Kōrero: Te Arawa

Whārangi 2. Te noho whenua me ngā hekenga

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

I te tomokanga atu ki te wahapū o te awa o Kaituna e pātata ana ki Ōkūrei, kia kore ai te waka e kawea e te ia o te awa, ka herea a Te Arawa ki tētahi toka nui, ko Toka-parore me tētahi toka punga (anchor rock), ko Tū-te-rangi-haruru. Ko te tohunga ko Ngā-toro-i-rangi te tuatahi kia makere, ka takina e ia ana karakia ki raro i tētahi rākau pōhutukawa e pua ana. Ko te ingoa o taua wāhi ko Ongatoro, ā, nō te tau 1940 ka hangaia he kōhatu whakamaumaharatanga kei reira.

Ka hangaia he pā ki Ōkūrei, ka ingoatia ko Maketū, he ingoa mai i to rātou kāinga o Rangiatea i Hawaiki. Ko tētahi o ngā tāngata i runga i a Te Arawa, ko Whakaotirangi, te wahine a Ruaeo, nā Tamatekapua i heri mai. Ka whakatōngia wawetia e ia ngā kūmara o tana kete kia ora ai rātou i te takurua. Ko te nuinga o ana kete kūmara i rukea ki te moana i te tūtakitanga ki te taniwha, a Te Parata. Ko Te Kete Rokiroki o Whakaotirangi te ingoa o te riu kei muri i te pā o Maketu. Ko Parawai te ingoa o ngā māra kai ki reira, hei maumaharatanga mō ngā māra i mahue ki Rangiātea.

Ka horapa te iwi

Ka tau te noho o ngā iwi o Te Arawa, ka tīmata tā rātou hōpara ki te whenua. Ko ētahi i haere mā te takutai hōpara ai, ko ētahi i haere whakauta ki te rapu whenua hōu mō rātou. Ko Tama ka haere atu i Katikati ki Moehau (Coromandel Peninsula), ko tōna matua kēkē a Tia i hōpara i te rohe atu i Aratiatia ki Taupō; ko Hei tētahi atu o ōna matua kēkē, i haere ki Moehau. I hōpara a Ngā-toro-i-rangi atu i Kawerau ki Tongariro. Ko ētahi atu kaihōpara, ko:

  • Ika (Mamaku ki Pātetere)
  • Oro (Kawerau)
  • Makaa (Kāingaroa)
  • Hatupatu (Tokoroa, Horohoro, Waiariki)
  • Tū-horo-mata-kakā, te tama a Tamatekapua (Moehau ki Hauraki)
  • Ngā mokopuna a Tama – a Taramainuku (Kaipara), a Warenga (Te Tai Tokerau), a Huarere (Hauraki me Tāmaki).

Ka hōpara a Īhenga, te mokopuna a Tama, i ngā rohe o Waiariki me Kaipara.

I te matenga o Tama, ka tanumia ia ki Te Moengahau-o-Tamatekapua. Nō konei ka hoki a Īhenga ki Maketū kia noho i te taha o tōna matua kēkē a Kahumatamomoe (Kahu). Nāwai ā, ka hoki anō rāua ki te raki noho ai – ko Īhenga i noho ki Kaipara, ko Kahu i noho ki Te Whanga-o-Kahumatamomoe (Ōkahu Bay) i Te Waitematā, ki reira mate ai.

Nā Tia, ko Tapuika, nā Hei ko Waitaha. Ka noho a Tapuika rāua ko Waitaha ki te rohe o Maketū. I nōhia e rāua ngā whenua mai i Katikati ki Te Kaokaoroa (ngā whenua i taunahatia ki a rāua e ō rāua mātua). Ka haere a Ngā-toro-i-rangi kia hōpara i ngā rohe waiariki ki te tonga o Taupō, i mua i tā rāua hokinga ko Kearoa ki te motu o Mōtītī.

Īhenga

Ka moe a Īhenga, mokopuna a Tamatekapua i a Hinetekakara, ka haere ia kia titiro i te whenua. Ka tūhuratia e ia ngā roto o Te Waiariki i mua i tana hokinga ki te raki. He nui ngā taunahatanga a Ihenga ki te rohe o Te Waiariki, tae rawa ki Te Rotorua-nui-a-Kahumatamomoe (hei whakanui i tōna matua kēkē), Ōhau (i toremi tana kurī ki reira), Ōhinemutu (te wāhi i kōhurutia tana tamāhine e ngā uri o Ika).

Hatupatu

Ko Hatupatu tētahi atu kaihōpara, nāna a Kurangaituku i patu i Whakarewarewa. I tana hokinga ki Maketū, ka arahina e ia a Te Arawa i ngā pakanga ki te iwi o Uenuku, nā rātou nei i tahu i a Te Arawa hei utu mō te hingatanga o te iwi o Uenuku i Rangiātea. E whakanuia ana tēnei i ngā whakairo o te pare kei te wharenui o Ngāti Whakaue i te marae o Tapiti i Maketū.

Rangitihi

Ka moe ngā uri o Īhenga rāua ko Hatupatu ki ngā whānau rangatira o Te Arawa. I ōna wā ka maranga a Rangitihi, tētahi o ngā uri o Tamatekapua, ki te ārahi i te iwi. Ka hangaa e ia tona pā a Pakatore ki waenganui i a Waiariki me Maketū, kia pai ai tana mātaki atu i te awa o Kaituna. Ka moe ia i ana wāhine rangatira kia puta ana tama e whitu me tana tamāhine kotahi. Mōhiotia ai rātou ko Ngā Pūmanawa-e-Waru.

Ka tipu, ka horapa te iwi ki ngā whenua waiariki o te puku o Te Ika a Māui, mai i tai ki ngā maunga ki uta.

Mai i Maketū ki Tongariro ...
Ko Te Arawa te waka
Ko Te Arawa māngai-nui ūpoko tū-takitaki.

Ngā heke

Nā ngā tama a Rangitihi i hūnuku te iwi ki ngā roto waiariki kei te tuawhenua. Ko Te Motutapu a Tinirau (te motu ki Rotorua) tētahi wāhi i tūmanakotia e te maha o ngā iwi nā te mea, he wāhi nui, ka makuru te tipu o te kai nā ngā puia. Kotahi whakatipuranga te wā e pakanga ana a Rangiteaorere rāua ko Uenukukōpako, ngā tuarua o Rangitihi ki ngā uri o Ika kātahi anō ka riro i a Te Arawa te motu.

Ka noho mārire te iwi ki ōna whenua. Ā, tōna wā ka maranga ētahi huinga iwi e toru:

  • Ngāti Pikiao (i te taha rāwhiti o te Rotoiti me Rotoehu rāua ko Rotoma)
  • Tūhourangi (Kaituna ki roto, Rotoiti ki te uru, te taha tonga-mā-rāwhiti o Rotorua tae rawa ki Ōhinemutu)
  • Te Uri o Uenukukōpako, ka mōhiotia ā tōna wā, ko Ngāti Whakaue (Mokoia me te pito raki-mā-uru o Rotorua.
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Paul Tapsell, 'Te Arawa - Te noho whenua me ngā hekenga', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-arawa/page-2 (accessed 25 September 2020)

He kōrero nā Paul Tapsell, i tāngia i te 8 Feb 2005, updated 22 Mar 2017