Skip to main content
Logo: Te Ara - The Online Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Print all pages now.

Whanganui tribes

by  David Young

Ka tangohia te ingoa o ngā iwi o Whanganui i te awa ka rere atu i ngā kāhui maunga kei te puku o Te Ika-a-Māui ki a Tangaroa. Mō ngā rau tau maha, kua noho he iwi ki ōna tahataha, kua hoea ōna wai e ngā tini waka, kua mahia ngā kai i ōna wai, kua tutū hoki te puehu mōna. Ka kī te iwi, ‘Ko au te awa, ko te awa ko au’.


Ancestors

E rere kau mai te Awa nui nei
Mai te Kāhui Maunga ki Tangaroa
Ko au te Awa
Ko te Awa ko au.

Kupe

He maha ngā wāhi i Aotearoa i taunahatia e Kupe. He kaumoana rongonui ia puta noa i Te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa. Ka ū a Kupe ki Whanganui, ka whakaingoatia e ia taua wāhi, ko Te Kaihau-a-Kupe, nā te puhipuhi tonu o ngā hau. Kātahi ka toro whakarunga a Kupe i te awa, ki Kauarapāoa rā ano ki te kimi tāngata; tē kitea. I tapaina taua wāhi ko Kauarapāoa i te toremitanga o Arapāoa, tētahi o ana tāngata, i a ia ka whakawhiti i te awa i te wā e waipuke ana.

E kīia ana te kōrero, ahakoa ka rongo ia i te tangi o te weka, te kōkako, te pīwakawaka, kīhai rawa a Kupe i kite i te tangata. Ka heke a Kupe ki te pūaha o te awa, ka rere ki Pātea i te taha tonga o Taranaki, ki reira whakatōngia ai e ia he purapura karaka ki aua whenua parahua.

Turi me Ngā Paerangi

Nō tana hokinga ki Hawaiki, ka whakamārama a Kupe i ana haerenga ki tōna iwi. Nāwai, ā, ka wehe te waka o Aotea ki Aotearoa i raro i a Turi. Ka tae rātou ki Aotearoa, ka whakatauria ko Pātea hei kāinga mō rātou. E ai ki ngā kōrero tuku iho, ka hōrapa ngā uri o Turi ki te whenua, ka tūtaki atu rātou ki a Ngā Paerangi, ngā tāngata whenua o tēnei rohe. E kī ana te kōrero e ora ana te tupuna a Paerangi e rima whakapaparanga i mua i a Turi.

Kei ētahi kōrero tuku iho e kī ana i puta mai te ingoa o te iwi a Ngāti Hau, i a Haupipi. I te tukinga o tōna waka a Kurahaupō, ka hūpeke atu a ia ki runga i a Aotea. Kei ētahi atu e kī ana, he whakarāpopotonga a Hau mō Te Āti Haunui-a-Pāpārangi. I haere mai te tupuna a Haunui-a-Pāpārangi i te taha o Turi, ā, ka noho tahi ōna uri me Ngā Paerangi.

Tamatea

Ko Tamatea-pōkai-whenua te rangatira o te waka Tākitimu. Ka piki rā anō a ia i te awa o Whanganui hōpara ai. I mua i te tomokanga o tōna waka ki te awa, ka tonoa e Tamatea tana tūmau ki uta ki te rapu harakeke hei whiri pūtiki mōna. Ka tapaina te wāhi i kitea te harakeke, ko ‘Te Pūtiki-wharanui-a Tamatea-pōkai-whenua’. Ka haere ake a Turi kia kite i a Tamatea, ka mate kanehe, ka moe tana tamāhine a Tāneroa i a Uenga-ariki, te tuakana, teina rānei a Tamatea.

Te hangatanga o te awa o Whanganui

I ngā wā onamata ka noho tahi a Ruapehu rātou ko Tongariro, ko Taranaki ki te puku o Te Ika-a-Māui-tikitiki-a-Taranga. I tētahi rā ka whakamātau a Taranaki ki te kāhaki i a Pīhanga, te wahine a Tongariro. Tutū ana te puehu i tēnei mahi, ka hinga a Taranaki ka rere mā te rohe o Whanganui. I a ia ka rere ka keria e ia te riu o te awa. Ka tau a Taranaki ki tana tūranga e tū nei ia i tēnei wā.

Kātahi ka hahauhia e Tamatea tētahi waka hei piki i te awa. Ka whakarērea e ia tana tūmau ki te pūaha o te awa tatari ai. Ki ētahi, nō konei te tikanga o te ingoa, a Whanganui.

Ngā tamariki a Tamakehu rāua ko Ruaka

Tokotoru ngā tamariki a Tamakehu, te rangatira o Te Āti-Haunui-a-Pāpārangi rāua ko tana wahine tuatahi a Ruaka: arā, ko Hine-ngākau ki te taha whakarunga o te awa, ko Tama Ūpoko ki te pokapū o te awa, ko Tūpoho ki te taha whakararo. He rite ngā wā whakapuakina ai rātou hei whakaatu i te kotahitanga o ngā iwi. Arā atu anō ngā pepeha hei whakanui i tēnei āhuatanga, pērā i “Te taura whiri a Hine-ngākau”, he kōrero mō ngā herenga tāngata i waenganui i nga iwi, tētahi i tētahi.

Ētahi atu waka

Ka rere a Whanganui, mai i te puku o Te Ika-a-Māui ki tōna pūaha, e 230 km te roa o te awa ka taea e te waka. Neke atu i te 80 ngā pā me ngā kāinga e tū ana i ōna tahatika. Koinei tētahi o ngā huarahi nui mō te Māori i ōna wā. Nā tēnei āhuatanga ka whai pānga ki te awa a Ngāti Maniapoto me Ngāti Raukawa o Tainui, a Ngāti Kahungunu o Tākitimu, a Ngāti Tūwharetoa o Te Arawa.


Wars

Ngā pakanga mō te whenua

I ngā tau tōmua o te rau tau 1800, ka rongo ngā iwi o Wanganui i te pakū o ngā pū a ngā taua mau pū o te raki, pēnei i a Ngāti Toa i raro i a Te Rauparaha. E rua ngā wā ka whakaeke mai a Ngāpuhi ki te rohe; i te tau 1810 i raro i a Patuone, ko Te Rauparaha rāua ko Te Rangihaeata o Ngāti Toa āna haumi. I whakaekengia te pā o Pūtiki; nō muri ka piki te taua i te awa. Ka horo ētahi pā, engari kia tae ki tētahi kūititanga o te awa, ka mau, ka hinga te taua o Ngāpuhi i ngā toa o Whanganui i raro i a Te Peehi Tūroa. Ko Kaiwhakauka te ingoa o te wāhi i hinga te taua o Ngāpuhi, kotahi kiromita whakararo i te tūtakitanga o ngā awa o Whanganui me Retaruke.

I te tau 1821, ka whakaekea anōtia ngā iwi o Whanganui e tētahi ope taua nō te raki. Ka hinga ngā rāwaho i ngā toa o Whanganui i raro i tō rātou kaingārahu a Hōri Kīngi Te Anaua, he ariki nō te pito whakararo o te awa. Ko Mangatoa te wāhi i tū ai te pakanga nei. E rua ngā wā e whakaeke ana a Ngāti Raukawa, e rua ngā wā e panaia ana e Te Peehi mā.

Taka rawa ki te tau 1829, i te wā e hoki ana a Te Rauparaha ki tōna kāinga hōu i te moutere o Kapiti, ka whakaekehia anōtia e rātou ko ana haumi o Ngāti Raukawa te pā o Pūtiki. Heoi, i puta te ihu o te nuinga o ngā rangatira o Whanganui i tā rātou rerenga whakarunga i te awa; whai anō kīia ai te awa, ko te ‘kōura putu roa’ (te putanga o ngā rangatira).

Te Pākehā me te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni

I te tīmatanga, torutoru noa iho ngā tūtakitanga a ngā iwi o Whanganui ki te Pākehā, ko te nuinga ko te hunga patu tohorā me ngā kaihokohoko; ko ētahi o rātou ka moe ki roto i te iwi. Whai muri i te hainatanga o Te Tiriti o Waitangi i Wanganui i te tau 1840, ka hokona ngā whenua o Wanganui ki te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni. Kāore i roa, ka kī te tāone i ngā tāngata whai Pākehā. Nā tō rātou kaha hiakai ki te whenua, ka tipu te raruraru i waenganui i ngā iwi o raro ki ngā iwi o runga. I te tau 1847, ka whakaekehia te tāone o Wanganui e Tōpine Mamaku rāua ko Te Peehi Tūroa o Ngāti Hāua-te-rangi; kāore i nui te toto i maringi.

Ko taua ingoa engari he rerekē te tuhi

Ko te ‘whanga nui’ te tikanga o te ingoa o te awa o Whanganui – he kōrero mō te whānui o ngā paripari tai kei reira. E mau ana i te tāone o ‘Wanganui’ te ingoa i rangona ai e te taringa Pākehā.

Ngā pakanga o Aotearoa

I ngā pakanga nui o Aotearoa, i te tau 1864, ka whakaekehia te tāone o Wanganui e ngā iwi o te taha whakarunga. He whai rātou i te Pai Mārire (Hauhau), he whakapono i whakahē ki te raupatu a te Pākehā i ngā whenua o te Māori. Ka whakaritea te wā mō te pakanga; ko te wāhi ko Moutoa, he moutere ririki kei te awa o Whanganui, kei te taha whakararo paku nei o Rānana. He parekura nui tēnei, e 50 ngā Hauhau i mate, e 16 ō ratou hoariri ka mate, tae atu ki te Pākehā. Kei te pōuri tonu ngā iwi o te awa mō tēnei parekura.

Nō muri i te pakanga ki Moutoa, ka tawhiti rawa ngā taha e rua, tētahi i tētahi; ko ngā iwi o te pito whakarunga ka whai i te Kīngitanga, ko ngā iwi o te pito whakararo ka kūpapa ki raro i te Karauna. Ka noho tōtara wāhi rua ngā iwi nei i ngā riri i te tekau tau atu i 1860. Ka puta te toa o Keepa Te Rangihiwinui (Major Kemp) i roto i ngā pakanga maha i tēnei wā.

Nō te whakaekenga rā anō o Te Kooti ki te pito whakarunga o te awa i te tau 1869, kātahi anō ka whakakotahi ngā wehenga o Whanganui i a rātou. Ka whanake whakarunga te taua a Te Keepa rāua ko Tōpia Tūroa – e 500 te rahi me ngā waka, e 65 te nui hei whai i a Te Kooti; kīhai i tutuki.


The 20th and 21st centuries

Ngā mahi tāpoi

Nō te tekau tau atu i 1890 ka tīmata te toro a ngā waka kawe tāpoi ki te awa, ka puta te rongo mō tēnei ki te ao, he wāhi tino pai te awa o Whanganui mō te hunga tāpoi. Nā tēnei kaupapa me te maha noa atu o ngā āhuatanga o te ao hōu, ka rerekē te noho o ngā iwi, ka kaha te heke o ngā mahi pēnei i te mahi tuna.

Te kerēme mō te awa o Whanganui

Nō te tau rau tau 1800 ka tīmata ngā iwi o Whanganui ki te tono mō ā rātou pānga ki te awa; ka haere te wā roa, ka noho ko tēnei te kēhi roa rawa i te hītori o Aotearoa. Ka tīmata ngā pitihana me ngā tono ki te kōti i te tekau tau atu i 1830. Ka taka ki te tekau tau atu i 1990, ka tae te take nei ki aroaro o Te Rōpū Whakamana i Te Tiriti o Waitangi. A muri iho ka whitiwhi kōrero rātou mō tētahi whakataunga. I te tekau tau atu i 1970, ka parea ngā wai e rere iho ana i Tongariro ki te awa o Whanganui, kia rere kē ki ngā pā wai o Tongariro (Tongariro Power Scheme). Mai anō i taua wā, kei te whawhai ngā iwi o Whanganui me te hunga tiaki taiao kia tiakina te awa.

I te tau 1993 ka nōhia e ngā uri o Whanganui tētahi puninga o Te Papa Atawhai (Department of Conversation) i Tieke, kei te pokapū o te awa. Nā tā rātou noho ki te whenua, ka tū anō te mana whenua o te iwi, me te whai kanohi Māori o taua wāhi hei mātakitaki mā te tini manuhiri ka heke i te awa.

Pākaitore

I te tau 1995, ka nōhia e ngā iwi o Whanganui a Pākaitore (ngā māra o Moutoa), kei te taha o te awa i te tāone o Wanganui mō ngā rā e 79. Ka tutuki te noho i runga i te rangimārie, ka takoto tētahi whakaritenga i waenganui i te kāwanatanga, te kāwanatanga ā-rohe me ngā iwi o Whanganui. Kei te putake o te kaupapa, ko te kerēme a ngā iwi o Whanganui mō te awa. Ko te titiro a ngā iwi o Whanganui, he tupuna te awa, he oranga tinana, wairua hoki.


Facts and figures

Ngā tuakiritanga ā-iwi

I ngā tatauranga o Aotearoa mai i te tau 1991 ka pātaihia ngā tāngata Māori nō tēhea iwi rātou.

Kei raro ko ngā nama e whakaatu ana tokohia ngā tāngata nō ngā iwi o Whanganui (e whai pānga ana rānei ki ētahi atu iwi hoki). Kei raro anō whakaatuhia ai ngā iwi o ngā rohe nunui i te tatauranga o te tau 2013.

Ko 1901 te tau whakamutunga rawa i pātaihia ai te Māori nō tēhea iwi rātou. Heoi kāore i pātaihia kia whakatakotohia ngā iwi maha.

Ngāti Hāua

  • tatauranga o 1991: 144
  • tatauranga o 2001: 618
  • tatauranga o 2006: 822
  • tatauranga o 2013: 867

Ngā rohe nunui

  • Manawatū–Whanganui: 255
  • Tāmaki-makaurau: 165

Ngāti Hauiti

  • tatauranga o 2001: 1,002
  • tatauranga o 2006: 1,038
  • tatauranga o 2013: 1,026

Ngā rohe nunui

  • Manawatū–Whanganui: 387
  • Te Whanganui-a-Tara: 168

Te Āti Haunui-a-Pāpārangi

  • tatauranga o 1901: 2,339 (Whanganui)
  • tatauranga o 1991: 4,458
  • tatauranga o 2001: 8,820
  • tatauranga o 2006: 10,437
  • tatauranga o 2013: 11,691

Ngā rohe nunui

  • Manawatū–Whanganui: 5,115
  • Te Whanganui-a-Tara: 1,539

Hononga, rauemi nō waho

More suggestions and sources


How to cite this page: David Young, 'Ngā iwi o Whanganui', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-iwi-o-whanganui/print (accessed 23 October 2019)

Story by David Young, published 8 Feb 2005, updated 22 Mar 2017