Kōrero: Kāwanatanga

Whārangi 1. Te whakamārama i te kupu kāwanatanga

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Ka ahu mai te kupu kāwanatanga i te kupu Ingarihi mō te kāwana (governor). Kāore ōna ritenga i te ao Māori. Ka mutu nā te noho ā-iwi mai o te Māori he rerekē ōna mana rangatira, ōna mana whakahaere me ōna tikanga noho i te huatau kāwanatanga i puea mai i te pūnaha karauna o Peretānia. Ko te rapunga tērā o ngā kanohi tuatahi o te kāwanatanga Peretānia i ētahi kupu hei whakamārama i ngā tū whakaaro i hiahia rātou ki te whakatinana.

1835, Te Whakaputanga

I te tau 1835 ka tāmokotia te Whakaputanga o te Rangatiratanga o Niu Tīreni e ngā rangatira o Te Tai Tokerau. Nā te Kainoho Peretānia nā James Busby te waikanaetanga i hoahoa. I roto i te whakaputanga kāore ngā rangatira e whakaae kia riro ki tētahi te mana kāwanatanga o tō rātou motu hāunga anō ngā tangata nā rātou i tohu, i whakamana hoki.1 Te āhua nei ko te whakamāramatanga ki ngā rangatira mō te kupu ‘kāwanatanga’, ka mau tonu i a rātou te tino rangatiratanga kia tukuna rā anō e rātou ki ētahi.

‘Governorship’, ‘governance’ rānei?

I rea ake te kupu ‘kāwana’ i tōna hoa kupu Ingarihi, ‘governor’, ā, ka hua mai te kupu kāwanatanga. I ētahi wā ko te whakamāoritanga tēnei o te ‘governance’. E ai ki ngā tumukōrero pēnei i a Judith Binney, nō te kitenga tuatahi o te kupu ‘kāwanatanga’ i te Tiriti o Waitangi ka mahara rātou ko ngā mana me ngā mahi tērā o te kāwana a William Hobson. Nā whai anō ko tō rātou whakaaro ki te kupu kāwanatanga ko te ‘governorship’, kaua ko te ‘governance’. Ka mutu he tino rerekē te aronga o ēnei kupu, ā, ki te whakaaro o ētahi koinei rātou i haina i te tiriti.

Te Tiriti o Waitangi

I te tau 1840 ka hainatia te Tiriti o Waitangi. He nui noa atu ngā rangatira i haina i ērā i haina i te whakaputanga i te tau 1835. E ai ki te wāhanga tuatahi i te reo Māori, ‘ka tuku rawa atu ki te Kuini o Ingarangi ake tonu atu te Kawanatanga katoa o o ratou wenua’. I te taha Ingarihi o te tiriti ka mea, ‘he tuku rawa i te mana tūturu katoa o ō rātou whenua ki te Kūini o Ingarangi mō ake tonu atu.’2 Ka whakamahia e ngā kaiwhakamāori te kupu ‘kāwanatanga hei whakamārama i te ‘complete sovereignty’.

Te whakamārama anō i te kupu kāwanatanga

I namata nei i werohia ai e te hunga matatau ki te tika o ngā whakamārama reo. Kua kī ake rātou kāore tonu ngā rangatira e haina mena i te mārama ki te hōhonutanga ake, arā, ki te tuku atu i te mana ki ō rātou whenua. I te whakamāoritanga hōu a Hugh Kāwharu o te Tiriti ka whiua atu te kupu ‘sovereignty’, ka whakamahia te ‘government’ mō te ‘kāwanatanga’. E ai ki a Kāwharu, ‘Kore rawa e mārama ngā kaihaina Māori ki te kāwanatanga hei kupu mō te “sovereignty”: arā, kāore kau he māramatanga mō rātou i roto i ngā āhuatanga kua kitea e rātou i te ao Māori, i ngā tauira rānei i roto i te ao Māori, tae noa mai ki taua wā.’3

Tino rangatiratanga

Kei te wāhanga tuarua o te Tiriti i whakaūngia ko te ‘kāwanatanga’ o te motu ka haere ki te Karauna, engari ka mau tonu te Māori ki te tino rangatiratanga ki ō rātou hapū, ki ō rātou whenua me ō rātou taonga katoa. Heoi kei te wāhanga reo Ingarihi i te kaupapa tuatahi ka whakamāramatia te tikanga o ‘te tino rangatiratanga’ arā, ‘full, exclusive and undisturbed possession’.4 Ki tā Kāwharu whakamārama ko te ‘unqualified exercise of their chieftainship’.5

Mai noa e tautohe ana te Māori me te kāwanatanga ki te tikanga ake o te ‘kāwanatanga’ me te ‘tino rangatiratanga’. Ko tā te kāwanatanga mahi he whakatau i ōna mana kāwanatanga mā te taunaki, te whakamahitahi, te ringakaha me ngā ture hanganga. Heoi nō nātatanei ko te whakamārama o ētahi Māori mō te tino rangatiratanga ko te ‘Māori self-government’.

Kupu tāpiri
  1. I takoto ki Facsimiles of the Declaration of Independence and the Treaty of Waitangi. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Government Printer, 1976, preface. Back
  2. I takoto ki Facsimiles of the Declaration of Independence and the Treaty of Waitangi, preface. Back
  3. I. H. Kawharu, ‘Treaty of Waitangi – Kawharu Translation.’ Waitangi Tribunal, http://www.waitangi-tribunal.govt.nz/treaty/kawharutranslation.asp (i tirohia i te 28 Haratua 2012). Back
  4. I takoto ki Facsimiles of the Declaration of Independence and the Treaty of Waitangi, preface. Back
  5. I. H. Kawharu, ētita, Waitangi: Maori and Pakeha perspectives of the Treaty of Waitangi. Tāmaki-makau-rau: Oxford University Press, 1989. Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Paul Meredith and Rawinia Higgins, 'Kāwanatanga - Te whakamārama i te kupu kāwanatanga', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/kawanatanga/page-1 (accessed 23 November 2019)

He kōrero nā Paul Meredith and Rawinia Higgins, i tāngia i te 20 Jun 2012, updated 22 Aug 2016