Kōrero: Ngā toi ana

Whārangi 1. Ko wai mā ngā tohungatā nei?

Ngā whakaahua

He tikanga auaha

Kei ngā taha o ngā ana me ngā toka nunui puta noa i te ao te toi ana e kitea ana. He haumako ngā taonga toi ana a te Māori, e kitea ana ki tēnei motu anake.  

E kitea ana te toi ana ki Te Ika-a-Māui me Te Waipounamu, heoi, e 90 ōrau ka kitea ki Te Waipounamu. Neke atu i te 95 ōrau o ngā toi ana kei runga whenua tūmataiti. Inā noa atu ngā ana kāore ana kia tūhuratia.  

Te whakamārama i ngā hoahoa

I roto i ngā toi nei ka kitea te tangata, te manu, te kurī, te waka rānei. Ko ētahi atu tānga, e ai ki te whakaaro, he taniwha, he tipua rānei. Ka kitea nuitia ngā hoahoa pērā i te koru, ngā porohita arotahi me ngā aramoana. Heoi ko ētahi toi e ngaro ana ōna tikanga i te rā nei.

Te iwi tuatahi o Te Waipounamu

Tē mōhiotia nōnahea i nōhia tuatahitia a Aotearoa e te Māori. E ai ki te whakaaro, nō roto tonu mai i te mano tau nei. Nā reira i kore ai e mōhiotia nōnāhea i puāwai mai ai te toi ana.  I nohoia tuatahitia pea Te Waipounamu e Te Rapuwai, e Hāwea me Waitaha. Nō te rautau 1600 ka tae a Ngāti Māmoe, nō te 1700 ka tae a Ngāi Tahu. E ai ki ngā tautōhito i te rautau 1800, ko ēnei ngā iwi nāna i tīmata ake ngā toi ana. 

Te whakawhāiti i te wā i mahia ai tētahi toi ana

Kāore anō kia kawea ngā rangahau tōtika e whakawhāititia ai te tawhito o ngā toi ana. Ahakoa tēhea o ngā tikanga o nāianei mō te kimi i te wā i mahia ai tētahi mea, pērā i te pānui waro, kāore anō kia kitea he huarahi tautuhi i te tino wā ake, kia whai hua te rangahau. Mā te tiro noa iho ki ngā toi ka āhei te whakatau tata i te takiwā i tāia ai ētahi. Inā rā, he pouākai, he moa ētahi o ngā tānga, he manu ēnei i ngaro i te tirohanga kanohi i ngā tau 500 ki mua. 

Te whakawhāiti i te wā i mahia ai, nā te horopaki

Kua kitea ngā kōiwi me ngā whao moa ki ngā papa o ngā oi ana. He tohu tēnei i kainga ēnei manu e te tangata whenua. E ai ki te whakaaro nō ngā wā patu moa i hua ake ai te rahi o ngā toi ana i Te Waipounamu.

He nui ngā tauira toi ana Māori kua tāia tuaruatia. Ko ētahi o ngā toi kei te tonga o Waitaha me te raki o Ōtākou e whakaatu ana i ngā taonga Pākehā pērā i te kaipuke, i te hoiho me te tuhinga reo Māori i ētahi. E ai ki ngā eminga rangahau nei kua roa te wā e tā kōhatu ana te Māori, mai anō i te wā o te moa tae noa ki te rautau 1800. 

Ngā tauwharenga toi

Ko te nuinga o ngā toi ana e kitea ana ki ngā ana me ngā tauwharenga kōhatu. Ka nōhia ēnei wāhi i ngā wā e haere ana te Māori ki te tiki kai. He puni noho hoki ngā tauwharenga ana i ngā marama kohi kai ki te ngahere, ki ngā repo me ngā mārakerake. 

Te hanga i ngā tohu

Nā te kōmā me te māheniheni o ngā tauwharenga me ngā ana pāpaku (tae rawa ki ngā ana pākeho) ka whai papa tā te Māori. Kua kitea hoki ngā tānga i ngā papa tino teitei i ētahi wā.

He mea peita te toi ana (he tino pērā i Te Ika-a-Māui), kātahi ka whakairotia, ka tapahia, ka wakuwakua, ka whaoa te mata kōhatu. He mea whakaputa te wairua auaha ki ngā toi ana, otirā kāore i whakatapua ōna whakairotanga. Ko ētahi tānga neke atu i te 20 mita te tāroa ka tāiiriiri i ngā tuanui o ngā tauwharenga pākeho.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Brian Allingham, 'Ngā toi ana - Ko wai mā ngā tohungatā nei?', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-toi-ana/page-1 (accessed 20 August 2019)

Story by Brian Allingham, published 22 Oct 2014