Kōrero: Kāwanatanga

Whārangi 3. Te tāmi i ngā ātete Māori

Ngā whakaahua

Ngā whakahē hoko whenua

Ka whakatika te Paremata tuatahi o Aotearoa (tau 1852) ki te hoko i ngā whenua Māori mō te kongakonga noa iho. Taka mai ki te tau 1860 kua riro i te kaikōmihana whenua matua o Kerei te nuinga o Te Waipounamu; haunga anō ki Te Ika-a-Māui, he uaua ake te hao whenua nā te nui o te iwi Māori. Kātahi ka tipu ngā whakamau i waenganui i ngā iwi, ā, ka horapa i te motu. Nō konei ka hua ake te Kīngitanga.

He pā whakawairua

I muri i ngā riri whenua me te raupatutanga o ngā whenua haumako i Waikato ka taui a Tāwhiao me ana kaitautoko ki rāwahi o te awa o Pūniu ki roto o Ngāti Maniapoto. Kātahi ka whakatakototia e rātou te aukati ki te Pākehā, ā, ka mōhiotia taua rohe ko te ‘King Country’. E rua tekau tau ka noho motuhake tēnei rohe mai i ngā whakahaere o te kāwanatanga. I ngā tau tōmua o te rautau 1900 i te wā o Pirimia Richard Seddon (Te Hētana) ka kaikā ia kia tineia te mana o te Kīngitanga. Nā whai anō i te tau 1903 ka whakaae a Kīngi Mahuta i te tono a Te Hētana kia piki ki runga i te Kaunihera Hanga Ture. I noho rawa a Mahuta ki te Kaunihera Hanga Ture tae noa ki te tau 1910; heoi he tūranga iti noa iho tōna, ā, kīhai i whanake ngā kerēme raupatu o Waikato.

Te whakahoa ki ngā rangatira

Kātahi ka tahuri te kāwanatanga ki te whakahoahoa ki ngā rangatira noho mārire ki te kāwanatanga. I te tau 1860 ka whakatūria e Kāwana Browne te hui i Kohimarama, ā, e 200 ngā rangatira ka mene atu. Ko tōna kaupapa he whakahē i te kaupapa o te Kīngitanga me te whakamana i ngā kaupapa hoko whenua a te kāwanatanga. I te hokinga o Kerei ki tōna tūranga i te tau 1861 ka whāia e ia tāna ake rautaki kia hanga i ētahi rūnanga ki ngā rohe, ā, ka whai mana rātou i te taha o ngā kaiwhakawā ā-rohe ki te hanga ture ki ngā hapori. Nō konei ka tāmōmōhia te tino rangatiratanga a te Māori mā te tuku i ētahi rangatiratanga ki raro tonu i te mana o te kāwanatanga.

Te Kōti Whenua Māori

Nō te kakenga o te taupori Pākehā ka kaha ake te whāinga a te kāwanatanga i te whenua Māori. Hei whakatere, hei whakamāmā anō hoki i ngā hoko, ka whakatakitahitia ngā taitara whenua Māori. Arā, i te tau 1865 ka hangaia te Kōti Whenua Māori. Ko tōna oati tēnei; ‘ka whakaaturia te whakatau whakaaio o te Koroni me te piki o te ora me te noho tika a te iwi Māori mehemea i whakaritea ō rātou pānga whenua, ā, ka ōrite te tikanga o te rangatiratanga o te whenua Māori ki tō te ture Pākehā.’1 Mai i te pito o te rautau 1800 ko te Kōti Whenua Māori te taero nui o te Māori. Ki tā ētahi tumukōrero he pononga noa iho te kōti nō te kāwanatanga, ā, ka mahitahi ngā kaiwhakawā me ngā apataki Karauna ki te wewete i te mana whenua Māori. He maha ngā pitihana a ngā iwi ki te Paremata mō ngā mahi a te Kōti Whenua Māori.

Ngā māngai Māori

I te tau 1867 ka hangaia ngā tūru Māori e whā ki raro i te ture Māori Representation Act. Ko tōna tikanga he kaupapa rangitahi ngā tūru. Ko te matū o ngā tūru he whakawai i ngā iwi ki te kāwanatanga me te tinei i ngā tino rangatiratanga o ngā rangatira. Nā te whakanoho kia whā noa iho ngā tūru Māori, kāore i taea e te Māori te whai mana ake mā te pōti hoki. Ka mutu whai muri i te tau 1876 (te wā i whakakōhatuhia ngā tūru) ka tohu atu te kāwanatanga ki ngā tūru Māori mō ōna kaupapa mahitahi me te Māori. Heoi ka raungaitihia ngā māngai Māori i rō Paremata, ā, ka whakamahia rātou hei karetao i ngā kaupapa kāwanatanga ki ngā Māori.

Kupu tāpiri
  1. I takoto ki ‘The Pouakani Report 1993.’ Waitangi Tribunal, http://www.waitangi-tribunal.govt.nz/reports/viewchapter.asp?reportID=ad61afe4-9943-41f1-8872-7435b1ab83b8&chapter=23 (i tirohia i te 28 Haratua 2012). Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Paul Meredith and Rawinia Higgins, 'Kāwanatanga - Te tāmi i ngā ātete Māori', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/kawanatanga/page-3 (accessed 23 October 2019)

Story by Paul Meredith and Rawinia Higgins, published 20 Jun 2012, updated 22 Aug 2016