Kōrero: Ngā Toi Hōu

Whārangi 2. Te toi hou a te Māori, te toi taketake a te Māori

Ngā whakaahua

Te whakaaturanga tuatahi

I māpuna ake te toi hou a te Māori i ngā tau 1950 me 1960 i te hanumitanga o ngā toi taketake ake a te Māori ki ngā toi i takea mai i ngā ariā toi a tauiwi (western modernism), e kīia ana he primitivism, arā, te whakaahua i te wairua ngāwari i te mahi toi. I whai kiko tēnei toi hou i te whakaaturanga o ngā kaiako e rima (a Ralph Hōtere rātou ko Kāterina Mataira, ko Muru Walters, ko Selwyn Wilson me Arnold Wilson) e mahi ana i te Tai Tokerau. I tū te whakaaturanga ki te Whare Mātauranga o Te Whare Wānanga o Tāmaki-makaurau. 

He pātai tuakiri

I te tau 1976, ka whakatau ake a Ralph Hōtere, ‘I whānau, i tipu Māori mai ahau. Mō āku mahi, i tūpono noa iho mai tērā āhuatanga.’1 Nō muri tata nei, ka tōwaitia e Robert Jahnke: He Māori ahau, ā, i ōrua mai te taonga o te mahi toi.’2 He nui ngā tohungatoi Māori o te ao e taupatupatu ana i waenganui i ngā ao e rua. 

Ngā rōpū toi hou o te motu

I te tau 1959 ka whakaae te Pirimia, a Walter Nash kia whakaurua te ahurea ki te marautanga mātauranga. I te tau 1960 ka whakahaere a Gordon Tovey rāua ko te tohunga whakairo a Pine Taiapa i te hui ā-motu ki Ruatōrea. I reira ka taka ngā kaitohutohu toi Māori ki raro i ngā ako a ngā tohunga nui o te motu. Ka whakatū hoki te kāhui ā-motu o ngā tohungatoi. Mai i tēnei hui ka hua ake te rōpū ā-motu mō ngā toi hou a te Māori. Nō te tau 1963 ka tū te Taiopenga Toi Māori tuatahi ki Tūrangawaewae. Koinei te wā tuatahi i whakaaturia ai ngā toi tawhito me ngā toi hou ki te wāhi kotahi. Ka whai hiranga ake ngā toi hou ki te Taiopenga Toi Māori i tū ki Kirikiriroa i te tau 1966.

Te Ahurea Māori me te Ao Hou

I te tau 1966 anō ka whakatūria te whakaaturanga o Te Ahurea Māori o Nāianei ki te Whare Taonga o Ōtautahi. Ko Buck Nin te kaiwhakahaere, ā, i whai atu ngā tohungatoi o Te Tai Tokerau pērā i a Cath Brown rātou ko Jonathan Mane-Wheoki, ko Herewini Murupaenga me Pauline Yearbury. Arā tonu ngā whiuwhiu kōrero i puta i te tāpiritanga o ngā toi Māori hou i te taha o ngā kohinga toi taketake Māori a te whare taonga. 

Te whakamārama i te toi Māori

I te tau 1996 ka mea a Hirini Moko Mead: ‘Ko te toi Māori pea he toi e mau nei te āhua Māori, te wairua Māori me ngā tikanga o te ao Māori. Ko te tohunga toi Māori me Māori tonu, ka mutu me whai whakapapa e kīia ai ana mahi he toi Māori.’3 I runga i tēnei aronga noho momotu ai ngā tohungatoi Māori i ngā Tāone, ahakoa kua angitū kē rātou hei kaihoko, kaikohi, kaiwhakahaere taiwhanga, hei kaikōrero hoki. E ai hoki ki a Cliff Whiting, kāore i tua atu i ngā wharenui Māori hei taiwhanga whakaatu toi. 

Te oranga tonu, te matenga rānei

E haurokuroku ana te noho a te hononga a te toi hou me te toi taketake. Ka tautohetia e ngā kaiwhakaae me ngā kaiwhakahē, mēnā rānei he tohu pai, he tohu kino rānei tēnei hononga. Ki a Kāterina Mataira, he huhua ngā pānga Māori e whakaawe ana i ngā mahi toi a Arnold Wilson rāua ko Paratene Matchitt, ā, he nui ngā whakairo me ngā kōwhaiwhai Māori e whakaurua ana i roto i ngā hoahoa a Muru rātou ko Matchitt me Whiting. Heoi ki te kairīpoata Māori a Harry Dansey, nā te korekore o ngā rākeitanga ā-papa, me te whakamahi i te papa māheniheni, i rerekē ai tēnei tūmomo toi whakairo rākau. I noho rangirua ia ki te āhua o ngā toi a Hōtere me te kī, ‘kāretahi he paku Māoritanga o roto i ana mahi’. Me i kitea e ia, ka pēhea ōna whakaaro ki ngā whakairo tōtōkau a Matt Pine i Ūropi i taua wā?

Nō konei ka noho wehe ētahi tohungatoi hou i ngā toi taketake. I te tau 1961 ka kōrero a Muru Walters, ‘e uruhau tonu ana ngā kaiwhakairo o nāianei ki te whai i ngā tauira  nanahi, me te kore e aro ki tōna tikanga i ēnei rā’.5 I te tau 1967 ka whakatūria a Te Puia ki Te Whakarewarewa i Rotorua. Ko Hone Taiapa te kaiārahi o te whare whakairo, ko Emily Schuster te kaiārahi o te wharepora (i tuwhera i te tau 1969). Kei tēnā, kei tēnā, āna tirohanga mō te kura nei. Ki ētahi he hokinga whakamuri tēnei, engari ki ētahi, he whanaketanga whakamua kē.

Kupu tāpiri
  1. Takitaki Frank Davis, ‘Maori art and artists.’ Education 9 (1976), p. 29. Back
  2. Takitaki ‘Identity and iconography.’ CS Arts Magazine, http://www.cs.org.nz/magazine/february_08/rjahnke (i tirohia i te 23 Pipiri 2014). Back
  3. H. M. Mead, ‘Maori art restructured, reorganised, re-examined and reclaimed.’ He Pukenga Korero 2, no. 1 (1996), p. 4. Back
  4. Harry Dansey, ‘Maori artists make mark as professionals.’ Auckland Star, 3 Mahuru 1966. Back
  5. ‘Muru Walters: a personality study.’ Te Ao Hou 35 (Pipiri 1961), p. 28. Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Jonathan Mane-Wheoki, 'Ngā Toi Hōu - Te toi hou a te Māori, te toi taketake a te Māori', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-toi-hou/page-2 (accessed 22 August 2019)

Story by Jonathan Mane-Wheoki, published 22 Oct 2014