Kōrero: Ngā niupepa me ngā moheni

Whārangi 5. Ngā moheni Māori

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Ngā moheni tuatahi

I tīmata ake ngā moheni Māori i te tekau tau 1950. He reo Pākehā te nuinga, inā rā i whānau tēnei niupepa i te wā e tāmate ana te reo Māori. Heoi, he nui tonu te reo Māori o ētahi moheni, ko ētahi atu he reo Māori katoa. He haumako tonu ngā kōrero, ā, he whakaahuatanga o te ao e noho nei te Māori. I roto i tēnei moheni ka huia mai ngā kōrero hītori, ngā take mohoa, ngā take ā-iwi, ngā take pāpori, me ngā take tōrangapū. Ka whakaute ēnei tuhinga ki te tangata, ā, he ngāwari noa ngā kōrero o roto. 

Te ao hou a ngā kaituhi

I tautoko a Te Ao Hou i ngā kaituhi Māori mā roto tonu i ōna whakataetae tuhituhi. Ko ngā toa tuatahi o ēnei whakataetae ko Witi Ihimaera rāua ko Patricia Grace. I te tau 1959 ka whakaputaina tētahi wāhanga motuhake mā ngā kaituhi Māori. 

Ngā moheni kāwanatanga 

Te Ao Hou

Ko te moheni Māori tuatahi ko Te Ao Hou, i whakaputaina e Te Tari Māori mai i te tau 1952 ki te tau 1975. He maha ngā pukenga Māori, Pākehā hoki i tū hei ētita, hei kaituku kōrero. Arā anō ngā whakaputanga e pā ana ki ngā kōrero tuku iho me ngā pakimaero a te hunga kaituhi Māori. He waiwaiā ngā whakanikoniko o roto me ngā whārangi whakaahua. 

Te Kaea and Tu Tangata

I whakaputa moheni anō ētahi o ngā tari kāwanatanga pērā i a Te Kaea (1979-81) me Tu Tangata (1981-87). He whānui anō ngā take kōrero e pā ana ki ngā take tōrangapū, ki te hunga takitahi hoki. Ko ētahi o ngā kai o roto he tuhinga auaha, he arotake puka, he pūrongo e pā ana ki te reo me ngā toi. 

Ko Kōkiri Paetae (1996-2007) he whakaputanga nā Te Puni Kōkiri e whakamōhio ana i te hunga pānui ki ngā mahi a Te Puni Kōkiri me te whakanui i ngā whakatutukitanga a te Māori. 

Toi Te Kupu and He Muka

E rua ngā moheni i whakaputaina hei tautoko i te whakarauoratanga o te reo Māori. Arā ko Toi te Kupu (1993-), he mea whakaputa e Te Manatū Mātauranga mā ngā tauira reo Māori; me He Muka (1998-), te kawerongo a Te Taura Whiri i te Reo Māori hei whakamārama i a rātou mahi whakaora i te reo. 

Ngā kaipānui Māori, te ekenga taumata a te Māori

I whakaputaina ngā moheni Māori mā ngā iwi katoa, kaua mā te Māori anake. E ai ki te ētita o Te Kaea a Kara Puketapu, me te ētita o Mana a Derek Fox, he koretake ngā rōpū pāho auraki ki te whaiwhai ake i ngā pūrongo e pā ana ki te Māori. E ai ki a Kōkiri Paetae – e aro noa iho ana rātou ki te taha kino a te Māori. Ko te mahi a ēnei momo moheni he whakatairanga i ‘ngā kaupapa papai a te Māori huri noa i Aotearoa’.1

Ngā moheni ā-iwi

Ko ētahi o ngā moheni ā-iwi ko Kia Hiwa Ra (1991-98) nō Ngāti Maniapoto, ko Kahungunu (1991-98) (1991-95), ko Pu Kaea (1992-95, 2006-) nō Mataatua, ko Tūranga nui a Kiwa Pipiwharauroa (1994-97) nō Te Tai Rāwhiti. I tīmata te moheni o Ngāi Tahu a Te Karaka i te tau 1995; kei runga katoa ēnei moheni i te ipurangi i tēnei wā.

I roto i ēnei whakaputanga ka huia mai ngā take pānga ā-iwi me ngā take nui a te iwi Māori whānui. Ka hopu katoatia ngā kōrero e pā ana ki te pāpori, ki te hākinakina, ngā ahurei me ngā pūrongo hauora, pūtea, mātauranga, pakihi, ahuwhenua, hao ika hoki. He wāhanga anō tō ngā moheni mō ngā tuhinga auaha me ngā tuhinga e pā ana ki ngā toi me te reo Māori. Ko ngā kōrero ā-iwi, ngā whakapapa, ngā mōteatea me ngā haurongo a ngā rangatira ētahi tuhinga hoki. He mea kīnaki katoa ēnei kōrero ki ngā pikitia me ngā whakaahua o te iwi. 

Ngā moheni iwi whānui

He whānui ake te marea kaipānui o Mana (1993-) –‘te moheni Māori mā ngā iwi katoa o Aotearoa’. Ko ōna take mātirotiro ko ngā mahi tōrangapū, mahi pāho, pakihi,  hākinakina, take mātauranga, take pāpori, ngā toi me ngā tuhinga e pā ana ki te Māori. Ka whai wāhi anō ngā kōrero tuku iho.

Te Maori News

I Tāmaki-makaurau anake a Te Maori News (1996-97) i tōna tīmatanga ai, nāwai, ā, ka horapa ki te motu. Ko ōna kaupapa kōrero ko te mātauranga, te tauhokohoko, te ahumahi, te hauora, te kāwanatanga me ngā pakihi Māori.

Ngā niupepa tūpuna

I tapaina iho te niupepa o Turanganui-a-Kiwa Pipiwharauroa ki tōna tipuna, arā te niupepa reo Māori o mua, a Te Pipiwharauroa He Kupu Whakamarama (1899-1913), i whakaputaina e H. W. Williams ki Te Rau Printing Works ki Tūranganui-a-Kiwa. Ka whakaute te piki tūranga ki tōna matua mā te tā i ētahi o ana whārangi ki roto i āna whakaputanga. 

Tu Mai

I roto i te moheni whakaahua o Tu Mai (1999-; mai i i te tau 2010 he moheni ipurangi) ka kitea tētahi tirohanga tangata whenua e pā ana ki ngā take tōrangapū, Tiriti o Waitangi, whakataunga tiriti, hauora, pakihi, ahuwhenua, ahumahi, ā-rohe, toi me ngā kōrero mō ngā ngaio Māori i ngā momo mahi maha.

Kei ēnei moheni Māori te wairua kakama ki te kōrero i ngā take e pā ana ki te ao Māori, ki ngā reanga, ki ngā kōrero tuku iho me ngā whakaaro Māori. He tino onge ēnei tū kōrero i roto i ngā hautaka auraki. 

Kupu tāpiri
  1. Kōkiri Paetae, September 1996, p. 1. Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Jane McRae, 'Ngā niupepa me ngā moheni - Ngā moheni Māori', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-niupepa-me-nga-moheni/page-5 (accessed 6 December 2019)

He kōrero nā Jane McRae, i tāngia i te 22 Oct 2014