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Ngā uniana – Māori and the union movement

by Cybèle Locke

Mai anō i te tūranga o ngā uniana ki Aotearoa, kuhu ai ngā kaikuti hipi Māori – me kī, nō te wā hurihia ai ngā tikanga me ngā ture ārahi ki te reo Māori. Nāwai ā, ka tū mai ngā kaimahi Māori i ngā whare patu mīti hei wāhanga kaha o ngā uniana.


Māori rural workers and unions

Mai anō i te tīmatanga, i whai wāhi kakama ngā kaimahi Māori i ngā uniana o Aotearoa, me kī, i ngā tūmomo mahi he tini ngā kanohi Māori.

Te whai mahi

Ka tīmata te kuhukuhu a te Māori ki ngā mahi whai utu i te wā ka paheke te kaha o ngā iwi. Nā ngā mahi rauhanga me te ture, ka tangohia e te kāwanatanga te nui o te whenua Māori; otirā, tae rawa ki te tau 1921 kua heke iho i te e 26.8 miriona heketea ki te 3.4 miriona heketea. Whāia, ko te nuinga o ngā whenua i mahue ki te Māori he tūpuhi rawa, he iti rawa mō ngā take ahuwhenua, ka mutu he nui rawa te hunga ka whai pānga. Hei tā te tohunga hītori a Michael King, ko ngā kaimahi Māori i ngā tau i mua i te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao, ‘he kaimahi i ngā taiwhenua, ko ētahi o rātou ka whai whenua engari kīhai i te mahia; ko ētahi ka noho whenua kore.’1 Nāwai ā, ka whāiti ngā mahi ka whiwhi ngā kaimahi Māori ki ngā mahi rangitahi me kī, ngā mahi i tēnā kaupeka i tēnā kaupeka o te tau, ngā mahi tūmatanui me ngā mahi horoi whare, whakapaipai kāinga. Ka noho te nuinga o ngā mahi kanataraki (mai i te kupu Pākehā ‘contract’) ki ngā whānau – tāne mai, wāhine mai, tamariki mai.

Tū kotahi

Atu i te tau 1909, he kaikuti hipi, he āpiha uniana a Bob Tūtaki ki ngā takiwā i Taihape me Te Matau-a-Māui. I hāpai a ia i te whakatūnga o te Uniana o ngā Kaimahi o Niu Tīreni i te tau 1919, inarā tana kupu, ‘Me tū kotahi tātou i runga i te whakaaro kotahi ... me haere ngātahi tātou katoa, kia mau ki te kupu, “Tātou tātou”.’2  Ka eke a Tūtaki hei kaiwhakahaere, hei mema o te kaunihera whakahaere o te uniana. I kaha anō a ia ki te Rōpū Reipa. I te tau 1928 ka whakataetae a ia ki a Āpirana Ngata mō te rohe pōti Māori o Te Tai Rāwhiti.

Te Uniana Whakakotahi i ngā Kaikuti Hipi me ngā Ihu Oneone

Nō ngā tau tōmua o te tekau tau atu i 1850 ka tīmata te Māori te kuhukuhu ki ngā mahi kuti hipi. E ai ki ngā tuhituhi, i Pētane i Te Matau-a-Māui i te tau 1863 te wā tuatahi ka whakakotahi ngā kaikuti hipi Māori ki te tono kia nui atu ā rātou utu.

Nō te paheketanga o te ōhanga i ngā tekau tau o 1870 me 1880, ka whakatūria he peka o Te Uniana Whakakotahi i ngā Kaikuti Hipi me ngā Ihu Oneone o Ahitereiria, ki Aotearoa. Nō te whakamāramatia o ngā tikanga me ngā ture ārahi o te uniana i te reo Māori, ka horo te kuhu a ngā Māori ki te uniana; ka whakaritea ētahi āpiha Māori ki te heri haere i te kaupapa o ngā uniana ki ngā kaikuti puta noa. Tae rawa ki te tau 1914, o ngā mema 4,093 o te Uniana Whakakotahi o ngā Kaikuti Hipi me ngā Ihu Oneone, e 1,000 he Māori – ko te nuinga i Te Matau-a-Māui me Te Tai Rāwhiti.

Nō te tau 1919 ka huri te uniana nei ko te Uniana o Ngā Kaimahi o Niu Tīreni. He wāhi nui tonu tō ngā kaimahi Māori i ngā nekeneke uniana i tēnā wāhi i tēnā wāhi. Ka uru hoki ngā wāhine e mahi ana ki ngā hēte kuti hipi; i te tau 1937, e 500 ngā wāhine i te uniana, tata ki te katoa he Māori.

Te Ture Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration

Nā te Ture Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration o te tau 1894 i whakatenatena te whakatūnga o ngā uniana; i whakahau i ngā kaiwhakawhiwhi mahi me ngā kaimahi kia kimi huarahi whakatau nawe, i whakatakoto i ngā reiti utu me ngā ritenga mahi. Ko te raruraru, kīhai ngā kaikuti hipi, ngā kaipatu mīti me ngā kaipāmu i taka ki raro i te ture nei - nā reira kīhai rātou i āhei ki ngā rongoā i tēnei ture. Whāia, ka uru ngā kaimahi Māori i ngā tuawhenua ki ngā mautohe kia ūhia te Ture nei ki runga i a rātou; nō te tau 1915 ka whai hua ngā kaikuti hipi me ngā kaipatu mīti, ā, nō te tau 1936 ka whai hua ko ngā kaimahi pāmu.

Ngā kaiwhakawhiwhi kino

I te tau 1939, i te hui ā-tau a te Uniana o ngā Kaimahi o Niu Tīreni, ka puta te kōrero a Hiwi Maynard he mema o te kaunihera whakahaere o te uniana, mō te ‘kino’ o te noho o ngā kaimahi i ngā kaupapa ahuwhenua Māori, me te pēhi a ngā rangatira kore take i a rātou.3Hei tāna, kīhai i rite te utu ki tēnā kaimahi, ki tēnā kaimahi; i tua atu, tae ana ki te wā me haukoti ētahi kaimahi mō tētahi wā, hoki atu hoki atu ko aua kaimahi anō ka tukuna.

Ngā kaupapa ahuwhenua

Tae rawa ki te tau 1933, kua pā kino rawa atu te paheketanga o te ōhanga; i taua wā, āwhiwhi e 40 ōrau o ngā kaimahi Māori katoa kīhai i te whai mahi. Me kī, ko te āwhina nui a te kāwanatanga Unaititi me te kāwanatanga Whakakotahitanga, ko ngā kaupapa ahuwhenua Māori. Mā tēnei kaupapa ka āhei ngā iwi te tono pūtea taurewa tūmatanui i te Tari Māori mō ngā kaupapa ahuwhenua, kia taea ai ngā whenua te roherohe me te whakamahi.

Hāunga ēnei āwhina, ka māharahara ngā āpiha Māori o te Uniana o ngā Kaimahi o Niu Tīreni, i te mea kāore i eke ngā utu a ngā Māori ki te utu a ngā Pākehā, ā, he kino rawa atu te āhua o ngā mahi ki ngā Māori, hāunga te rite o ngā mahi. Whāia, ka arumia e rātou te tika. Tere tonu te Kāwanatanga Reipa hou ki te hanga ture kia hōrapa ai ngā uniana ki ngā kaimahi tūmataiti, ki te hiki i ngā utu ki ngā Māori e mahi ana i ngā kaupapa ahuwhenua, kia rite ai ki te utu ka whiwhia ki ngā ihu oneone Pākehā whai muri i te tau 1935. Heoi, nā te Uniana o ngā Kaimahi o Niu Tīreni te mahi nui kia whakamana te ture, kia whai uniana ai ngā kaimahi Māori i ngā kaupapa ahuwhenua.

 

Footnotes
    • Michael King, ‘Between two worlds.’ In The Oxford history of New Zealand, edited by Geoffrey W. Rice. 2nd ed. Auckland: Oxford University Press, 1992, p. 290. Back
    • John E. Martin, Tatau tatau: one big union altogether: the shearers and the early years of the New Zealand Workers’ Union. Wellington: New Zealand Workers’ Union, 1987, p. 58. Back
    • New Zealand Workers’ Union report of 23rd annual conference, 27 June–3 July 1939, Wellington, p. 101. Back

Māori and industrial unions

Ka whakamahia te tini o Ngāi Māori ki ngā mahi wawao i te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao. I te wā o te pahūtanga ōhanga i ngā tekau tau atu i 1950 me 1960 ka heke te iwi Māori ki ngā tāone noho ai.

Ngā kaitorangapū me te tuhi whiti

Ko te kaikauhau a Hone Tūwhare tērā i neke mai te tai tokerau ki Tāmaki. I tīmata tāna mahi akoako hanga kōhua ki ngā rerewe ki Ōtāhuhu i te tau 1939. Tekau-mā-whitu noa iho ōna tau. Ka hono ia ki te Amalgamated Society of Railways Servants i te tau 1942. Nā tōna whakahoahoa ki te rōpū hapori, ka tūtaki a Tūwhare i te kaikauhau i a R. A. K. Mason, te hēkeretari o te Uniana Ihu Oneone. Nāna tonu i akiaki i a Tūwhare kia tuhi whiti. I ngā tau tōmua o 1950, ka hūnuku a Tūwhare me tōna wahine ki Mangakino, ki reira hanga kōhua tonu ai. Nō muri mai ka tū a ia hei mema matua mō te peka o Ātiamuri ki te Uniana o ngā Kaimahi o Niu Tīreni.

Nō te tau 1966, e 70 ōrau o Ngāi Māori ka whakarere i ngā mahi taiwhenua ki ngā mahi whakangao, kawe ō, ihu oneone hoki. Nā tō rātou mahi ki roto i ngā mahi whare patu mīti, whare kani rākau, whakatika rori, kawe tāngata, waihanga me ngā momo mahi wheketere, he tokomaha rātou ka tūhono ki ngā uniana kaipatu mīti, ihu oneone, wahapū, hautū waka hoki. Kāre ngā uniana mahi i pupuri i ngā ingoa o ā rātou mema Māori, heoi i te tau 1963 ka whakapae te Uniana o ngā Ihu Oneone o Tāmaki, e 1,000 te tokomaha o ā rātou mema Māori – hauwhā o te nuinga mema ā-motu.

Te katinga o ngā whare patu mīti

Whai muri i te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao ka tūhono a Terry Wesley hei taraketi mō te uniana ki te whare patu mīti ki Burnside, kei Otepoti. Nā Wesley ka pai ake ngā āhuatanga mahi me ngā reiti utu mō ngā mahi katoa. Nāwai ka tū a ia hei hekeretari mō te uniana. Nā te pai rawa ki te mahi nei, ka panā a Wesley, ōna hoa, ōna whanaunga e te New Zealand Refrigeration Company, katia ai ngā whare patu mīti ki a rātou.

Ngā Māori mahi wāpu

Ka whai kanohi ngā kaimahi wāpu Māori ki ngā Uniana Mahi Taha Moana ki ngā rohe ki tai pērā i a Whakatāne, Ōpōtiki, Waikōkopu me Tokomaru. Tino uaua nei te kohikohi tāngata nā te kore hiahia o te uniana te tuhi i ā rātou pānui ki te reo Māori. Heoi anō, he nui rawa ngā Māori i tūhono ki ngā uniana ki Tāmaki kia waihangatia ai te Uniana Kaimahi Māori Taha Moana i te tekau tau 1940. Ko te kāpene o mua mō te kapa Kiwi ko Steve Wātene tērā te tiamana o mua, ā, ko F. Chapman te hēkeretari. I te tekau tau 1940, ka whakapau kaha a Wātene ki te āwhina i ngā tāngata kātahi nei ka neke ki ngā tāone. I te tau 1951 ka huri haere ia ki ngā rohe i te wā o te pākati mahi wāpu ki te whakawehi i ngā Māori ki ngā tūranga mahi tērā ka pūare nā te mautohe.

Te whutupaoro, ngā whakairo me ngā uniana

Ko Rangi Paenga o Ngāti Porou tērā i whai tūranga ki te Uniana Patu Mīti ki Kaitī. Koia te Māori tuatahi kia kōwhiringia ki te kaunihera o te tāone o Tūranga i te tau 1969. I ngākaunui a ia ki te karapu ngahau o te whare patu mīti o Kaiti, ngā tākaro whutupaoro me te kura ako whakairo. Ko Mone Taumaunu tērā i ako i te whakairo ki te Māori me te Pākehā. I āwhina a Paenga kia tū te peka o te Uniana Kaimahi Mīti ki Te Tai Rāwhiti i te tau 1971. I te tau 1976, ka noho ia hei perehitini mō te Uniana Kaimahi Mīti o Aotearoa.

Ngā uniana whare patu mīti

Nō te tekau tau 1920, ka whai kaha ngā Māori ki ngā uniana patu mīti, tae rawa ake ki Te Tai Rāwhiti; hei tauira, e 70 ōrau o te Uniana Patu Mīti o Tokomaru he Māori. He tino kaha tērā peka, nā te reo rua o ngā hui, me te kaha tautokona e ngā hapori Māori pērā i a Tokomaru.

Nō te tekau tau atu i 1970, ko te nuinga o ngā kaimahi ihu oneone ki Te Ika-a-Māui he Māori. Ko ngā iwi o ngā moutere anō tērā i whai tūranga ki ngā mahi patu mīti ki Tāmaki me Ocean Beach ki Murihiku. I ngā tekau tau atu i 1960 me 1970 ka whai mahi ki Ocean Beach ngā Māori mai i Hokianga, Te Māhia, Te Tai Rāwhiti, tae atu ki ngā Māori mai i Mangaia, me ngā Kuki Airani.

Ka tū ētahi kaimahi patu mīti Māori hei taraketi ki ngā kaunihera mahi ā-rohe, tae rawa ake ki te Gisborne Trade Council. I runga a Wai Hamon me Rangi Paenga i te komiti whakahere o te kaunihera atu i ngā tau pokapū o 1960.


Māori women and unions

Ka kuhu hoki ngā wāhine Māori ki ngā mahi i ngā tāone. Tae rawa ki te tau 1966, 38 o ngā kaimahi hanga (kākahu, papanga hoki) he wāhine Māori, e 21 ōrau he kaimahi tari, e 27 ōrau hoki o ngā kaimahi kāwanatanga. Ka tūhono rātou ki ngā tūmomo uniana. I te tau 1969, he nui ngā wāhine i roto i ngā uniana i ngā mahi hoahoa, horoi kaka, nēhi niho, wheketere pihikete tiakarete, i ngā mahi tūpeka, mahi ki roto toa, hōtera, wharekai hoki. I te tau 1969, 29 ōrau (103,891) o ngā mema uniana he wāhine; hautoru i te uniana mahi tari. Heoi, kāore i tokomaha ngā kaiārahi wahine i ngā uniana, ka mutu, ruarua rawa ngā wāhine Māori.

Kōkiri i te wā e wera ana te haeana

I kī te mema uniana a Joyce Hawe i aro a ia me ōna hoa kaimahi hanga kaka ki ngā uniana whai muri i tētahi mautohe mō te utu: ‘Ia rā, ia rā ka kōrerorero mātou mō te uniana. Nō te mea, kei ō mātou te kaha ki te whakamutu i tā mātou mahi. Koira anake tō mātou kahanga.’1 Ahakoa kei te kāinga ngā whānau, me te mahi i ngā haora e 8 ki te 10 i ia rā, he nui ngā wāhine ka kuhu ki ngā hui uniana whai muri i te mautohe.

Ngā uniana kaimahi tuitui kākahu

Ko Joyce Hawe tērā o Te Arawa, he kaimahi mīhini ki Progress Manufacturing ki Porirua. I kake a ia ki ngā tūranga teitei o te Uniana o Pōneke mō ngā Kaimahi Tuitui Kākahu. Nō muri i tētahi mautohe mō te utu nāna i kōkiri, ka piki haere a ia i ngā tūranga o te uniana i te tekau tau atu i 1960. I te tau 1970, ka tū a ia hei perehitini tuarua mō te Uniana o Pōneke mō ngā Kaimahi Tuitui Kākahu, ā, i te tau atu i 1976, ka eke hei kaiwhakarite. Ko ia te wahine Māori tuatahi kia tu hei mema matua o te Tōpūtanga o ngā Kaimahi o Aotearoa i te tau 1981.

Ngā uniana kaimahi tari

Tae rawa ki te tekau tau atu i 1980, e 22 ōrau o ngā wāhine Māori e kuhu ana i roto tari. I te tau 1985, ka kowhiringia a Helena Schenkel hei perehitini mō te Uniana o ngā Kaimahi Tari o Waitaha. Koia te wahine tuatahi ki te tūranga perehitini i ngā tau e 47. Ka tuhono a Schenkel ki te uniana i a ia e mahi ana hei kaiwhakahaere wheketere i Watties. Ka tu a ia ki te komiti Māori o te Tōpūtanga o ngā Kaimahi o Aotearoa, waihoki, ka tū a ia i te taha o te Bruce Bay Trust ki te whakahē i te keri koura ki ngā whenua Māori ki Te Tai Poutini. Ā koia te perehitini o Rākau Te Kura, he peka o te Rōpū Wāhine Toko i te Ora.

Te whakamutu i te whakaiti wahine

I roto a Helena Schenkel i te Uniana o ngā Kaimahi Tari, i hāpai i te mana o te wahine i ngā āki o ngā kaimahi tāne taikaha. Hei tāna, kāore ētahi o ngā kaimahi wāhine tamariki ake i te matatau ki ngā rerenga kōrero pēhi pērā i te kōrero, ‘Kia ora rā kōtiro ātaahua, kei te pēhea koe kare.’ Ka mate ngā wāhine te huri tuarā ki ērā tū momo kupu whakawhiu, te whārere ō rātou tūranga mahi rānei, te kōrero rānei ki ngā pirihimana. Heoi, ko te kōrero nui pea, mā ngā tikanga me ngā ture tiaki kaimahi kē hei whakamarumaru i a rātou ngā wāhine.

Hei whakautu i ngā āki a ngā mema Māori, ka tīmata te Uniana o ngā Kaimahi Tari o te Puku i ngā akoranga ārai i te kaikiri i te tau 1987, te tautoko i ngā kaupapa Māori i te uniana, me te hāpai i ngā rā whakatā mō ngā tangihanga, me te rapu i tētahi kaiwhakahaere Māori.

Ngā uniana mō ngā kaimahi hōtera, hōhipera, wharekai hoki

I ngā tau pokapū o 1980, ka tokomaha ake ngā wāhine Māori i whai wāhi ki ngā uniana hōtera, hōhipera, wharekai hoki. Nā ngā mahi mautohe me ngā aukatinga a ngā uniana, ka oho ake te wairua hihiko o ngā kaimahi wāhine; i tua atu, ka nui atu ngā Māori me ngā wāhine ka tū hei āpiha uniana.

I te tau 1986 ka tonoa e te Uniana o ngā Kaimahi Hōtera ngā taraketi 20 ki te Hui a Ngā Kaimahi Māori. He wāhine ngā kaikōrero e toru i tohua e te uniana kia kauhau ki te hui – ko Wikitōria Paaka, ko Celia Akapita, ko Sonja Harmer. I tae anō a Marie Normile, hekeretari o te Uniana o ngā Kaimahi Hōtera o Te Matau a Māui. Neke atu i te 400 ngā taraketi i te hui wānanga. I kōrerotia, ka mutu i whakakorengia he mōtini kia tū motuhake ngā kaimahi Māori ki tō rātaou ake uniana. Ko te whakaaro o te hui kia kaha te hāpai i ngā take Māori i roto i ngā uniana kei te tū.

Footnotes
  1. Joyce Hawe, interview by Shaun Ryan, 14 and 16 September 1999. Trade union oral history project, Oral History Centre, Alexander Turnbull Library. Back

Recession: 1970s–1990s

Ka piki te koremahi i te tekau tau atu i 1970 – mai i te 5,000 i te tau 1976 ki te 48,000 i te tau 1981. Ka pā kino te paheketanga ki ngā mahi hanga, ngā wheketere me ngā toa. Ko Ngāi Māori me ngā iwi o ngā moutere te nuinga o te hunga mahi i ēnei mahi. I te tau 1981, e 10.4 ōrau o te hunga mahi he Māori, engari e 31 ōrau o te hunga koremahi he Māori.

Hinganga nui 

Ko ngā kaimahi Māori, te nuinga ki te whare patu mīti o Whakatū ki Heretaunga, tatū noa ki te katinga i te marama o Oketopa i te tau 1986. Ka whakamārama ake tētahi o ngā taraketi uniana ō mua o Whakatū, a Wayne Elgart: ‘Ka hīkoi haere au i te wāhi o te tīni runga rawa, kātahi ka titiro iho; kāthi tētahi mea rerekē ko te āhua o tētahi whare mahi kua kati, pēnei i a Whakatū. Ka tangi ririki au, mō ngā kaimahi, mō ngā whānau, mō te ahumahi patu mīti puta i tēnei whenua.’1 

Ka kake te hunga koremahi kua rēhita mā te 146 ōrau mai i ngā tau 1984 ki 1990. Tae ake ki te tau 1992, e 26 ōrau o ngā kaimahi Māori te noho koremahi. Ka kore he mahi a te tangata, ka kore hoki tōna tū hei mema uniana. Ka heke te rahi o ngā mema uniana i te rāngai tūmataiti mā te e 40,000 i ngā tau 1982 ki te 1989; e 30,000 te hekenga o ngā kaimahi uniana i te rāngai tūmatanui i ngā tau atu i te 1985 ki te tau 1989.

Ka hoki ētahi o ngā kaimahi Māori ki ō rātou marae, ko ētahi i whakatū rōpū, ko ētahi ka kuhu ki te uniana o ngā kaimahi kāore he mahi. I te tau 1985, haurua o ngā mema o tēnei uniana o ngā kaimahi he Māori.

Ngā porotū mō te utunga whakamutu moata

He rite te tū o ngā porotū i te tekau tau atu i 1980, ko te nuinga hei ātete i te whakahekenga o ngā utu ki ngā kaimahi, hei rapu rānei i te utunga whakamutu moata mō ngā kaimahi kāore he mahi. I waenganui i te tau 1986 me te tau 1990, ka poroa te haurua (āwhiwhi e 15,000) o ngā tūranga mahi i ngā whare patu mīti. Ohorere te katinga, te whakapakupakutanga rānei o ngā whare patu mīti. He roa te wā e tohe ana, e porotū ana te Uniana o ngā Kaimahi Patu Mīti o Aotearoa me te Uniana o ngā Kaipatu Mīti o Tāmaki-makau-rau me te Uniana o ngā Kaipatu Mīti o Tomoana kia whiwhi ai ngā kaimahi patu mīti i whakakorengia ai ā rātou tūranga mahi, ki tētahi utunga whakamutu moata pai.

Te hāpai i ngā tika ki te whenua 

I te tekau tau atu i 1970, nā runga i ngā whakatenatena a te perehitini o te uniana a Ben Matthews, ka kuhu ngā kaimahi o te whare patu mīti o Gear i Pito-one (Petone) ki ngā take whenua Māori. I te tau 1978, ka eke ngā kaimahi ki runga i te pahi o te uniana, ka haere ki te Whare Pāremata ki te whakahē i te mauherenga o ngā tāngata Māori e 17 i noho ki te papa haupāoro o Raglan i Whāingaroa. Ko te hiahia o te hunga mautohe nei kia whakahokia taua whenua ki a Tainui Awhiro. Whāia, nō te mauheretanga o ngā tāngata e 222 mō te noho mautohe ki runga o Takaparawhā (Bastion Point), ka puta ngā kaimahi i ngā whare patu mīti ki te hīkoi i ngā tiriti o Te Whanganui-a-Tara hei tautoko i ngā Māori o Ōrākei. 

Me kī pēnei, ko ngā kaimahi Māori te pakihiwi kaha o te uniana i te whare patu mīti o Gear i Pito-one i Te Whanganui-a-Tara; Ko Ben Matthews te perehitini o te uniana. Whakahaerengia ai ngā hui a te uniana anō kei runga i te marae. Nō te tau 1981, i te kaupeka o te tau kei te kati ngā whare patu mīti, ka katia noatia e

Footnotes
  1. The meat industry: strategies for change: a union study, Wellington: Meat Industry Study and Trade Union Education Authority, 1988, p. 35. Back

Māori and national union politics

I whakatūria te Tōpūtanga o ngā Kaimahi o Aotearoa i te tau 1937 hei māngai mō ngā uniana ahumahi ā-motu. Ko Bob Tūtaki anake te Māori i te hui tuatahi.

He pōturi ngā uniana ki te whakatakoto tikanga hei hāpai i ngā tāngata Māori ki ngā tūranga teitei, me te aha ka puta ngā ātete a ētahi i ngā uniana ki te whanaketanga a te Māori. I te tau 1983 ka whakatūria e te Tōpūtanga o ngā Kaimahi o Aotearoa tētahi komiti ārahi i ngā take uniana ka pā ki ngā kaimahi Māori me ngā kaimahi nō Te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa kia aha ai, kia whai reo ai rātou ki ngā take uniana ā-motu. Ko Jackson Smith te hēkeretari o te Uniana o ngā Kaitaraiwa o Te Whanganui-a-Tara, nāna te hui tuatahi i karanga. Ko Syd Jackson te hēkeretari o te Uniana o ngā Kaimahi Tari o Tāmaki-makau-rau i aua rā, ā, koia ka eke hei hēkeretari tuatahi o te komiti. Nō te tau 1985 ka unuhia te taha ki ngā kaimahi o te Moananui-a-Kiwa, kia whāiti ai te komiti ki ngā take Māori anake. I te tau 1987 ka hono te Tōpūtanga o ngā Kaimahi o Aotearoa me te Kotahitanga o ngā Uniana Tari Kāwanatanga kia tū ake ko te Kauae Mahi. Ka puritia ai te komiti Māori ā-motu, ka tāpiri atu i ngā māngai Māori e rua ki te komiti ā-motu.

Ngā mautohe Māori me ngā uniana

Nō te tekau tau atu i 1970, ka tīmata te kuhukuhu a ngā rangatahi Māori mai i ngā tāone ki ngā rōpū mautohe Māori pērā i a Ngā Tamatoa. Ka tohe rātou kia nui atu te reo Māori ki ngā uniana.

Ko Syd Jackson o Ngāti Kahungunu tētahi o ngā mema tōmua o Ngā Tamatoa; he tangata pūmau ki ngā uniana me te mana motuhake Māori. Ka tipu ka pakari tōna taha uniana i te tekau tau atu i 1960 i ngā whare patu mīti o Tomoana me Whakatū me te peka o te Uniana o ngā Kaimahi Papa Rākau i Kāingaroa. Nāwai ā, ka tū a ia hei āpiha o te uniana huri haere i ngā wāhi mahi, ā, nō te tau 1979 ka kake a ia hei hēkeretari o te Uniana o ngā Kaimahi Tari o Tāmaki-makau-rau. Ko te mahi a Syd Jackson he whakamōhio atu ki ngā mema uniana mō ngā take Māori me te whakatenatena i ngā kaimahi Māori kia tū hei taraketi, kia tono rānei mō ngā tūranga ā-motu i ngā uniana.

Ngā tautohetohe

Tino pakari ngā tautohetohenga i te Hui a ngā Kaimahi o Aotearoa. Hei tā tētahi taraketi o Te Pūkenga Here Tikanga Mahi, ‘Ki te kore e āhei ngā nawe a te Māori te whakatikatika mā ngā hanganga o nāianei – ko tāku e whakapae ai ka pērā – kāti, he tika tonu kia whai ngā Māori i tō rātou ake huarahi.’1 Ka whakautua taua wero e tētahi o te Uniana o ngā Kaimahi Hōtera o Te Matau ā Māui, ‘Ki te whatīia tētahi o ōna peka, ka hē te tū o te rākau.’2

Te Hui a ngā Kaimahi Māori o Aotearoa

Ka kuhu ai ngā Māori ki ngā tūranga i ngā uniana, ka piki haere, ka piki haere i roto i aua uniana, ka puta te hōhā nō te mea kīhai ngā uniana i te paku aro ake ki ngā take a te Māori. Nā tēnei kore aronga ki ngā kaupapa nui ki te Māori, ka toko te whakaaro ki ētahi kia whakatūria he uniana motuhake ki te Māori. I te tau 1986 ka tū te Hui a ngā Kaimahi Māori o Aotearoa ki te wānanga i te take nei. Neke atu i te e 400 ngā taraketi Māori ka tae ake ki te hui, mai i te rāngai tūmataiti me te rāngai tūmatanui. Ka roa te haere o ngā kōrero, ā, ka puta te whakatau kia kaua e wehe atu, engari me mātua tautoko te Tōpūtanga o ngā Kaimahi o Aotearoa me te Kotahitanga o ngā Uniana Tari Kāwanatanga i te mana motuhake Māori, kia nui atu ngā māngai Māori o te uniana, kia kakama te tahuri ki ngā take nui ki te Māori.

Ko te otinga o ēnei nekenekehanga, ka whai nōhanga te komiti Māori me te komiti o ngā wāhine ki runga i te kaunihera ā-motu me te komiti ā-motu o te Tōpūtanga o ngā Kaimahi o Aotearoa. Puritia ai ēnei tika i te whakatūnga o te Kauae Kaimahi.

Uniana nui whakaharahara

He tangata pūmau a Matt McCarten i ōna rā ki te rōpū tōrangapū o Alliance me ngā rōpū tōrangapū Māori. Taka rawa iho ki ngā tau tōmua o te tekau tau atu i 2000, ko McCarten te hēkeretari o Unite, he uniana mō ngā kaimahi i ngā mahi iti nei te utu kei ngā momo ahumahi. Ko ētahi o ngā rautaki a Unite ko te ‘super-size my pay’, kia nui atu te utu ki ngā kaimahi i ngā whare hoko kai tere. Kua āta tohu te uniana nei ki ngā take uniana i te hangatanga o tētahi kiore nui whakaharahara e 6 mita te tāroaroa me tana pānui e mea ana, ‘Kaua e rite ki te kiore! Kia tika te tiaki i ngā kaimahi.’

Mai i te tau 1980 ki te tekau tau atu i 2000

Hei ngā tekau tau o 1980 me 1990, ko ngā kaimahi i ngā mahi iti te utu, kāore he pūkenga, ko ērā kaimahi ngā mea kāore tonu pea i raro i te whakamarumarutanga o tētahi uniana, ka mutu, ko ērā kaimahi kāore i kore he Māori, nō ngā moutere rānei o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa.

I te tekau tau atu i 2000, ka whai ngā Māori i ngā tauira mō te whawhai kia nui atu ngā utu me te āhua o ngā mahi mō ngā kaimahi kāore i arongia nuitia. Nā Robert Popata rāua ko Megan Jones te Kotahitanga Uniana i waihanga. Ka ako rāua i ngā āpiha uniana mā te hari i taua hunga ki Waitangi. Ki tā rāua titiro, ko Te Tiriti o Waitangi te whakaaetanga kotahitanga tuatahi ki Aotearoa, ka mutu, ka noho te tiriti hei whakatūpatotanga mō ngā putanga kētanga ki te hē tētahi kirimana whakakotahi.

Kei te kaha tonu ngā taraketi, ngā kaiwhiriwhiri me ngā kaiwhakaako Māori o ngā uniana ki te hāpai i te tikanga o ngā uniana ki te iwi Māori. Hei tā Justin Dick o te Uniana o ngā Kaimahi Wheketere Miraka, ‘He ara pai te ara o ngā uniana, kia taea ai te tū ki te wāhi kotahi. Mēnā ka tareka e tātou te whakaatu ki te iwi i te mea he kaha te uniana ki te tautoko me te manaaki i ngā rangatahi kei te kuhu ki ngā mahi, ka kite ahau i ngā hua ka puta ki te Māori.’3

Footnotes
  1. Quoted in PSA Journal, 16 April–20 May 1986, liftout supplement. Back
  2. Socialist Action, 28 March 1986. Back
  3. Te Runanga o Ngā Kaimahi Māori o Aotearoa, Ngā momo whakaritenga Māori: Māori models of organising, pamphlet accompanying video, 2009. Back

Hononga, rauemi nō waho

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How to cite this page: Cybèle Locke, 'Ngā uniana', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-uniana/print (accessed 26 June 2019)

Story by Cybèle Locke, published 11 Mar 2010