Kōrero: Ngā iwi o Whanganui

Whārangi 2. Ngā pakanga

Ngā whakaahua

Ngā pakanga mō te whenua

I ngā tau tōmua o te rau tau 1800, ka rongo ngā iwi o Wanganui i te pakū o ngā pū a ngā taua mau pū o te raki, pēnei i a Ngāti Toa i raro i a Te Rauparaha. E rua ngā wā ka whakaeke mai a Ngāpuhi ki te rohe; i te tau 1810 i raro i a Patuone, ko Te Rauparaha rāua ko Te Rangihaeata o Ngāti Toa āna haumi. I whakaekengia te pā o Pūtiki; nō muri ka piki te taua i te awa. Ka horo ētahi pā, engari kia tae ki tētahi kūititanga o te awa, ka mau, ka hinga te taua o Ngāpuhi i ngā toa o Whanganui i raro i a Te Peehi Tūroa. Ko Kaiwhakauka te ingoa o te wāhi i hinga te taua o Ngāpuhi, kotahi kiromita whakararo i te tūtakitanga o ngā awa o Whanganui me Retaruke.

I te tau 1821, ka whakaekea anōtia ngā iwi o Whanganui e tētahi ope taua nō te raki. Ka hinga ngā rāwaho i ngā toa o Whanganui i raro i tō rātou kaingārahu a Hōri Kīngi Te Anaua, he ariki nō te pito whakararo o te awa. Ko Mangatoa te wāhi i tū ai te pakanga nei. E rua ngā wā e whakaeke ana a Ngāti Raukawa, e rua ngā wā e panaia ana e Te Peehi mā.

Taka rawa ki te tau 1829, i te wā e hoki ana a Te Rauparaha ki tōna kāinga hōu i te moutere o Kapiti, ka whakaekehia anōtia e rātou ko ana haumi o Ngāti Raukawa te pā o Pūtiki. Heoi, i puta te ihu o te nuinga o ngā rangatira o Whanganui i tā rātou rerenga whakarunga i te awa; whai anō kīia ai te awa, ko te ‘kōura putu roa’ (te putanga o ngā rangatira).

Te Pākehā me te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni

I te tīmatanga, torutoru noa iho ngā tūtakitanga a ngā iwi o Whanganui ki te Pākehā, ko te nuinga ko te hunga patu tohorā me ngā kaihokohoko; ko ētahi o rātou ka moe ki roto i te iwi. Whai muri i te hainatanga o Te Tiriti o Waitangi i Wanganui i te tau 1840, ka hokona ngā whenua o Wanganui ki te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni. Kāore i roa, ka kī te tāone i ngā tāngata whai Pākehā. Nā tō rātou kaha hiakai ki te whenua, ka tipu te raruraru i waenganui i ngā iwi o raro ki ngā iwi o runga. I te tau 1847, ka whakaekehia te tāone o Wanganui e Tōpine Mamaku rāua ko Te Peehi Tūroa o Ngāti Hāua-te-rangi; kāore i nui te toto i maringi.

Ko taua ingoa engari he rerekē te tuhi

Ko te ‘whanga nui’ te tikanga o te ingoa o te awa o Whanganui – he kōrero mō te whānui o ngā paripari tai kei reira. E mau ana i te tāone o ‘Wanganui’ te ingoa i rangona ai e te taringa Pākehā.

Ngā pakanga o Aotearoa

I ngā pakanga nui o Aotearoa, i te tau 1864, ka whakaekehia te tāone o Wanganui e ngā iwi o te taha whakarunga. He whai rātou i te Pai Mārire (Hauhau), he whakapono i whakahē ki te raupatu a te Pākehā i ngā whenua o te Māori. Ka whakaritea te wā mō te pakanga; ko te wāhi ko Moutoa, he moutere ririki kei te awa o Whanganui, kei te taha whakararo paku nei o Rānana. He parekura nui tēnei, e 50 ngā Hauhau i mate, e 16 ō ratou hoariri ka mate, tae atu ki te Pākehā. Kei te pōuri tonu ngā iwi o te awa mō tēnei parekura.

Nō muri i te pakanga ki Moutoa, ka tawhiti rawa ngā taha e rua, tētahi i tētahi; ko ngā iwi o te pito whakarunga ka whai i te Kīngitanga, ko ngā iwi o te pito whakararo ka kūpapa ki raro i te Karauna. Ka noho tōtara wāhi rua ngā iwi nei i ngā riri i te tekau tau atu i 1860. Ka puta te toa o Keepa Te Rangihiwinui (Major Kemp) i roto i ngā pakanga maha i tēnei wā.

Nō te whakaekenga rā anō o Te Kooti ki te pito whakarunga o te awa i te tau 1869, kātahi anō ka whakakotahi ngā wehenga o Whanganui i a rātou. Ka whanake whakarunga te taua a Te Keepa rāua ko Tōpia Tūroa – e 500 te rahi me ngā waka, e 65 te nui hei whai i a Te Kooti; kīhai i tutuki.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

David Young, 'Ngā iwi o Whanganui - Ngā pakanga', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-iwi-o-whanganui/page-2 (accessed 23 October 2019)

Story by David Young, published 8 Feb 2005, updated 22 Mar 2017