Kōrero: Ngā toi ana

Whārangi 3. Ngā urupare a te Pākehā

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

‘Tē arohia ana’

I roto i te rautau 1900 ka whakatakēhia ngā toi ana a te Māori i ngā tauritenga atu ki te toi whakairo me te toi raranga. E ai ki ētahi Pākehā nō nāia noa iho nei ngā toi ana, arā, hei aha te aro atu a te hunga pūtaiao. Kāore i nui ngā  whakapaunga kaha  ki te āta hopu, ki te pupuri rānei i ngā toi ana Māori.

Inā anō te rerekē o te toi ana i ēra o Ahitereiria me Ūropi, arā, ko ētahi toi ana Māori i tāia ki runga pākeho i waho kē, ā, ka waimeha haere i ngā haukeringa o te huarere. He ruarua noa iho i te taiepatia kei takahia e te kararehe pāmu.

Ngā kape tuatahi o ngā toi ana

Ko te kairūri ko Walter Mantell tētahi o ngā Pākehā tuatahi kia tuhi i ngā toi ana Māori. I te tau 1852 ka tuhi ia i ngā tauira o ngā toi ki ngā tauwharenga aromaunga ki te raki o Ōtākou’1 Nāwai ka puta ake ngā tauira tau a te kaipūtaiao a Julius Haast rāua ko Augustus Hamilton. Ko Hamilton te tuatahi kia whakaahua i ngā toi ana. I te tau 1898 ka whakaputa ia i āna kitenga. I ngā tau tōmua o te rautau 1900, ka hopu anō te kaikohi Amerikana a J. L. Elmore i āna kohinga e puritia ana ki te wharepukapuka o Hocken ki Ōtepoti.

Kāre tētahi o tēnei hunga i whai pūtea nui e āhei ai rātou te whakawhānui ake i ā rātou rangahau, ā, ka arotahitia ngā toi i kaingākau rā  rātou. 

Te ‘whakapai’ ake

Ka rāwekeweke ētahi kaihopu i ngā peita hei ‘whakapai’ i aua toi mō te whakaahua – ka hirahiratia ki te tioka, ki te waituhi, te pene hinu, ā, ko tētahi ka tāia ki te peita. 

‘He kura nui, e rere ai te ihiihi..ānō he reo waiata nō tua whakarere’

I roto i ngā piki me ngā heke ka nanaiore a Theo Schoon ki te mairanga i te toi ana Māori. Ka matapiko te kāwanatanga ki te tuku motukā mōna, ā, ka pāngia ia e te mate i ngā hōtoke makariri o te tonga. I mahi anō ia i ngā pāmu o ngā kaiahuwhenua i tūhuratia e ia, i ētahi wā anō, ka tā pikitia o ngā kaiahuwhenua e whiwhi ai ia ki te kai, ki te moni. Ahakoa ēnei uauatanga, he tino mahi, he tino whāinga tēnei ki a ia, i roto i ōna whakaaro, me āna mahi toi. ‘Rā mai, rā atu ka rokohina e au te toi o te kura waihanga – he kura nui, e rere ai te ihiihi, e mau ai te wehi, ānō he reo waiata nō tua whakaere’.2

Theo Schoon

E huna tonu ana ngā toi ana Māori, ahakoa te kitenga i tāwāhi o ngā toi ki ngā ana Lascaux ki Wīwī, hei marutuna ēnei mō Picasso. Nō te tau 1945, ka kai ngā mata a Theo Schoon (he tohungatoi) i ngā tauira toi ana i te Whare Taonga o Ōtākou. He ngākau whakaute tōna ki ngā toi taketake, nā tana noho ki Java. Ka whiwhi mahi ia i raro i te Whare Wānanga o Waitaha kia tāruatia ngā toi ana ki Craigmore (he teihana i Maungatī) me Pareora ki te tonga o Waitaha. Kātahi ka whakamanahia a Schoon e Te Tari Taiwhenua kia tāia he kape o ngā toi ana ki Waitaha, ki te raki o Ōtākou, me Kaikōura.

I roto i te waru tau i muri mai, ka tuhi haeretia e Schoon āna kape toi ana Māori, ā, ka hāua e te taiao. Ka raweke atu ia i ngā toi kia hua tōna ake auaha. Ka tāia atu ki te pene hinu, kia hirahira ake. Nōna te whakapono he tino tapu ētahi o ngā toi: ‘Rite tonu ki te  tohunga, he kauwaka te tohungatoi i te āputa o te tangata me ngā atua.’3 Nō muri nei kua werohia ētahi o ana whakaaro e te hunga mātai whaipara.

Te urupare a te hunga toi

Ka whakatenatena a Schoon i ngā tāngata o Aotearoa me ērā o Ūropi ki te rangahau ake i ngā kōrero e pā ana ki te toi ana Māori. Ko Gordon Walters tētahi o te hunga kaingākau, tae atu ki a A. R. D. Fairburn (he kaitito ruri). I tahuri a Fairburn ki te tā i ngā hoahoa toi ana ki ngā papanga. Ka kaingākautia ēnei e te tangata mō roto i ngā whare i ngā tau 1960. Nā Tony Fominson anō i whakatauira ngā toi ana ki runga kirihou. Nāna āna tūtohu mō ngā momo wāhanga e rima o te hoahoa, mai i tōna whakaahua tūturu me ngā rerekētanga o te whakamahi i te whero me te pango. Ko tōna wāhanga whakamutunga i pā ki te tūtakinga o te Māori ki te Pākehā.

Te whakarauora i ngā wāhi toi

Ka haere tonu te tūkinotanga o ngā toi ana; ka tūkinotia, ka haukeritia e te marangai me te puaheiri; ka whakawāteangia atu mō ngā rori me ngā whare hiko. I te tekau tau 1980 ka whakatau kawenata te whānau Elworthy me ētahi ki runga i te teihana o Craigmore kia haumaru tonu ai ngā toi ana. 

Ngā rangahau whaipara tangata

Mai i ngā tau i waenga i te tekau tau 1960 ka tīmata te ruku a ngā kaimātai whaipara ki te rētōtanga o ngā toi ana Māori. Kātahi ka rāhuitia. Nāwai ā, ka puta ngā toi ana Māori ki te whai ao ki te ao mārama, ā, kua noho hei taonga kāmehameha mō te ao kōhatu o Aotearoa. 

Kupu tāpiri
  1. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 1 (1868), p. 6. Back
  2. Theo Schoon, ‘New Zealand’s oldest art galleries.’ New Zealand Listener (12 Hepetema 1947), pp. 6–7. Back
  3. ‘New Zealand’s oldest art galleries’, pp. 6–7. Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

, 'Ngā toi ana - Ngā urupare a te Pākehā', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-toi-ana/page-3 (accessed 16 December 2019)

He kōrero nā , i tāngia i te 22 Oct 2014