Kōrero: Ngā uniana

Whārangi 1. Ngā kaimahi Māori i te taiwhenua me ngā uniana

Ngā whakaahua

Mai anō i te tīmatanga, i whai wāhi kakama ngā kaimahi Māori i ngā uniana o Aotearoa, me kī, i ngā tūmomo mahi he tini ngā kanohi Māori.

Te whai mahi

Ka tīmata te kuhukuhu a te Māori ki ngā mahi whai utu i te wā ka paheke te kaha o ngā iwi. Nā ngā mahi rauhanga me te ture, ka tangohia e te kāwanatanga te nui o te whenua Māori; otirā, tae rawa ki te tau 1921 kua heke iho i te e 26.8 miriona heketea ki te 3.4 miriona heketea. Whāia, ko te nuinga o ngā whenua i mahue ki te Māori he tūpuhi rawa, he iti rawa mō ngā take ahuwhenua, ka mutu he nui rawa te hunga ka whai pānga. Hei tā te tohunga hītori a Michael King, ko ngā kaimahi Māori i ngā tau i mua i te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao, ‘he kaimahi i ngā taiwhenua, ko ētahi o rātou ka whai whenua engari kīhai i te mahia; ko ētahi ka noho whenua kore.’1 Nāwai ā, ka whāiti ngā mahi ka whiwhi ngā kaimahi Māori ki ngā mahi rangitahi me kī, ngā mahi i tēnā kaupeka i tēnā kaupeka o te tau, ngā mahi tūmatanui me ngā mahi horoi whare, whakapaipai kāinga. Ka noho te nuinga o ngā mahi kanataraki (mai i te kupu Pākehā ‘contract’) ki ngā whānau – tāne mai, wāhine mai, tamariki mai.

Tū kotahi

Atu i te tau 1909, he kaikuti hipi, he āpiha uniana a Bob Tūtaki ki ngā takiwā i Taihape me Te Matau-a-Māui. I hāpai a ia i te whakatūnga o te Uniana o ngā Kaimahi o Niu Tīreni i te tau 1919, inarā tana kupu, ‘Me tū kotahi tātou i runga i te whakaaro kotahi ... me haere ngātahi tātou katoa, kia mau ki te kupu, “Tātou tātou”.’2  Ka eke a Tūtaki hei kaiwhakahaere, hei mema o te kaunihera whakahaere o te uniana. I kaha anō a ia ki te Rōpū Reipa. I te tau 1928 ka whakataetae a ia ki a Āpirana Ngata mō te rohe pōti Māori o Te Tai Rāwhiti.

Te Uniana Whakakotahi i ngā Kaikuti Hipi me ngā Ihu Oneone

Nō ngā tau tōmua o te tekau tau atu i 1850 ka tīmata te Māori te kuhukuhu ki ngā mahi kuti hipi. E ai ki ngā tuhituhi, i Pētane i Te Matau-a-Māui i te tau 1863 te wā tuatahi ka whakakotahi ngā kaikuti hipi Māori ki te tono kia nui atu ā rātou utu.

Nō te paheketanga o te ōhanga i ngā tekau tau o 1870 me 1880, ka whakatūria he peka o Te Uniana Whakakotahi i ngā Kaikuti Hipi me ngā Ihu Oneone o Ahitereiria, ki Aotearoa. Nō te whakamāramatia o ngā tikanga me ngā ture ārahi o te uniana i te reo Māori, ka horo te kuhu a ngā Māori ki te uniana; ka whakaritea ētahi āpiha Māori ki te heri haere i te kaupapa o ngā uniana ki ngā kaikuti puta noa. Tae rawa ki te tau 1914, o ngā mema 4,093 o te Uniana Whakakotahi o ngā Kaikuti Hipi me ngā Ihu Oneone, e 1,000 he Māori – ko te nuinga i Te Matau-a-Māui me Te Tai Rāwhiti.

Nō te tau 1919 ka huri te uniana nei ko te Uniana o Ngā Kaimahi o Niu Tīreni. He wāhi nui tonu tō ngā kaimahi Māori i ngā nekeneke uniana i tēnā wāhi i tēnā wāhi. Ka uru hoki ngā wāhine e mahi ana ki ngā hēte kuti hipi; i te tau 1937, e 500 ngā wāhine i te uniana, tata ki te katoa he Māori.

Te Ture Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration

Nā te Ture Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration o te tau 1894 i whakatenatena te whakatūnga o ngā uniana; i whakahau i ngā kaiwhakawhiwhi mahi me ngā kaimahi kia kimi huarahi whakatau nawe, i whakatakoto i ngā reiti utu me ngā ritenga mahi. Ko te raruraru, kīhai ngā kaikuti hipi, ngā kaipatu mīti me ngā kaipāmu i taka ki raro i te ture nei - nā reira kīhai rātou i āhei ki ngā rongoā i tēnei ture. Whāia, ka uru ngā kaimahi Māori i ngā tuawhenua ki ngā mautohe kia ūhia te Ture nei ki runga i a rātou; nō te tau 1915 ka whai hua ngā kaikuti hipi me ngā kaipatu mīti, ā, nō te tau 1936 ka whai hua ko ngā kaimahi pāmu.

Ngā kaiwhakawhiwhi kino

I te tau 1939, i te hui ā-tau a te Uniana o ngā Kaimahi o Niu Tīreni, ka puta te kōrero a Hiwi Maynard he mema o te kaunihera whakahaere o te uniana, mō te ‘kino’ o te noho o ngā kaimahi i ngā kaupapa ahuwhenua Māori, me te pēhi a ngā rangatira kore take i a rātou.3Hei tāna, kīhai i rite te utu ki tēnā kaimahi, ki tēnā kaimahi; i tua atu, tae ana ki te wā me haukoti ētahi kaimahi mō tētahi wā, hoki atu hoki atu ko aua kaimahi anō ka tukuna.

Ngā kaupapa ahuwhenua

Tae rawa ki te tau 1933, kua pā kino rawa atu te paheketanga o te ōhanga; i taua wā, āwhiwhi e 40 ōrau o ngā kaimahi Māori katoa kīhai i te whai mahi. Me kī, ko te āwhina nui a te kāwanatanga Unaititi me te kāwanatanga Whakakotahitanga, ko ngā kaupapa ahuwhenua Māori. Mā tēnei kaupapa ka āhei ngā iwi te tono pūtea taurewa tūmatanui i te Tari Māori mō ngā kaupapa ahuwhenua, kia taea ai ngā whenua te roherohe me te whakamahi.

Hāunga ēnei āwhina, ka māharahara ngā āpiha Māori o te Uniana o ngā Kaimahi o Niu Tīreni, i te mea kāore i eke ngā utu a ngā Māori ki te utu a ngā Pākehā, ā, he kino rawa atu te āhua o ngā mahi ki ngā Māori, hāunga te rite o ngā mahi. Whāia, ka arumia e rātou te tika. Tere tonu te Kāwanatanga Reipa hou ki te hanga ture kia hōrapa ai ngā uniana ki ngā kaimahi tūmataiti, ki te hiki i ngā utu ki ngā Māori e mahi ana i ngā kaupapa ahuwhenua, kia rite ai ki te utu ka whiwhia ki ngā ihu oneone Pākehā whai muri i te tau 1935. Heoi, nā te Uniana o ngā Kaimahi o Niu Tīreni te mahi nui kia whakamana te ture, kia whai uniana ai ngā kaimahi Māori i ngā kaupapa ahuwhenua.

 

Kupu tāpiri
  1. Michael King, ‘Between two worlds.’ In The Oxford history of New Zealand, edited by Geoffrey W. Rice. 2nd ed. Auckland: Oxford University Press, 1992, p. 290. Back
  2. John E. Martin, Tatau tatau: one big union altogether: the shearers and the early years of the New Zealand Workers’ Union. Wellington: New Zealand Workers’ Union, 1987, p. 58. Back
  3. New Zealand Workers’ Union report of 23rd annual conference, 27 June–3 July 1939, Wellington, p. 101. Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Cybèle Locke, 'Ngā uniana - Ngā kaimahi Māori i te taiwhenua me ngā uniana', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-uniana/page-1 (accessed 23 July 2019)

Story by Cybèle Locke, published 11 Mar 2010