rawa atu te hunga rangatahi. Nā te kore o te rawa, te tūpuhi me te pohara i te tuawhenua, te kore āwhina a te kāwanatanga, ka haere te tini o te rangatahi ki te ao, ki ngā tāone noho ai. Kua tae mai ki ēnei rā, kua whai mokopuna taua hunga, mokopuna kei te kūare ki ō rātou marae. Kei te pōuri ngā kaumātua o Te Arawa, he pōturi nō te Karauna ki te whakatutuki i āna oati, ahakoa te pūmau o Te Arawa ki a ia mai anō i te tau 1860.

Ngā mahi tāpoi me ngā whanaketanga

Ko ētahi pūkenga kua roa i a Te Arawa, ko te whakairo, ko te raranga, ko te whakangahau i te tangata. Waihoki, ka tāpiri ēnei pūkenga ki ngā waiariki o te rohe, ka muia te takiwā o Rotorua e te hunga tāpoi. Haere mai ai te hunga tāpoi kia kite i ngā tūāpapa o Ō-tū-kapua-rangi me Te Tarata, ngā pupuha, ngā ngāwhā whakaora tinana. Whāia, ka pakari haere ngā kaupapa arumoni.

Nāwai, ka tahuri te Karauna ki te whakatairanga i a Rotorua hei tāone wai kaukau, whakaora tinana. I te tau 1877 ka whakaae a Ngāti Whakaue kia hangā he tāone wai kaukau ki te wāhi kei reira te tāone o Rotorua i ēnei rā. Hei utu, ka puta te kī taurangi a te Karauna, ka manaakitia ngā whenua o Te Arawa. Hei whakapūmau i tēnei whakaaetanga, ka tukua e Te Arawa tana taonga kura, a Pūkākī (te tomokanga ki te pā o Mātaipuku-Ōhinemutu). Hāunga tērā, nō te tau 1997 kātahi anō ka aronuitia e te Karauna te koha nui nei, e 120 tau i muri i te rironga atu ki Te Whare Pupuri Taonga o Tāmaki-makau-rau.

I te tau 1881 ka hainahia e ngā kaumātua o Ngāti Whakaue te Whakaaetanga a Fenton (Fenton Agreement), kia tū ai te tāone o Rotorua. Kāore i rata te hunga arumoni, i te mea i raro tonu ngā whenua o te tāone i te mana o Ngāti Whakaue; ki tā rātou e titiro ai, he tāmi tēnei i ngā mahi arumoni. I te tukunga o te mana whakahaere o ngā waiariki ki te iwi, kātahi ka tino hē rawa atu te hunga arumoni. Nō konei ka timu te tai mō Te Arawa. Nā te Ture mō Ngā Rohe Waiariki (Thermal-Springs District Act) o 1881 me ētahi atu whakapōreareatanga, ka whakakorengia te wāhi ki a Te Arawa i runga i te poari whakahaere i te tāone o Rotorua, ka riro te mana mō ngā waiariki me ngā mahi tāpoi ki tāngata kē. Nō te tau 2006 ka whakataungia ngā kerēme e pā ana ki ngā roto, heoi kei te tāria tonutia te whakataunga o ērā atu o ngā kerēme a Te Arawa kei mua i te aroaro o Te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi.

Kei te pōhirihiri tonu a Te Arawa i te hunga tāpoi. Kei te mahi tonu te iwi i ngā waiata me ngā haka, kei te whāngai tonu i te manuhiri ki te hāngī, ā, kei te whakaatu tonu i ngā taonga a ō rātou tīpuna. Kua taunga te rangatahi o Te Arawa ki te whakangahau manuhiri. Mā ēnei mahi ka eke ai rātou ki ngā tūranga i ngā marae, i te ao whānui hoki.

Nō te tau 2006 ka whakataungia ngā kerēme a Te Arawa ki mua i te aroaro o Te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi mō ngā roto. Tāpiri atu ko te whakapāha a te Karauna mō āna mahi hē, me tana whakaae ki te mana o Te Arawa kei runga i ngā roto o te takiwā.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Paul Tapsell, 'Te Arawa - Ka tipu, ka pakari te ōhanga me te noho a te iwi', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-arawa/page-6 (accessed 27 October 2021)

He kōrero nā Paul Tapsell, i tāngia i te 8 Feb 2005, updated 22 Mar 2017