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Contemporary Māori art – ngā toi hōu

by Jonathan Mane-Wheoki

I kapohia ake e te Māori ngā ao e rua, kia hua ake he toi whakahirahira rawa, nō Aotearoa. 


Te tīmatanga o ngā toi hou

Ngā awe a ngā Mihinare

Ko ngā tūāhua tuatahi i kapohia e te Māori ko ngā whakaahua a te Paipera me ētahi atu whakaaturanga i mauria mai e ngā hāhi me ngā mihinare ki Aotearoa nei. Ko te tauira ko te whakairo  o ‘Madonna’ me tētahi tamaiti i Maketū, nā tētahi Māori (i tahuri hei pononga) i tuku ki te whare karakia i whakatūria i reira i te tau 1845. Ka tere whāwhā atu ki ngā rākau me ngā hangarau hou a te Pākehā hei kīnakitanga mō ana toi. I ngā kura ka ākona ki ngā mātauranga toi o te ao Pākehā.

Kei roto i te whare o Rongopai ngā tūmomo peita rerekē. I hangaia a Rongopai mō te poropiti, kaiārahi hoki, mō Te Kooti, i tōna haere ake ki Waituhi (kei te tapatapa atiu o Tūranga) i te tekau tau 1880. He whakaatu tēnei ki ngā urutaunga mīharo i mahia e ngā tohunga Māori i muri tata i te pānga ki a Tauiwi. 

Ngā tohunga toi 

Nō te rautau 1900 rawa tīmata ai te mahi takitahi a te Māori i waho i te horopaki o te iwi. Ko tētahi kia taunga ki te pukenga papapeita i te tekau tau 1920 ko Ōriwa Tahupōtiki Haddon, he minita Metoiti i whāngaia hoki ki te kai mārō. I te tekau tau i muri mai ka tū ko Rāmai Te Miha (nāwai i karangatia ai ko Rāmai Hayward, ko Patricia Miller rānei) hei kaitango whakaahua Māori tuatahi. He tauira ongeonge ēnei tauira e rua. 

Ngā wharenui i ngā tau tōmua o 1900

Ko ngā whakatutukitanga toi nui a te ao Māori i ngā tau tōmua o te rautau 1900 ko te whakatūnga o ngā whare whakairo o te motu. Koinei te iho o ngā mahi a Ngata, arā, ki te whakarauora i te ahurea Māori mā te whakamāui ake i ngā mea pērā i te toi whakairo, i te toi tukutuku me te toi tāniko. Nō muri mai ka kawea ēnei mahi e te Rōpū Wāhine Māori Toko i te Ora. Ko ētahi o ōna māngai, pērā i a Kahurangi Rangimārie Hetet ētahi o ngā tohunga nui rawa mō ēnei momo toi. 

Te onamata, te inamata me te anamata

I pakeke ake a Darcy Nicholas i runga i te pāmu iti, i raro i te ātaarangi o Maunga Taranaki. E iwa ōna tau ka hokona e ia tāna mahinga toi tuatahi mō te 30 hereni. Nāwai ka rongonui ia hei tohungatā, hei kaiwhakairo hoki, ā, ka whakaritea e ia ngā whakaaturanga ā-ao i hono ai te Māori ki ngā Iniana o Amerika. E ai ki a Nicholas, ‘Ko te mea motuhake a te Māori ko te āheinga ki te toro ki te ao tawhito me te kukume mai i ngā toi ki te ao hou. E rua ngā kete e kawea ai – arā, ko te kete ukiuki … me te kete hou e ahu ana ki tua o te awe māpara. Nā reira e ngana ana te Māori i ngā wā katoa.’1

Ngā whakawai o te Tāone

Nō ngā takahuritanga maha whai muri i te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao ka tirohia anō te whai tikanga o te toi Māori tūturu. Ko te wā tērā i heke nui atu te Māori ki ngā Tāone ki te whai oranga. Nō ngā tekau tau rima tekau, ono tekau hoki ka puta ngā ihu o ngā tauira toi i te whare wānanga. I reira kuraina ai rātou ki ngā mahi, ngā momo toi, ngā kaupapa me ngā taputapu tawhito, hou hoki o te ao toi Pākehā. Ko ētahi o te hunga nei ko Selwyn Wilson rāua ko Arnold Wilson. Ko rāua ngā Māori tuatahi kia whiwhi i te tohu o ngā mahi toi (fine arts). Ko Freda Rankin (nāwai ko Freda Kāwharu) rāua ko Margaret Sampson ngā wāhine Māori kia whiwhi i tēnei tohu. Tokowhā rātou i tū hei kaiako kura tuarua.

Ngā ākonga a Gordon Tovey

Ko te tangata whakahirahira i taua wā ehara i te Māori, ehara hoki i te tohungatā. I waenganui i te tau 1946 me te tau 1966 ko Gordon Tovey te tumuaki ā-motu mō ngā mahi toi o te Tari Mātauranga. Koia te kaiwhakarite o te kaupapa ako i ngā kaiako kura tuatahi ki ngā whakangungu ngaio e pā ana ki te mahi toi. Ko ngā Māori ko Selwyn Wilson rātou ko Fred Graham, ko John Bevan Ford, ko Ralph Hōtere, ko Kāterina Mataira, ko Cliff Whiting, ko Marilynn Webb, ko Paratene Matchitt, ko Sandy Adsett ētahi o ngā tāngata tuatahi i runga i taua waka. 

Nāwai ka puawai ngā ākonga i raro i ēnei kaitohutohu tuatahi. Ki te Tai Tokerau, ko Herewini Murupaenga rāua ko Buck Nin ētahi o ngā whetū maiangi tuatahi kia puta i te kaupapa a Tovey. I muri mai ka whanake i a Buster Black (John Pīhema), arā, he hoatata nō Colin McCahon, i tōna ake tikanga peita i ngā tānga whakarehurehu whenua. 

Footnotes
    • Land of my ancestors [ataata mamati]. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Island Productions, 2007. Back

Te toi hou a te Māori, te toi taketake a te Māori

Te whakaaturanga tuatahi

I māpuna ake te toi hou a te Māori i ngā tau 1950 me 1960 i te hanumitanga o ngā toi taketake ake a te Māori ki ngā toi i takea mai i ngā ariā toi a tauiwi (western modernism), e kīia ana he primitivism, arā, te whakaahua i te wairua ngāwari i te mahi toi. I whai kiko tēnei toi hou i te whakaaturanga o ngā kaiako e rima (a Ralph Hōtere rātou ko Kāterina Mataira, ko Muru Walters, ko Selwyn Wilson me Arnold Wilson) e mahi ana i te Tai Tokerau. I tū te whakaaturanga ki te Whare Mātauranga o Te Whare Wānanga o Tāmaki-makaurau. 

He pātai tuakiri

I te tau 1976, ka whakatau ake a Ralph Hōtere, ‘I whānau, i tipu Māori mai ahau. Mō āku mahi, i tūpono noa iho mai tērā āhuatanga.’1 Nō muri tata nei, ka tōwaitia e Robert Jahnke: He Māori ahau, ā, i ōrua mai te taonga o te mahi toi.’2 He nui ngā tohungatoi Māori o te ao e taupatupatu ana i waenganui i ngā ao e rua. 

Ngā rōpū toi hou o te motu

I te tau 1959 ka whakaae te Pirimia, a Walter Nash kia whakaurua te ahurea ki te marautanga mātauranga. I te tau 1960 ka whakahaere a Gordon Tovey rāua ko te tohunga whakairo a Pine Taiapa i te hui ā-motu ki Ruatōrea. I reira ka taka ngā kaitohutohu toi Māori ki raro i ngā ako a ngā tohunga nui o te motu. Ka whakatū hoki te kāhui ā-motu o ngā tohungatoi. Mai i tēnei hui ka hua ake te rōpū ā-motu mō ngā toi hou a te Māori. Nō te tau 1963 ka tū te Taiopenga Toi Māori tuatahi ki Tūrangawaewae. Koinei te wā tuatahi i whakaaturia ai ngā toi tawhito me ngā toi hou ki te wāhi kotahi. Ka whai hiranga ake ngā toi hou ki te Taiopenga Toi Māori i tū ki Kirikiriroa i te tau 1966.

Te Ahurea Māori me te Ao Hou

I te tau 1966 anō ka whakatūria te whakaaturanga o Te Ahurea Māori o Nāianei ki te Whare Taonga o Ōtautahi. Ko Buck Nin te kaiwhakahaere, ā, i whai atu ngā tohungatoi o Te Tai Tokerau pērā i a Cath Brown rātou ko Jonathan Mane-Wheoki, ko Herewini Murupaenga me Pauline Yearbury. Arā tonu ngā whiuwhiu kōrero i puta i te tāpiritanga o ngā toi Māori hou i te taha o ngā kohinga toi taketake Māori a te whare taonga. 

Te whakamārama i te toi Māori

I te tau 1996 ka mea a Hirini Moko Mead: ‘Ko te toi Māori pea he toi e mau nei te āhua Māori, te wairua Māori me ngā tikanga o te ao Māori. Ko te tohunga toi Māori me Māori tonu, ka mutu me whai whakapapa e kīia ai ana mahi he toi Māori.’3 I runga i tēnei aronga noho momotu ai ngā tohungatoi Māori i ngā Tāone, ahakoa kua angitū kē rātou hei kaihoko, kaikohi, kaiwhakahaere taiwhanga, hei kaikōrero hoki. E ai hoki ki a Cliff Whiting, kāore i tua atu i ngā wharenui Māori hei taiwhanga whakaatu toi. 

Te oranga tonu, te matenga rānei

E haurokuroku ana te noho a te hononga a te toi hou me te toi taketake. Ka tautohetia e ngā kaiwhakaae me ngā kaiwhakahē, mēnā rānei he tohu pai, he tohu kino rānei tēnei hononga. Ki a Kāterina Mataira, he huhua ngā pānga Māori e whakaawe ana i ngā mahi toi a Arnold Wilson rāua ko Paratene Matchitt, ā, he nui ngā whakairo me ngā kōwhaiwhai Māori e whakaurua ana i roto i ngā hoahoa a Muru rātou ko Matchitt me Whiting. Heoi ki te kairīpoata Māori a Harry Dansey, nā te korekore o ngā rākeitanga ā-papa, me te whakamahi i te papa māheniheni, i rerekē ai tēnei tūmomo toi whakairo rākau. I noho rangirua ia ki te āhua o ngā toi a Hōtere me te kī, ‘kāretahi he paku Māoritanga o roto i ana mahi’. Me i kitea e ia, ka pēhea ōna whakaaro ki ngā whakairo tōtōkau a Matt Pine i Ūropi i taua wā?

Nō konei ka noho wehe ētahi tohungatoi hou i ngā toi taketake. I te tau 1961 ka kōrero a Muru Walters, ‘e uruhau tonu ana ngā kaiwhakairo o nāianei ki te whai i ngā tauira  nanahi, me te kore e aro ki tōna tikanga i ēnei rā’.5 I te tau 1967 ka whakatūria a Te Puia ki Te Whakarewarewa i Rotorua. Ko Hone Taiapa te kaiārahi o te whare whakairo, ko Emily Schuster te kaiārahi o te wharepora (i tuwhera i te tau 1969). Kei tēnā, kei tēnā, āna tirohanga mō te kura nei. Ki ētahi he hokinga whakamuri tēnei, engari ki ētahi, he whanaketanga whakamua kē.

Footnotes
    • Takitaki Frank Davis, ‘Maori art and artists.’ Education 9 (1976), p. 29. Back
    • Takitaki ‘Identity and iconography.’ CS Arts Magazine, http://www.cs.org.nz/magazine/february_08/rjahnke (i tirohia i te 23 Pipiri 2014). Back
    • H. M. Mead, ‘Maori art restructured, reorganised, re-examined and reclaimed.’ He Pukenga Korero 2, no. 1 (1996), p. 4. Back
    • Harry Dansey, ‘Maori artists make mark as professionals.’ Auckland Star, 3 Mahuru 1966. Back
    • ‘Muru Walters: a personality study.’ Te Ao Hou 35 (Pipiri 1961), p. 28. Back

Ngā whanaketanga hou

Te Hoahoa Whare      

Mai i te tekau tau 1950 ka puta ake te toi Māori i ngā mahinga hoahoa whare, toi whakaari hoki. Hei tauira ko te whare karakia o Futuna ki Karori, nā John Scott i hanga. Koinei tētahi o ngā tauira toi nui whakaharahara o te ao hou o Aotearoa. Ko Scott rāua ko Wiremu Taurau Royal (te Māori tuatahi kia tū hei kaihoahoa whare) ētahi o ngā Māori i para i te huarahi mō Rewi Thompson me Rau Hoskins mā. 

Ngā rōpū ā-motu

I te tau 1973 ka tū te hui mō Ngā Kaiwhakairo me ngā Kaituhi Māori o Aotearoa ki Te Kaha i Te Moana-a-Toi. I muri mai i taua hui, ka whakatūria ngā hui ki runga i ngā marae, ā, i whakaaturia ngā momo toi hōu i roto i te āhuru mōwai. Nō muri mai i te tau 1986 ka tapaina te ingoa o Ngā Puna Waihanga ki te rōpū. I te tau 1996 ka waihangatia a Toi Māori Aotearoa hei tāwharau i ngā mahi toi ā-motu. 

Te mahi toi me ngā porotēhi

I maiangi ake te Māoritanga me te ahurea Māori i te hīkoi whenua o te tau 1975 me te whakaturenga o te Ture Tiriti o Waitangi i te tau 1975. Nō konei kitea anō ai ngā werawera a ngā tohunga toi hou a te Māori. He kaupapa nui te tiriti, arā, tā ngā tohungatoi he whakatumatuma ki te motu mō ngā take whenua, take taonga, take ahurea hoki, mā roto mai i ā rātou mahi toi. I whakapau kaha te kaitango whakaahua, a John Miller ki te hopu i ngā mautohe tōrangapū a te Māori mai anō i te tekau tau 1970. 

Te Māori

Nō te tau 1984 ka huataki te hīkoitanga o Te Māori ki Amerika i te Whare Taonga Metropolitan i Te Āporo Nui. He taiopenga nui whakaharahara tēnei, ina rā kua whakakitea te ahurea Māori ki runga ki te atamira o te ao katoa. E ai ki te kaiwhakarite ki a Hirini Moko Mead, ‘Nā te heri i ā mātou puiaki nui ki Te Āporo Nui, ka piki ake te mana o te toi Māori ki te kāinga, me tāwāhi hoki.’1

Ahakoa rā, ka whakahē ētahi tohungatoi hou ki te korenga e kitea ngā taonga i mahia i muri i te rautau 1900. Ka whakapaetia ākene koirā te wā i mutu ai ngā mahi toi Māori, he hē noa iho rānei ngā mahi toi o muri mai. Ka whakahē hoki ngā kairaranga i te korenga e whakaatu atu i ngā toi raranga. Nō te hokinga mai o Te Māori i tāwāhi whakauru wawetia ai ngā toi hou me ngā mahi raranga a te Māori hei whakamahu ake i ngā taotū i rangona e ētahi. 

Ngā tohunga wāhine

I te tau 1988 ka whakaputaina te puka o A womens picture book: 25 women artists of Aotearoa (New Zealand). Ko tā ngā ētita kia whakaurua ngā tohungatoi rongonui pērā i a Irihāpeti Ramsden rātou ko Jacqueline Fraser me Robyn Kahukiwa. Heoi kīhai rātou i whakaae atu i tā rātou titiro e whatiia ana ētahi tapu i roto i te puka rā. I te mutunga iho, e rua noa iho ngā wāhine i whakaae atu ki te puka, ko Marilyn Webb rāua ko Lyndsay Rongokea. 

Ngā toi a ngā wāhine Māori

I ara ake ngā autaia tohungatoi wāhine i te tekau tau 1970 i ngā pānekeneketanga a ngā tuawāhine toi i tāwāhi. Nā runga i ngā mahi a Kura Te Waru Rewiri, a, Emare Karaka, a Diane Prince me Shona Rāpira Davies mā, ka piki te mana o ngā wāhine tohungatā, kaihanga uku hoki. Ka tū whakahī a Robyn Kahukiwa i ōna tānga e kīia ana ko Wahine Toa: Women of Māori Myth 1984 (i whakaputaina hoki te puka i tuhia e Patricia Grace).

Ahakoa ēnei mahi, nō te whakaitinga o te mana o ngā wāhine ki raro i ngā tāne i  te whakaaturanga o te Taiwhanga Toi o te Motu i te tau 1990, arā, a Kohia ko Taikākā Anake, ka whakarērea e ngā wāhine te kaupapa hei mautohe i te āhua o tā rātou whakaitinga. Ko te tauira nui o tērā urupū toa (i te whakanuitanga o te 150 tau o te Tiriti o Waitangi) ko te waihangatanga o te ‘whare tangata’ o ‘Hineteiwaiwa’ e te Kohinga o Haeata i te whakaaturanga o Mana Tiriti i te Taiwhanga Toi o Te Whanganui-a-Tara.

I whai kanohi maha hoki te wahine Māori i te whakaaturanga o Te Waka Toi ki Amerika i te tau 1992 me te tau 1993. Nō konā ka taka mai ngā tohungatoi ki raro i te kārangatanga o ngā toi ‘hou’, pērā i ngā kairaranga taketake a Rangimārie Hetet, a Erenora Puketapu, a Emily Schuster me Diggeress Te Kanawa, tae atu ki ngā kaiwhakairo taketake, ki a Lyonel Grant me Riki Manuel. Waihoki ko ērā o ngā tohungatoi kua roa e whai ana i ngā mātauranga toi a tauiwi. 

Footnotes

Ngā reanga hou

Ngā kaimahi uku 

Ko tētahi whanaketanga nui ko te pueatanga o te hunga mahi taonga uku. Otiia he toi tawhito tēnei nō Te Moananui-a-Kiwa i ngaro i te iwi Māori i mua noa atu i te taenga mai ki Aotearoa. 

Ko te tohungatoi Māori tuatahi kia raweke i tēnei momo toi ko Selwyn Wilson. I ako ia ki te mahi uku ki Rānana i te tau 1957. I te tau 1986 ka whakatū a Baye Ridell rāua ko Manos Nathan i te rōpū ā-motu o Ngā Kaihanga Uku. Ko ētahi kaihanga uku rongonui ko Colleen Waata-Urlich rātou ko Wī Taepa me Paerau Corneal. He nui ngā mātauranga hanga uku Māori kua tōia mai i ngā mātauranga a ngā Iniana o Amerika me ngā maruwehi a Waata-Urlich, arā, te mātauranga hanga o te iwi Lapita (i horapa i te puku o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa). 

He kōrero mō te ekenga ki ngā taumata o te ao whānui

Toru tekau tau i muri i te whakaaturanga tuatahi o ngā toi hou a te Māori, ka puea ake ngā tauira toi o ngā whare wānanga. Ka tangata whenua ake te nuinga o ēnei momo mahi toi o tēnei reanga hunga takitahi ki ngā taiwhanga toi, kāpā ki roto i te wharenui. Kua eke ngā tohungatoi pērā i a Shane Cotton rātou ko Michael Parekōwhai, ko Lisa Reihana, ko Brett Graham, me Peter Robinson ki ngā taumata. Hei tino mīharotanga mō te whakaaro tō rātou rongonui i te ao, ā, e whakaarotia rātou ko ētahi o ngā tino tohungatoi o Aotearoa. 

He momo nō te whānau

Inā te roa o te wā e whakapau kaha ana ētahi ki ngā mahi toi, ā, whakaheke iho ai ki ngā tamariki. Ko Fred Graham rāua ko tana tama a Brett tērā, ko Wi Taepa rāua ko tana tama a Ngātaiharuru tērā. E ai ki a Ngātaiharuru, ‘Toi tū te whakapapa’, arā hei whakamānawa i tōna matua.1

Te ngaru tuawhā

I ngā tau whakamutunga o te tekau tau 1980 me ngā tau tōmua o te tekau tau 1990 ka puea ake he reanga hou pērā i a Rangi Kipa rātou ko Gina Matchitt, ko Chris Bryant, ko Natalie Robinson, ko Maureen Lander, ko Lonnie Hutchinson, ko John Walsh, ko Tina Wirihana; me ngā kaitango whakaahua a Fiona Pardington, me Neil Pardington. 

Ngā reanga tohungatoi e rima

Ko Herewini Murupaenga rātou ko Robyn Kahukiwa, ko Robin White ētahi o ngā tohungatoi i haere hei kanohi mō Aotearoa ki te Taiopenga Toi mō te Takiwā o Ahia me Te Moananui-a-Kiwa, i tū i te tau 1993. I ngā taiopenga o muri mai, e rima ngā reanga i whai kanohi atu, arā, ko Ralph Hōtere rātou ko Michael Parekōwhai, ko Brett Graham, ko Lisa Reihana me Reuben Paterson. 

Ngā hononga taketake 

I te taiopenga tuatahi i tū ki Piripane i te tau 1993, ka mea a Lisa Reihana, ‘he tino tata te ao o ngā tāngata taketake, ahakoa he tawhiti te noho a tētahi i tētahi’.2 I te tau 1995 ka tū te hui a Te Atinga (te rōpū Toi Whakaari o Te Waka Toi) ki Rotorua mō ngā tohungatoi taketake o te ao. I reira ka pūmau ngā hononga a te Māori me ngā Iniana o Kānata me Amerika. I whakaaturia hoki ngā toi hou a te Māori ki te taha o ngā toi o ngā iwi Inuit me ērā o te Tai Raki, ki te Taiwhanga Spirit Wrestler ki Vancouver i Kānata. I hua mai tēnei whakaaturanga i te tau 1995. I te tau 1996 ko te haerenga mai o ngā kaipeita me ngā kaimahi uku Iniana ki Aotearoa. Ko te ingoa o tēnei haerenga ko Shared Visions.

Footnotes
    • Takitaki Fathers and sons: an exhibition. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Museum of Arts and Cultures, 2000. Back
    • Pleasures & dangers [ataata mamati]. Tāmaki Makaurau: Point of View Productions, 1991. Back

Ngā toi hou i te tau ruamano

Te kaikōkiri mō te hunga takitahi

I te tau 1996 ka hangaia a Toi Māori Aotearoa hei kōkiri i ngā take toi Māori. Koia te piki o Te Waka Toi hei kawe i te toi Māori ki te ao hurihuri. Ko tētahi anō o ōna kawenga he kimi huarahi e puta atu ai ngā toi taketake me ngā toi hou a te Māori. Ko te Mākete Toi Māori tētahi huarahi hei whakaputa i ngā mahi toi ki te ao mārama.

Ngā ako kaupapa Māori

I te tekau tau 1990 ka toko ake ngā hōtaka kaupapa Māori e pā ana ki ngā mahi toi, pērā i a:

  • Toihoukura i Te Kuratini o Te Tairāwhiti (nāwai ka tūhonotia ki te Eastern Institute of Technology) ki Tūranga. I hua ake a Toihoukura i a Sandy Adsett rāua ko Derek Lardelli i te tau 1993. He tohunga tā moko a Lardelli.
  • Tōmairangi ki Heretaunga (he puni ako mamao nō Te Whare Wānanga o Aotearoa ki Te Awamutu). Nā Sandy Adsett i whakatū tēnei kura i te tau 2002. Ko te ringa rehe whakairo a Pakaariki Harrison rāua ko te kairaranga ko Diggeress Te Kanawa ētahi o ngā tohunga nāna i whakamana te hōtaka toi taketake o Te Wānanga o Aotearoa.
  • Te Whare Wānanga o Awanuiārangi ki Whakatāne.
  • Te Kunenga ki Pūrehuroa, me te hōtaka toi whakaari o Te Pūtahi-a-Toi. Ko Ahorangi Robert Jahnke te kaiwhakahaere.

Te Papa Tongarewa

I te tau 1985 ka takoto i a Hirini Moko Mead te whakaaro kia whakatūria tētahi Pūtahi ā-Motu mō Ngā Toi Māori. Heoi i haukotia tēnei kaupapa i te whakatūnga o Te Papa Tongarewa ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara. I tōna whakatuwheratanga i te tau 1998 ka whakahē ētahi ki ngā āhuatanga tauhou o te wharenui o Te Hono ki Hawaiki, nā Cliff Whiting i hanga. 

Ngā marae hou

Nō muri mai ka hanga anō a Whiting i te wharenui hou o Maru Kaitātea ki te marae o Takahanga i Kaikōura (i tuwhera i te tau 2001) me te wharenui a Tahu Pōtiki ki te marae o Te Rau Aroha ki Motupōhue. Nā te kaihoahoa whare nā Rewi Thompson i auaha te wharenui i te marae o Ngāti Ōtara, ā, he maha ngā wharenui hou i hoahoatia e Lyonel Grant pērā i a Te Papa o te Aroha ki Tokoroa, i a Īhenga ki Rotorua, me Ngākau Māhaki ki Te Whare Wānanga o Wairaka ki Tāmaki-makaurau. 

He mano tau hou

I te tākiritanga mai o te ata i te 1 o Kohitātea i te tau 2000, ka kite ngā kaimātaki pouaka whakaata i ngā rangatira e karahui ana ki te tihi o Hikurangi hei tohi i ngā whakairo e iwa. Nā ngā tauira o Toihoukura i whao ēnei pou whakairo i raro anō i te mana o Derek Lardelli. E pā ana hoki ngā whakairo ki te tipua nei a Māui.

Ngā hato me ngā whaea

Ko tēnei te takoha a Isiaha Barlow ki te whakaaturanga o Pūrangiaho i tū i te tau 2001. I roto i tēnei whakaaturanga 12 ngā hato tāne o ngā toi hou Māori e whakaatu ana i te tikanga tā Byzantine a Rūhia (Russian Orthodox). Kei runga i ngā whakaahua ko ngā ‘pū taketake’ pērā i a Hato Fred (Graham) rātou ko Hato Ralph (Hōtere me Hato Buck (Nin), tae atu ki ngā mea o muri ake a Hato Darcy (Nicholas) rāua ko Hato Bob (Jahnke). I te tau 2002 ka oti i a Barlow āna tānga e toru o ngā ‘whāea’ o te toi hou a te Māori: pērā i a Whaea Emare (Karaka) rātou ko Whaea Kura (Te Waru Rewiri) me Whāea Robyn (Kahukiwa). 

Ara mai he tētē kura

I te whakaaturanga o Hiko! ki Ōtautahi i te tau 1999 ka whakaputaina ngā mahinga toi a ngā tohungatoi hou e whitu. I takea mai ō rātou ariā i te ao mamati. Ko tētahi o ā rātou mahi he rapu i te pitomata o ētahi hangarau hou, ka mutu he āhuatanga tēnei i kapohia ake e ngā tohungatoi i mua atu i a rātou. I te tau 2001 ka tū te whakaaturanga ki te Taiwhanga Tāone o Te Whanganui-a-Tara e kīia ana ko Techno Māori: Māori Art in the Digital Age. Orua ki te Taiwhanga Toi o Tāmaki-makaurau, e whakaaturia ana a Pūrangiaho: Seeing Clearly, tētahi whakakitenga haumi whakatupuranga, nā Ngahiraka Mason i whakarite. Ko te kaupapa o tēnei whakaaturanga he tūhura i ngā whakarerenga iho o ngā toi taketake i roto i ngā toi hou’.1

Ko ētahi atu tohungatoi Māori o te tekau tau ruamano ko Saffronn Te Rātana rātou ko Wayne Youle, ko Kelcy Taratoa, ko Star Gossage.

Te Taiopenga o Venice

I te urunga tuatahi o Aotearoa ki te Taiopenga Toi Hou o Venice i te tau 2001, ka tīpakongia ko Peter Robinson rāua ko Jacqueline Fraser o Ngāi Tahu hei kanohi mō te motu. I te tau 2011 ka tohua ko Michael Parekōwhai hei kanohi. I te tau 2007 ka tohua a Brett Graham rāua ko Rachael Rākena kia taki haere ki te whakaatu i ā rāua taonga ki te taiopenga taituara, ā, i te tau 2013 ka pōwhiritia a Darryn George kia haere ake.

Te Taonga o Walters

Ko ētahi ringarehe Māori i whakarāpopotongia mō te tohu nui o te Taiwhanga Toi o Tāmaki-makaurau (ko te Taonga o Walters i whakaūngia i te tau 2002) ko Peter Robinson (e rua ōna whiwhinga) rātou ko Jacqueline Fraser, ko Lisa Reihana. I whakamānawatia a Robinson i te tau 2008.

Ngā tohungatoi whai hōnore

He Māori ētahi o ngā tohunga whai hōnore nui. He huhua ngā Māori kua whakamānawatia e te Tūāpapa Mahi Toi pērā i a Shane Cotton, i a Lyonel Grant,  i a Fiona Pardington, i a Michael Parekōwhai,  i a Barry Barclay me Derek Lardelli; tae atu ki ngā pakoko pērā i a Ralph Hōtere, i a Pākāriki Harrison,  i a Diggeress Te Kanawa,  i a Cliff Whiting, i a Arnold Wilson me te reanga o muri mai pērā i a Ngāhina Hohaia rāua ko Taika Waititi, te kaitohutohu o te kiriata o Boy). Kua whiwhi a John Miller rāua ko Neil Pardington i te Tohu o Marti Friedlander mō te tango whakaahua. I whiwhi a Cliff Whiting i te Tohu Nui o Aotearoa (Order of New Zealand) i te tau 1998, ā, i te tau 2012 ka whiwhi a Ralph Hōtere i tērā hōnore.

Footnotes

Hononga, rauemi nō waho

More suggestions and sources


How to cite this page: Jonathan Mane-Wheoki, 'Ngā Toi Hōu', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-toi-hou/print (accessed 16 December 2019)

He kōrero nā Jonathan Mane-Wheoki, i tāngia i te 22 Oct 2014