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Ngā toi ana

by Brian Allingham

Kei ngā taha o ngā ana me ngā rua o Aotearoa ngā toi ana whakahirahira. Ko ēnei ngā toi a ngā tīpuna Māori i tae mai ki Aotearoa i te 700 tau ki mua. 


Who were the rock artists?

He tikanga auaha

Kei ngā taha o ngā ana me ngā toka nunui puta noa i te ao te toi ana e kitea ana. He haumako ngā taonga toi ana a te Māori, e kitea ana ki tēnei motu anake.  

E kitea ana te toi ana ki Te Ika-a-Māui me Te Waipounamu, heoi, e 90 ōrau ka kitea ki Te Waipounamu. Neke atu i te 95 ōrau o ngā toi ana kei runga whenua tūmataiti. Inā noa atu ngā ana kāore ana kia tūhuratia.  

Te whakamārama i ngā hoahoa

I roto i ngā toi nei ka kitea te tangata, te manu, te kurī, te waka rānei. Ko ētahi atu tānga, e ai ki te whakaaro, he taniwha, he tipua rānei. Ka kitea nuitia ngā hoahoa pērā i te koru, ngā porohita arotahi me ngā aramoana. Heoi ko ētahi toi e ngaro ana ōna tikanga i te rā nei.

Te iwi tuatahi o Te Waipounamu

Tē mōhiotia nōnahea i nōhia tuatahitia a Aotearoa e te Māori. E ai ki te whakaaro, nō roto tonu mai i te mano tau nei. Nā reira i kore ai e mōhiotia nōnāhea i puāwai mai ai te toi ana.  I nohoia tuatahitia pea Te Waipounamu e Te Rapuwai, e Hāwea me Waitaha. Nō te rautau 1600 ka tae a Ngāti Māmoe, nō te 1700 ka tae a Ngāi Tahu. E ai ki ngā tautōhito i te rautau 1800, ko ēnei ngā iwi nāna i tīmata ake ngā toi ana. 

Te whakawhāiti i te wā i mahia ai tētahi toi ana

Kāore anō kia kawea ngā rangahau tōtika e whakawhāititia ai te tawhito o ngā toi ana. Ahakoa tēhea o ngā tikanga o nāianei mō te kimi i te wā i mahia ai tētahi mea, pērā i te pānui waro, kāore anō kia kitea he huarahi tautuhi i te tino wā ake, kia whai hua te rangahau. Mā te tiro noa iho ki ngā toi ka āhei te whakatau tata i te takiwā i tāia ai ētahi. Inā rā, he pouākai, he moa ētahi o ngā tānga, he manu ēnei i ngaro i te tirohanga kanohi i ngā tau 500 ki mua. 

Te whakawhāiti i te wā i mahia ai, nā te horopaki

Kua kitea ngā kōiwi me ngā whao moa ki ngā papa o ngā oi ana. He tohu tēnei i kainga ēnei manu e te tangata whenua. E ai ki te whakaaro nō ngā wā patu moa i hua ake ai te rahi o ngā toi ana i Te Waipounamu.

He nui ngā tauira toi ana Māori kua tāia tuaruatia. Ko ētahi o ngā toi kei te tonga o Waitaha me te raki o Ōtākou e whakaatu ana i ngā taonga Pākehā pērā i te kaipuke, i te hoiho me te tuhinga reo Māori i ētahi. E ai ki ngā eminga rangahau nei kua roa te wā e tā kōhatu ana te Māori, mai anō i te wā o te moa tae noa ki te rautau 1800. 

Ngā tauwharenga toi

Ko te nuinga o ngā toi ana e kitea ana ki ngā ana me ngā tauwharenga kōhatu. Ka nōhia ēnei wāhi i ngā wā e haere ana te Māori ki te tiki kai. He puni noho hoki ngā tauwharenga ana i ngā marama kohi kai ki te ngahere, ki ngā repo me ngā mārakerake. 

Te hanga i ngā tohu

Nā te kōmā me te māheniheni o ngā tauwharenga me ngā ana pāpaku (tae rawa ki ngā ana pākeho) ka whai papa tā te Māori. Kua kitea hoki ngā tānga i ngā papa tino teitei i ētahi wā.

He mea peita te toi ana (he tino pērā i Te Ika-a-Māui), kātahi ka whakairotia, ka tapahia, ka wakuwakua, ka whaoa te mata kōhatu. He mea whakaputa te wairua auaha ki ngā toi ana, otirā kāore i whakatapua ōna whakairotanga. Ko ētahi tānga neke atu i te 20 mita te tāroa ka tāiiriiri i ngā tuanui o ngā tauwharenga pākeho.


Rock art designs

Ngā tūmomo tae

Nā te aronuku whenua, me te kanorau takiwā ka hua ake ngā momo toi o tēnā rohe, o tēnā rohe. Ko te nuinga o ngā toi ana ki Te Waipounamu he mea tā ki te waro pango i whakahanumitia ki te ahowhare, te hinu, me ētahi anō kīnaki. Ka kitea nuitia ngā toi whero puta noa i Te Waipounamu. He takiwā anō ka kitea i te taha o ngā toi pango. He maha ngā tae o ētahi o ngā toi.

Nā te takoto noa o te rino ōkai, he ngāwari noa te tangotango, te whakahanumi hoki ki te tae whero. He karaka ētahi, he kura ētahi.

Ko ngā tae kōwhai, tae mā, tae kikorangi hoki i ahu mai i ngā putunga uku, putunga manawa whenua hoki. He wā ka whakamahia te uku mā ki ngā papa kōhatu pōuriuri i Te Waipounamu. He onge te tae kikorangi ki ngā toi ana. E kitea nuitia ana te tae pango me te whero ki te tonga o Waitaha, engari he onge ki te nuinga o ngā wāhi. 

Ngā kīnaki waituhi

I te tau 1918 ka whakaputaina te tikanga mahi i te tae pango mō te toi ana ki roto i te Journal of the Polynesian Society. ‘He mea tahu ngā peka o te rākau monoao, ka uta ki runga whāriki, kātahi ka wakua ki te ipu. Kātahi ka kotēhia te kāpia me ngā hua o ētahi atu rākau ki roto i te ipu. Ka makaia anō te hinu o te weka ki roto kia puta ai tētahi tae kāore i mātotoru, kāore i kōrahirahi.’ Ko te hua ko tētahi tae “e kore e waimeha noa”.1

Te whai pānga ki ētahi atu toi

He whai pānga tata ngā hoahoa o ngā toi ana ki ērā o te toi tā moko, whakairo, kōwhaiwhai hoki. Ko ēnei tūāhua katoa ka whakatauira i te hononga wairua o te tangata ki ōna tūpuna, ki ōna atua. 

Ngā rerekētanga ā-rohe

E ai ki ngā taunaki whaipara tangata i āta urutaungia te toi o Hawaiki ki ngā rohe me ngā kokoru puta noa i Aotearoa. I hua tēnei āhuatanga i ngā heke mai i wāhi kē, i moutere kē. Hei ētahi toi ka puta he manu, he tangata manu, he ika, he kurī me ētahi atu kīrehe e kitea nui ana ki Te Waipounamu, kāpā ki Te Ika-a-Māui.

He maha ngā whakairo, ngā tānga kōkōwai rānei kei te roto o Tarawera, me ētahi atu wāhi o Rotorua puta atu ki Kaingaroa. Ki Te Waipounamu he nui ngā tānga ko ō rātou waka mōkihi kei roto. Ko ngā wāhi whaipara i Taranaki he mea whakairo ki ētahi tūāhua kāore e kitea ki wāhi kē. Kei Taupō me Tokoroa ētahi toi e rite tahi ana ki ērā i Te Waipounamu. He rite tonu hoki ngā toi ana o Rēkohu ki ērā i Te Waipounamu. 

Ngā toi mēra

I te tau 2012 ka whakaputaina e Poutāpeta Aotearoa ngā raupapa o ngā toi ana ki te pokapū o Te Waipounamu. Ko ētahi toi ko te Pouākai (i kitea ki Pareora); ko tētahi tiki (nō Maerewhenua); ko te tokorua e toko ana i tō rāua mōkihi (nō Ōpihi); ko Te Puawaitanga, he kiwi e puta ana i tōna hua (nō Waitaki) me tētahi taniwha (nō Ōpihi).

Ngā haehaenga 

Ko ētahi o ngā peita pango he mea whakaawaawa kia kitea mai te papamuri pākeho. E kite nuitia ana tēnei tikanga ki te raki o Ōtākou. Ko Te Pouākai tētahi o ngā tino toi o reira. He tohu tērā ko tēnei tētahi o ngā wāhi tawhito rawa. 

Ngā manu ngaro

He onge anō ngā toi whakaatu i ngā manu kua ngaro i te tirohanga kanohi. Ko tētahi tauira taiea o te moa kei roto i te ana paku ki te awa o Pareora ki te tonga o Waitaha. Kei tētahi o ngā whārua tūtata tētahi peita pango o te pouākai kei runga i te tuanui o tētahi ana. Nō ngā tau tōmua rawa ēnei mahi toi. 

Footnotes
    • H. Beattie, ‘Traditions and legends collected from the natives of Murihiku (Southland, New Zealand).’ Journal of the Polynesian Society 27, no. 107 (1918), p. 149. Back

European responses to rock art

‘Tē arohia ana’

I roto i te rautau 1900 ka whakatakēhia ngā toi ana a te Māori i ngā tauritenga atu ki te toi whakairo me te toi raranga. E ai ki ētahi Pākehā nō nāia noa iho nei ngā toi ana, arā, hei aha te aro atu a te hunga pūtaiao. Kāore i nui ngā  whakapaunga kaha  ki te āta hopu, ki te pupuri rānei i ngā toi ana Māori.

Inā anō te rerekē o te toi ana i ēra o Ahitereiria me Ūropi, arā, ko ētahi toi ana Māori i tāia ki runga pākeho i waho kē, ā, ka waimeha haere i ngā haukeringa o te huarere. He ruarua noa iho i te taiepatia kei takahia e te kararehe pāmu.

Ngā kape tuatahi o ngā toi ana

Ko te kairūri ko Walter Mantell tētahi o ngā Pākehā tuatahi kia tuhi i ngā toi ana Māori. I te tau 1852 ka tuhi ia i ngā tauira o ngā toi ki ngā tauwharenga aromaunga ki te raki o Ōtākou’1 Nāwai ka puta ake ngā tauira tau a te kaipūtaiao a Julius Haast rāua ko Augustus Hamilton. Ko Hamilton te tuatahi kia whakaahua i ngā toi ana. I te tau 1898 ka whakaputa ia i āna kitenga. I ngā tau tōmua o te rautau 1900, ka hopu anō te kaikohi Amerikana a J. L. Elmore i āna kohinga e puritia ana ki te wharepukapuka o Hocken ki Ōtepoti.

Kāre tētahi o tēnei hunga i whai pūtea nui e āhei ai rātou te whakawhānui ake i ā rātou rangahau, ā, ka arotahitia ngā toi i kaingākau rā  rātou. 

Te ‘whakapai’ ake

Ka rāwekeweke ētahi kaihopu i ngā peita hei ‘whakapai’ i aua toi mō te whakaahua – ka hirahiratia ki te tioka, ki te waituhi, te pene hinu, ā, ko tētahi ka tāia ki te peita. 

‘He kura nui, e rere ai te ihiihi..ānō he reo waiata nō tua whakarere’

I roto i ngā piki me ngā heke ka nanaiore a Theo Schoon ki te mairanga i te toi ana Māori. Ka matapiko te kāwanatanga ki te tuku motukā mōna, ā, ka pāngia ia e te mate i ngā hōtoke makariri o te tonga. I mahi anō ia i ngā pāmu o ngā kaiahuwhenua i tūhuratia e ia, i ētahi wā anō, ka tā pikitia o ngā kaiahuwhenua e whiwhi ai ia ki te kai, ki te moni. Ahakoa ēnei uauatanga, he tino mahi, he tino whāinga tēnei ki a ia, i roto i ōna whakaaro, me āna mahi toi. ‘Rā mai, rā atu ka rokohina e au te toi o te kura waihanga – he kura nui, e rere ai te ihiihi, e mau ai te wehi, ānō he reo waiata nō tua whakaere’.2

Theo Schoon

E huna tonu ana ngā toi ana Māori, ahakoa te kitenga i tāwāhi o ngā toi ki ngā ana Lascaux ki Wīwī, hei marutuna ēnei mō Picasso. Nō te tau 1945, ka kai ngā mata a Theo Schoon (he tohungatoi) i ngā tauira toi ana i te Whare Taonga o Ōtākou. He ngākau whakaute tōna ki ngā toi taketake, nā tana noho ki Java. Ka whiwhi mahi ia i raro i te Whare Wānanga o Waitaha kia tāruatia ngā toi ana ki Craigmore (he teihana i Maungatī) me Pareora ki te tonga o Waitaha. Kātahi ka whakamanahia a Schoon e Te Tari Taiwhenua kia tāia he kape o ngā toi ana ki Waitaha, ki te raki o Ōtākou, me Kaikōura.

I roto i te waru tau i muri mai, ka tuhi haeretia e Schoon āna kape toi ana Māori, ā, ka hāua e te taiao. Ka raweke atu ia i ngā toi kia hua tōna ake auaha. Ka tāia atu ki te pene hinu, kia hirahira ake. Nōna te whakapono he tino tapu ētahi o ngā toi: ‘Rite tonu ki te  tohunga, he kauwaka te tohungatoi i te āputa o te tangata me ngā atua.’3 Nō muri nei kua werohia ētahi o ana whakaaro e te hunga mātai whaipara.

Te urupare a te hunga toi

Ka whakatenatena a Schoon i ngā tāngata o Aotearoa me ērā o Ūropi ki te rangahau ake i ngā kōrero e pā ana ki te toi ana Māori. Ko Gordon Walters tētahi o te hunga kaingākau, tae atu ki a A. R. D. Fairburn (he kaitito ruri). I tahuri a Fairburn ki te tā i ngā hoahoa toi ana ki ngā papanga. Ka kaingākautia ēnei e te tangata mō roto i ngā whare i ngā tau 1960. Nā Tony Fominson anō i whakatauira ngā toi ana ki runga kirihou. Nāna āna tūtohu mō ngā momo wāhanga e rima o te hoahoa, mai i tōna whakaahua tūturu me ngā rerekētanga o te whakamahi i te whero me te pango. Ko tōna wāhanga whakamutunga i pā ki te tūtakinga o te Māori ki te Pākehā.

Te whakarauora i ngā wāhi toi

Ka haere tonu te tūkinotanga o ngā toi ana; ka tūkinotia, ka haukeritia e te marangai me te puaheiri; ka whakawāteangia atu mō ngā rori me ngā whare hiko. I te tekau tau 1980 ka whakatau kawenata te whānau Elworthy me ētahi ki runga i te teihana o Craigmore kia haumaru tonu ai ngā toi ana. 

Ngā rangahau whaipara tangata

Mai i ngā tau i waenga i te tekau tau 1960 ka tīmata te ruku a ngā kaimātai whaipara ki te rētōtanga o ngā toi ana Māori. Kātahi ka rāhuitia. Nāwai ā, ka puta ngā toi ana Māori ki te whai ao ki te ao mārama, ā, kua noho hei taonga kāmehameha mō te ao kōhatu o Aotearoa. 

Footnotes
    • Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 1 (1868), p. 6. Back
    • Theo Schoon, ‘New Zealand’s oldest art galleries.’ New Zealand Listener (12 Hepetema 1947), pp. 6–7. Back
    • ‘New Zealand’s oldest art galleries’, pp. 6–7. Back

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How to cite this page: Brian Allingham, 'Ngā toi ana', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-toi-ana/print (accessed 9 December 2019)

He kōrero nā Brian Allingham, i tāngia i te 22 Oct 2014