Kōrero: Ngā Toi Hōu

Whārangi 1. Te tīmatanga o ngā toi hou

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Ngā awe a ngā Mihinare

Ko ngā tūāhua tuatahi i kapohia e te Māori ko ngā whakaahua a te Paipera me ētahi atu whakaaturanga i mauria mai e ngā hāhi me ngā mihinare ki Aotearoa nei. Ko te tauira ko te whakairo  o ‘Madonna’ me tētahi tamaiti i Maketū, nā tētahi Māori (i tahuri hei pononga) i tuku ki te whare karakia i whakatūria i reira i te tau 1845. Ka tere whāwhā atu ki ngā rākau me ngā hangarau hou a te Pākehā hei kīnakitanga mō ana toi. I ngā kura ka ākona ki ngā mātauranga toi o te ao Pākehā.

Kei roto i te whare o Rongopai ngā tūmomo peita rerekē. I hangaia a Rongopai mō te poropiti, kaiārahi hoki, mō Te Kooti, i tōna haere ake ki Waituhi (kei te tapatapa atiu o Tūranga) i te tekau tau 1880. He whakaatu tēnei ki ngā urutaunga mīharo i mahia e ngā tohunga Māori i muri tata i te pānga ki a Tauiwi. 

Ngā tohunga toi 

Nō te rautau 1900 rawa tīmata ai te mahi takitahi a te Māori i waho i te horopaki o te iwi. Ko tētahi kia taunga ki te pukenga papapeita i te tekau tau 1920 ko Ōriwa Tahupōtiki Haddon, he minita Metoiti i whāngaia hoki ki te kai mārō. I te tekau tau i muri mai ka tū ko Rāmai Te Miha (nāwai i karangatia ai ko Rāmai Hayward, ko Patricia Miller rānei) hei kaitango whakaahua Māori tuatahi. He tauira ongeonge ēnei tauira e rua. 

Ngā wharenui i ngā tau tōmua o 1900

Ko ngā whakatutukitanga toi nui a te ao Māori i ngā tau tōmua o te rautau 1900 ko te whakatūnga o ngā whare whakairo o te motu. Koinei te iho o ngā mahi a Ngata, arā, ki te whakarauora i te ahurea Māori mā te whakamāui ake i ngā mea pērā i te toi whakairo, i te toi tukutuku me te toi tāniko. Nō muri mai ka kawea ēnei mahi e te Rōpū Wāhine Māori Toko i te Ora. Ko ētahi o ōna māngai, pērā i a Kahurangi Rangimārie Hetet ētahi o ngā tohunga nui rawa mō ēnei momo toi. 

Te onamata, te inamata me te anamata

I pakeke ake a Darcy Nicholas i runga i te pāmu iti, i raro i te ātaarangi o Maunga Taranaki. E iwa ōna tau ka hokona e ia tāna mahinga toi tuatahi mō te 30 hereni. Nāwai ka rongonui ia hei tohungatā, hei kaiwhakairo hoki, ā, ka whakaritea e ia ngā whakaaturanga ā-ao i hono ai te Māori ki ngā Iniana o Amerika. E ai ki a Nicholas, ‘Ko te mea motuhake a te Māori ko te āheinga ki te toro ki te ao tawhito me te kukume mai i ngā toi ki te ao hou. E rua ngā kete e kawea ai – arā, ko te kete ukiuki … me te kete hou e ahu ana ki tua o te awe māpara. Nā reira e ngana ana te Māori i ngā wā katoa.’1

Ngā whakawai o te Tāone

Nō ngā takahuritanga maha whai muri i te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao ka tirohia anō te whai tikanga o te toi Māori tūturu. Ko te wā tērā i heke nui atu te Māori ki ngā Tāone ki te whai oranga. Nō ngā tekau tau rima tekau, ono tekau hoki ka puta ngā ihu o ngā tauira toi i te whare wānanga. I reira kuraina ai rātou ki ngā mahi, ngā momo toi, ngā kaupapa me ngā taputapu tawhito, hou hoki o te ao toi Pākehā. Ko ētahi o te hunga nei ko Selwyn Wilson rāua ko Arnold Wilson. Ko rāua ngā Māori tuatahi kia whiwhi i te tohu o ngā mahi toi (fine arts). Ko Freda Rankin (nāwai ko Freda Kāwharu) rāua ko Margaret Sampson ngā wāhine Māori kia whiwhi i tēnei tohu. Tokowhā rātou i tū hei kaiako kura tuarua.

Ngā ākonga a Gordon Tovey

Ko te tangata whakahirahira i taua wā ehara i te Māori, ehara hoki i te tohungatā. I waenganui i te tau 1946 me te tau 1966 ko Gordon Tovey te tumuaki ā-motu mō ngā mahi toi o te Tari Mātauranga. Koia te kaiwhakarite o te kaupapa ako i ngā kaiako kura tuatahi ki ngā whakangungu ngaio e pā ana ki te mahi toi. Ko ngā Māori ko Selwyn Wilson rātou ko Fred Graham, ko John Bevan Ford, ko Ralph Hōtere, ko Kāterina Mataira, ko Cliff Whiting, ko Marilynn Webb, ko Paratene Matchitt, ko Sandy Adsett ētahi o ngā tāngata tuatahi i runga i taua waka. 

Nāwai ka puawai ngā ākonga i raro i ēnei kaitohutohu tuatahi. Ki te Tai Tokerau, ko Herewini Murupaenga rāua ko Buck Nin ētahi o ngā whetū maiangi tuatahi kia puta i te kaupapa a Tovey. I muri mai ka whanake i a Buster Black (John Pīhema), arā, he hoatata nō Colin McCahon, i tōna ake tikanga peita i ngā tānga whakarehurehu whenua. 

Kupu tāpiri
  1. Land of my ancestors [ataata mamati]. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Island Productions, 2007. Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Jonathan Mane-Wheoki, 'Ngā Toi Hōu - Te tīmatanga o ngā toi hou', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-toi-hou/page-1 (accessed 15 December 2019)

He kōrero nā Jonathan Mane-Wheoki, i tāngia i te 22 Oct 2014