Kōrero: Ngā rōpū tautohetohe

Whārangi 4. Whutupaoro me Awherika ki te Tonga

Ngā whakaahua

Nō ngā tau o te 1960 rā anō tīmata ai ngā porotēhi ki te āhua o te noho kaikiri ki Awherika ki te Tonga. I mua atu i tēnei i tākaro te kapa whutupaoro Māori ki a Awherika ki te Tonga i te tau 1921 me te tau 1956. Otirā e ai ki te tuhi hiko a te kaituhi o Awherika ki te Tonga mō te kēmu ki Ahuriri i te tau 1921:

He kino kē te takaro ki te kapa e tapaina ko ngā tāngata whenua o Aotearoa. Te tiro noa ki te manomano Pākehā e whakahau ana i te rōpū kiri paraone kia whakahinga i ō rātou tāngata nō te iwi mā he weriweri ki te tima o Awherika ki te Tonga.1

Te haerenga o te tau 1960

I te tau 1960 ka mārama kāore a Awherika ki te Tonga mō te whakaae kia uru ko ngā kaitākaro Māori ki te kapa Ōpango. Ko te tīmatanga anō tērā o te Uepu Whutupaoro o Aotearoa ki te tuku i ngā tīma i tohua i runga i te kaikiri. Ahakoa kua whakarērea kētia ngā Māori ki te kāinga i mua atu, koinā te wā tuatahi i ara ake ai ētahi whakahē mārika ki tērā āhua. Ka puea ake ngā kīanga pēnei, ‘No Maoris, No Tour’. Ko te ārahi anō tērā a te Pīhopa Mihinare a Wiremu Pānapa te petihana kia ōrite te mana o te Māori me te Pākehā. Engari ka haere tonu te tira o ngā Ōpango.

I te tau 1967 ka whakakorea te haere ki Awherika ki te Tonga mō te kore whaiaro anō ki te Māori.

He tangata hōnore mā

I te haerenga ki Awherika ki te Tonga i te tau 1970, ka tau tētahi whakaaetanga mō ngā kaitākaro Māori (me ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa), arā kia huaina rātou he ‘tangata hōnore mā (honorary whites)’. Heoi ka wheke tonu ētahi. Ko te whakatūnga tērā o HART (Halt All Racist Tours) i te tau 1969; ko te Māori tonu te ai o tērā kaupapa. Heoi ka haere tonu te tira whutupaoro ko Sid Going (he Māori) rāua ko Bryan Williams (nō Hāmoa) ētahi kiri parauri i haere. I whakaae te Kauniuhera Māori ki te haerenga, engari i whakahē tonu te Rōpū Wāhine Māori.

I te tau 1973 ka whakatārewahia e te Pirimia e Norman Kirk ngā mautohe i tōna whakakore i te haerenga mai o te kapa Springbok ki Aotearoa. He mea tīpako hoki tērā tīma i runga i te kaikiri.

Te haerenga mai o ngā Springbok i te tau 1981

I te tau 1981 ka whakaaetia te haerenga mai o te kapa Springbok ki Aotearoa, ā, ka pahū ake te riri whakauaua tē kitea ki Aotearoa i mua. He kitenga tēnei nō te whanake haere mai o ngā rōpū mautohe take Māori me ngā rōpū whakahē i te weheruatanga ā-iwi. Ko te Patu Squad tērā i ngārahutia ngā tuatangata Māori i a Ripeka Evans rātou ko Donna Awatere, ko Hone Harawira. I te takiwā o te 100 ōna mema, ko te nuinga he Māori. Heoi i tukituki anō ngā whakaaro o ngā rōpū mautohe pēnei i a HART. Kāore hoki i pai ki ētahi o ngā rōpū Pākehā ngā take whenua, mana motuhake hoki a ngā Māori. Engari kia taikaha mārika ngā mautohe he nui tonu ngā mea i mauheretia.

Ngā hua porotū

Ko te haerenga o te tau 1981 te wā whakamutunga e tākaro ai Aotearoa me Awherika ki te Tonga i raro i te pūnaha kaikiri. Whai muri i ngā pakanga ki rō kōti ka whakakorea tētahi haerenga ki Awherika ki te Tonga, engari i haere tonu tētahi kapa i te tau i muri mai. Kia hinga rā anō te pūnaha kaikiri o Awherika ki te Tonga i tekau tau 1990, tahi ka māramatia i Awherika ki te Tonga ngā tino whakapau kaha a te hunga whakahē i konei. Ka mahara a Nelson Mandela mō tōna koa nōna i te whare herehere i Robben Island, i te rongo ake kua whakakorehia te kēmu i Kirikiriroa i te kaha rawa o ngā totohe.2 Ki a ia kātahi ka whitikina ia e te rā. Nō te putanga mai o Mandela ki Aotearoa i te tau 1995, ka whakatau ia me tūtaki rawa ki ngā kaiārahi o ngā mautohe, Pākehā mai, Māori mai hoki. I te tau 1994 ka kī ake te Pirimia a Jim Bolger he hapa te haerenga mai o ngā Springboks i te tau 1981.

I te tau 2010 ka tuku te Uepū Whutupaoro o Awherika ki te Tonga i te whakapahā mō te whakakore i te uru o ngā kaitākaro Māori i te wā o te kaikiritanga. Whai muri ko te whakapahā a te Uepū Whutupaoro o Aotearoa, ahakoa i meatia i mua paku ehara tērā i te wā tika kia tuku hōnea atu.

Kupu tāpiri
  1. New Zealand Truth, 17 Mahuru 1921, p. 6, http://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/cgi-bin/paperspast?a=d&cl=search&d=NZTR19210917.2.32&srpos=4&e=-------10--1----0springboks+natives-- (i tirohia i te 28 Hui-tanguru 2012). Back
  2. I takoto ki NZHistory Online, ‘Impact – 1981 Springbok tour.’ http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/culture/1981-springbok-tour/impact-of-the-tour (i tirohia i te 1 Hui-tanguru 2012). Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Basil Keane, 'Ngā rōpū tautohetohe - Whutupaoro me Awherika ki te Tonga', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-ropu-tautohetohe/page-4 (accessed 20 October 2019)

Story by Basil Keane, published 20 Jun 2012