Kōrero: Tā moko

Whārangi 2. Te hangarau tā moko

Ngā whakaahua

Wai ngārahu

I te taenga ki te nehenehe nui o Aotearoa me ōna momo rākau kāore i kitea ki Te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa; ka tipu te tā moko me ngā hangarau hou mō te tā moko. He tukanga atamai te hanga i te wai ngārahu; arā he hanga ngārahu i ngā tūmomo rākau kāpia. Ko ētahi anō ingoa mō te wai ngārahu he māpara, he kāpara (he awe kāpara rānei), he kauri kāpia, he ahi tā moko (he ruangārehu rānei).

Te paura me te waituhi Iniana

I te maunga o te pū ki Aotearoa, ka whakamahia te puehu  matā nā te panoni o te tae ki te kikorangi; i te tānga ki te kiri. Nāwai ka riro te waituhi Iniana; ā, ka whakakotahi ki ngā wai ngārahu tūturu a te Māori.

He mea whakamahi tētahi momo umu, kātahi ka tāuwhia ki te harakeke me te toetoe hei pākati i te pungarehu. Ko ēnei pungarehu ka kohia; ā, whenumia atu ki te hinu, ki te wai rānei o te hīnau, o te māhoe, o te tī, o te kāretu me te poroporo; kia kōpē ai. Ka kīia tēnei mahi he whakataerangi. Whai muri rawa taupokina ai ki te kiri kiore, kiri manu rānei kia kore ai e maroke. He mea waiho anō te wai ngārahu ki ngā ipu whakairo hoata, rākau rānei.

Ka naomia hoki te āwheto (āwheto hōtete rānei) hei kīnaki mō te mahi i te wai ngārahu. Ka tahuna pērā i te rākau kāpia, ā, ko aua hinu, wai anō rā ka whakamahia hei hanga i te wai ngārahu. Ka hanumia anō te wai māhoe hei whakauriuri i te wai ngārahu mō te tā moko.

Uhi

He uhi te whao mō te tā i te moko; arā, mō te whakaawaawa i te kiri kia hōhonu ai. He āhuatanga tēnei ka kitea anake ki te ao Māori. He mea patupatu ēnei moko ki runga ki te kiri kanohi; ānō nei he rākau e whakairoirotia ana.

He taonga whakairoiro te uhi i hangaia tuatahitia ki ngā kōiwi manu tai. Ka kīia ēnei ko Te Uhi a Mataora. Ki ētahi rohe ka kīia ko Te Uhi a Toroa. He kōrero tēnei ka hoki ki te manu toroa, ā, ka tangohia mai ana wheua hei hanga i te uhi. Waihoki ki ō rātou uri o Te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa, anō nei he heru ētahi uhi, ā, ko tēnei ka wero i te wai ngārahu ki roto i te kiri. Ka kīia tēnei momo uhi he uhiu matarau. He papatahi te mata o te uhi kōhiti.

Te tā i te moko

E ai ki a Te Pēhi, tuatahi, ka tuhia te moko ki te kanohi mā te whakamahi i te ngārahu me te wai. I te whaonga o te moko, ka toua te uhi ki te wai ngārahu, kātahi ka patupatua ki te kuru iti, ki te tātā aruhe. He ‘māhoe’ tēnei kuru, kei tōna mata anō tētahi wāhanga mō te ūkui i te toto. Ko tētahi atu mahi a te tohunga, he tākai i tōna mati ki te iho o te harakeke hei ūkui anō i te toto.

Kāre i ārikarika ngā momo tūāhua tā i te wai ngārahu. Ki tā Horatio Robley he mea pēpēhi te wai ngārahu ki roto ki te kiri mā te whakamahi i te muka (harakeke) kua oti noa te tou ki roto ki te wai ngārahu. Ko James Cowan i kōrero mō te tātā rākau i toua ki te wai ngārahu kātahi ka tuhia ki runga ki te moko.

Te whakamahi i ngā nēra, okaoka, korohete hoki

Ko ngā uhi maitai tuatahi ka hangā ki ngā nera tapawhā koikoi, i ngā hupa rino rānei. Ko te tohunga tā moko o Mangatāwhiri, ko Anaru Makiwhara. I hangā ōna uhi ki ngā maitai o ngā korohete a ngā wāhine.

Ngā uhi maitai

Mai ka tau tuatahi te Pākehā ka rerekē haere te ao Māori, engari mau tonu iho ētahi tūāhua ahakoa te hounga mai o ngā hangarau hou. Mō te horopaki o te tā moko, ka tauiratia te whānui haere ake o te here i ngā whao (chisels) ki ngā kakau uhi, me te kaha whakamahi i te mata papatahi.

Waihoki ki te mahi whakairo, ka tohunga ake te wairua auaha o ngā moko i te raweketanga ki ngā whao maitai. Nō konei ka waiwaiā ngā kamo i te tirohanga atu ki te toi Māori. Ka mutu ka hōhonu ake ngā awaawa, ka pūkengatia ake ngā hoahoa. Heoi, he nui ake te maringi o te toto, ā, kei pirau hoki te kiko.

Ngira

Nō te Pakanga Tuatahi o te Ao kua whakakapi te ngira tuitui i te whao mō te tā moko; ka tere ake te tānga, kāore i mamae, ā, he tere ake te mahu. Nō konei ka whakamāui ake te moko, kāti i ngā tau 1930 e tino ora ana te tā moko, ahakoa ngā hahani a ētahi ki te whakamahinga o te ngira. Ko te āhua ia i ahu mai tēnei whakapae i ngā uri o rātou mā i tāia ki te uhi maitai me te uhi rino.

Kei runga noa atu te ngira mō te tā i te kiri, ka mutu i ēnei rā kei ngā mīhini tā moko te ngira e kitea ana. Ko tēnei te whao pai ake e whakamahia ana e ngā tohunga tā moko nā rātou tēnei taonga i whakaora i te pito o te rautau 1900.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Rawinia Higgins, 'Tā moko - Te hangarau tā moko', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/ta-moko/page-2 (accessed 28 May 2019)

Story by Rawinia Higgins, published 5 Sep 2013