Kōrero: Ngā Toi Hōu

Whārangi 3. Ngā whanaketanga hou

Ngā whakaahua

Te Hoahoa Whare      

Mai i te tekau tau 1950 ka puta ake te toi Māori i ngā mahinga hoahoa whare, toi whakaari hoki. Hei tauira ko te whare karakia o Futuna ki Karori, nā John Scott i hanga. Koinei tētahi o ngā tauira toi nui whakaharahara o te ao hou o Aotearoa. Ko Scott rāua ko Wiremu Taurau Royal (te Māori tuatahi kia tū hei kaihoahoa whare) ētahi o ngā Māori i para i te huarahi mō Rewi Thompson me Rau Hoskins mā. 

Ngā rōpū ā-motu

I te tau 1973 ka tū te hui mō Ngā Kaiwhakairo me ngā Kaituhi Māori o Aotearoa ki Te Kaha i Te Moana-a-Toi. I muri mai i taua hui, ka whakatūria ngā hui ki runga i ngā marae, ā, i whakaaturia ngā momo toi hōu i roto i te āhuru mōwai. Nō muri mai i te tau 1986 ka tapaina te ingoa o Ngā Puna Waihanga ki te rōpū. I te tau 1996 ka waihangatia a Toi Māori Aotearoa hei tāwharau i ngā mahi toi ā-motu. 

Te mahi toi me ngā porotēhi

I maiangi ake te Māoritanga me te ahurea Māori i te hīkoi whenua o te tau 1975 me te whakaturenga o te Ture Tiriti o Waitangi i te tau 1975. Nō konei kitea anō ai ngā werawera a ngā tohunga toi hou a te Māori. He kaupapa nui te tiriti, arā, tā ngā tohungatoi he whakatumatuma ki te motu mō ngā take whenua, take taonga, take ahurea hoki, mā roto mai i ā rātou mahi toi. I whakapau kaha te kaitango whakaahua, a John Miller ki te hopu i ngā mautohe tōrangapū a te Māori mai anō i te tekau tau 1970. 

Te Māori

Nō te tau 1984 ka huataki te hīkoitanga o Te Māori ki Amerika i te Whare Taonga Metropolitan i Te Āporo Nui. He taiopenga nui whakaharahara tēnei, ina rā kua whakakitea te ahurea Māori ki runga ki te atamira o te ao katoa. E ai ki te kaiwhakarite ki a Hirini Moko Mead, ‘Nā te heri i ā mātou puiaki nui ki Te Āporo Nui, ka piki ake te mana o te toi Māori ki te kāinga, me tāwāhi hoki.’1

Ahakoa rā, ka whakahē ētahi tohungatoi hou ki te korenga e kitea ngā taonga i mahia i muri i te rautau 1900. Ka whakapaetia ākene koirā te wā i mutu ai ngā mahi toi Māori, he hē noa iho rānei ngā mahi toi o muri mai. Ka whakahē hoki ngā kairaranga i te korenga e whakaatu atu i ngā toi raranga. Nō te hokinga mai o Te Māori i tāwāhi whakauru wawetia ai ngā toi hou me ngā mahi raranga a te Māori hei whakamahu ake i ngā taotū i rangona e ētahi. 

Ngā tohunga wāhine

I te tau 1988 ka whakaputaina te puka o A womens picture book: 25 women artists of Aotearoa (New Zealand). Ko tā ngā ētita kia whakaurua ngā tohungatoi rongonui pērā i a Irihāpeti Ramsden rātou ko Jacqueline Fraser me Robyn Kahukiwa. Heoi kīhai rātou i whakaae atu i tā rātou titiro e whatiia ana ētahi tapu i roto i te puka rā. I te mutunga iho, e rua noa iho ngā wāhine i whakaae atu ki te puka, ko Marilyn Webb rāua ko Lyndsay Rongokea. 

Ngā toi a ngā wāhine Māori

I ara ake ngā autaia tohungatoi wāhine i te tekau tau 1970 i ngā pānekeneketanga a ngā tuawāhine toi i tāwāhi. Nā runga i ngā mahi a Kura Te Waru Rewiri, a, Emare Karaka, a Diane Prince me Shona Rāpira Davies mā, ka piki te mana o ngā wāhine tohungatā, kaihanga uku hoki. Ka tū whakahī a Robyn Kahukiwa i ōna tānga e kīia ana ko Wahine Toa: Women of Māori Myth 1984 (i whakaputaina hoki te puka i tuhia e Patricia Grace).

Ahakoa ēnei mahi, nō te whakaitinga o te mana o ngā wāhine ki raro i ngā tāne i  te whakaaturanga o te Taiwhanga Toi o te Motu i te tau 1990, arā, a Kohia ko Taikākā Anake, ka whakarērea e ngā wāhine te kaupapa hei mautohe i te āhua o tā rātou whakaitinga. Ko te tauira nui o tērā urupū toa (i te whakanuitanga o te 150 tau o te Tiriti o Waitangi) ko te waihangatanga o te ‘whare tangata’ o ‘Hineteiwaiwa’ e te Kohinga o Haeata i te whakaaturanga o Mana Tiriti i te Taiwhanga Toi o Te Whanganui-a-Tara.

I whai kanohi maha hoki te wahine Māori i te whakaaturanga o Te Waka Toi ki Amerika i te tau 1992 me te tau 1993. Nō konā ka taka mai ngā tohungatoi ki raro i te kārangatanga o ngā toi ‘hou’, pērā i ngā kairaranga taketake a Rangimārie Hetet, a Erenora Puketapu, a Emily Schuster me Diggeress Te Kanawa, tae atu ki ngā kaiwhakairo taketake, ki a Lyonel Grant me Riki Manuel. Waihoki ko ērā o ngā tohungatoi kua roa e whai ana i ngā mātauranga toi a tauiwi. 

Kupu tāpiri
  1. Takitaki ‘Te Māori exhibition opens in New York.’ NZHistory, http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/te-maori-exhibition-of-traditional-maori-art-opens-at-the-metropolitan-museum-of-art-in-new-york (i tirohia i te 25 Pipiri 2014). Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Jonathan Mane-Wheoki, 'Ngā Toi Hōu - Ngā whanaketanga hou', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-toi-hou/page-3 (accessed 24 August 2019)

Story by Jonathan Mane-Wheoki, published 22 Oct 2014