Kōrero: Kāwanatanga

Whārangi 2. Te whakatinana i te kāwanatanga

Ngā whakaahua

Te whakauru i ngā tikanga Māori

I ngā tau tata whai muri i te hainatanga o te Tiriti o Waitangi, he uaua rawa mō te kāwanatanga ki te whakahaere i ngā rohe Māori katoa. Kāretahi he ope taua o ngā kāwana tuatahi, kāore anō kia pakari ngā whakahaere. Nā reira ka whai wāhi nui ngā tikanga me te ritenga Māori.

Inā koa, i te tau 1844 ka whakamana a Kāwana Pitiroi i te ture Native Exemption Ordinance. I ngā whakawānga kēhi o tētahi Māori me tētahi Pākehā, he reawhā te muru taonga mai i te tangata Māori; tāpiri anō ki ērā atu whakawhiu. He ōrite tēnei ki te tikanga Māori o te murunga hara.

I raro i te ture New Zealand Constitution Act 1852 ka whakamanaia te waihanga o ngā rohe Māori; ā, kia toitū hoki ko ngā ture, ngā ritenga me ngā whakahaere Māori. Heoi anō, kāore noa iho i waihangatia ēnei rohe Māori.

Pākehā ā-ture

Ko tētahi tauira o ngā kaupapa whakawaimeha i te Māori ki roto ki te ao Pākehā ka pā i te tau 1912, i te whakaurunga o tētahi kawenga ture ki roto ki te Native Land Amendment Act; i āhei ai te Māori ki te tono ki te Kōti Whenua Māori kia noho Pākehā ia i raro i te ture. Kāore tēnei i pā ki te nui o te toto tauiwi o tētahi Māori, engari i pā ki ētahi kaupapa pāpori pērā i te mōhio ki te reo Ingarihi, te mātau ki te mātauranga Pākehā, me te utu mahi, whenua rānei. I mua i te whakakorenga o te kawenga ture i te tau 1931, e 77 ngā Māori i hurihia hei Pākehā.

Te whakawaimehatanga me te ture Pākehā

Ko tōna tikanga he rangitahi anake te whakamana o te kāwanatanga i te ture Māori kia puta ētahi reanga hou e whakaae ana ki te ture Pākehā. Ko tētahi wāhanga o tēnei tukanga he whakawai i te Māori ki ngā āhua, ngā ritenga me te reo Pākehā. Kātahi ka whakahautia ki roto ki ngā niupepa reo Māori a te kāwanatanga pērā i Te Karere Maori, Te Manuhiri Tuarangi me te Maori Intelligencer kia tukua ki te Pākehā ‘te whakarite i ngā mea katoa, nā te mea kei te Pākehā te mātauranga, te kaha, ngā rawa, me te metararahi, ā, ka whakapūmautia te Kawanatanga o tō whenua … whiua ki tahaki te taha Māori, whāia kētia ngā whakahaere a te Pākehā.1 He nui te Māori i whai i te ia o ēnei tohutohu engari ka mau tonu te nuinga ki ngā āhuatanga o te ao Māori.

Ngā taua mau pū

He wā kua tahuri te kāwanatanga ki te pū hei kaupare i ngā whakatumatuma ki tōna mana. I ngā tau o 1844 me 1845 ka poroporoa e Hōne Heke Pōkai te pou kara o Peretānia i Kororāreka (ko Russell).

Nō te tutūtanga o te puehu ka whakaara a Kāwana Pitiroi i ana taua ki te tinei i te ahi o Heke me ana hoa pakanga. Nāwai ka whakaūngia e Kāwana Thomas Gore Browne te mana kāwanatanga i te tūnga o tōna ihu ki te mana whenua Māori ki Waitara i Taranaki. Nō konei ka pakaru anō mai te pakanga i te tau 1860.

Nā te kore hiahia o Kāwana Kerei (George Grey) ki tētahi mana whakahaere kē atu i Aotearoa ka pāhuatia e ia a Waikato me te Kīngitanga i te tau 1863. I te tau 1881 ka whakamahia anō ngā taua hei wāwāhi i te kāinga o Parihaka ki Taranaki. He mautohe mārire tā ērā iwi ki raro i te awe o Te Whiti-o-Rongomai rāua ko Tohu Kākahi.

I te whakakāhoretanga a ngā rangatira o Muriwhenua ki te utu tāke kurī i ngā tau mai i 1890, me te whakahē a Rua Kēnana me ana apataki kia māpere ki te Pakanga Tuatahi o te Ao, ka urutomo anō ngā taua o te kāwanatanga.

Kupu tāpiri
  1. Te Karere Maori or the Maori Messenger 2, nama 3 (2 Haratua 1862), wh. 30. Translation by Paul Meredith. Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Paul Meredith and Rawinia Higgins, 'Kāwanatanga - Te whakatinana i te kāwanatanga', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/kawanatanga/page-2 (accessed 24 March 2019)

Story by Paul Meredith and Rawinia Higgins, published 20 Jun 2012, updated 22 Aug 2016