Kōrero: Hapori

Whārangi 5. Te hauora o te motu

Ngā whakaahua

Atu i te tekau tau o 1950 ka piki te hauora o te taupori. Ka heke te rahi o te rangatahi me ngā taipakeke ka mate. Nō nā noa nei ka heke te toharite mate o ngā taipakeke whai mahi, me te hunga kua tae ki te ahunga rua.

Ka piki ngā tau o te tangata

I te tau 2000, ko te toharite, e 76 ngā tau ka ora te tāne, e 81 ngā tau ka ora te wahine. Kei raro iho ngā tatauranga mō te Māori – e 68 tau mō te tāne, e 71 tau mō te wahine.

Ngā mate kōhungahunga

I te wāhanga tuarua o te rau tau 1900, ka heke ngā mate kōhungahunga ki Aotearoa, mai i te 28 mate mō ngā tamariki e 1,000 ka whānau mai i te tau 1950, ki te e 6 mate mō ngā tamariki e 1000 ka whānau mai i te tau 1998. Hāunga tērā, mō tōna tūranga ki te ao, kua heke a Aotearoa i ngā tau e 25 kua pahure.

He nui ake ngā pānga o te mate kōhungahunga ki te iwi Māori tērā i ētahi atu iwi. Heoi, atu i te tau 1950 ki te tau 1998, kaha ake te paheketanga o tēnei mate i waenganui i te iwi Māori, (mai i te 70 ki te 8 mate mō ngā tamariki e 1,000).

Te hauora me te āhua noho

Atu i te tau 1993, ko te mate pukupuku tētahi o ngā mate nui. Ko ētahi atu mate nui ko te mate manawa me ngā mate ka pā ki ngā iatoto o te roro.

Kai hikareti ai te kotahi tangata i roto i te tokowhā neke atu i te 15 ngā tau. Nō te tau 1990 ka tīmata te aukati a te ture i te kai hikareti ki ngā wāhi tūmatanui. Nō te tau 2004 ka kapi e te ture ngā pāpara kāuta me ngā whare kai. Toharite huarua te nui ake o ngā Māori ka kai paipa i ngā tauiwi. Nā whai anō he rahi ōwehe ake te Māori i ngā tauiwi e hinga ana i te mate manawa, te mate pukupuku pūkahukahu me ngā mate romahā.

Te tinei i te hikareti

Mō ngā tau e maha, ka ātete ngā rōpu mautohe i te kai paipa. Whāia, ka tahuri Te Manatū Hauora ki te aukati i tēnei kai. Whakaaturia ai ngā tohu whakatūpato ki ngā pākete hikareti. Ko ētahi o ngā tohu e kī ana, ‘ Ka mate ētahi atu i tō kai hikareti’, ‘Nā te kai hikareti ko te mate pukupuku’, ‘Ka riro koe i te kai hikareti’, ‘Ka mate koe i te kai hikareti’. Tini te Māori e kai paipa ana tērā i ētahi atu iwi. Kei roto anō ēnei whakatūpato i te reo Maori.

Ngā tahumaero

I te tekau tau atu i 1990 ka kaha ake te pā mai o te mate kiriuhi ua kakā (meninakouka) me te mate kohi. Ka pā kino te mate kohi ki ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa.

Ngā aituā i te huarahi me te mate whakamomori

I ngā tau tōmua o te tekau tau atu i 1970, ka kake te rahi o ngā aitua i te huarahi ki tōna taumata. Tino kino tēnei tūmomo mate i te hunga taitama kei waenganui i ngā tau 15 ki te 24. Heoi, i waenganui i ngā tau 1989 (i tērā tau, 22.7 ngā mate i te huarahi mō te e 100,000 tāngata) me 2002, ko Aotearoa te whenua o ngā whenua e 30 (tae atu ki Ahitereiria, Ingarangi me Amerika) i kaha rawa atu te heke o ngā aituā i te huarahi, otirā ka heke mā te haurua.

Tamariki rawa kia mate

He nui rawa ngā taitama o Aotearoa kei te mate whakamomori. Mai anō i te tekau tau atu i 1950, kua kake haere te rahi o te hunga rangatahi kei te whakamate anō i a rātou. E ai ki tētahi rangahau o te tau 2004, mō ia 100,000 tāngata o Aotearoa, e 25.1 rātou te hunga mai i ngā tau 15 ki te 19 ka whakamate i a rātou anō; ko te tatauranga mō Ahitereiria ko te 9.6, mō Ingarangi ko te 3.3. Ko te kōrero a ētahi, ‘he whakaaturanga kino o ngā mate hinengaro ka pā ki te rangatahi o Aotearoa’.1

Ngā ratonga hauora

Taea ai e ngā tāngata o Aotearoa ngā ratonga hauora mā roto i te pokapū hauora kei tō rātou hapori. Ka noho tonu ētahi tākuta hei kaimahi tūmataiti, ahakoa te whakakuhuna o ētahi ratonga hauora kore utu, wāhanga utu rānei. Ināianei ka tāpirihia he āwhina hei utu i tētahi wāhanga o ngā rongoā. Ka hokona mai te rahi o ngā rongoā e Pharmac, te tari hoko rongoā a te kāwanatanga; mā tēnei ka iti iho te utu mō te rongoā. Ka whiwhi pūtea tāpiri te hunga iti nei ā rātou moni whiwhi, mō ā rātou utunga hauora.

Ko te kāwanatanga ka utu mō ngā hōhipera. Whakarato ai rātou i ngā āwhina mō ngā mate whawhati tata me ngā mate kino rawa. Arā anō ngā hōhipera tūmataiti, me utu te tangata; i te nuinga o te wā whakamahia ai ēnei hōhipera mō ngā pokanga kīhai i te mate whawhati tata.

I ngā tau 1996-97 whakahaerehia ai tētahi rangahau ā-motu. I kitea, e 38% o ngā tāngata o Aotearoa ka whai inihua hauora tūmataiti, ko te nuinga mō ngā pokanga kīhai i te mate whawhati tata.

Kupu tāpiri
  1. Christchurch Press, 8 June 2004. › Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

John Wilson, 'Hapori - Te hauora o te motu', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/hapori/page-5 (accessed 17 September 2019)

Story by John Wilson, published 8 Feb 2005