Kōrero: Hapori

Whārangi 3. Ngā whānau, ngā kāinga

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Te whānau

I te tau 1962, e 66,000 ngā pēpi ka whānau mai ki Aotearoa. Tae rawa ki te tau 2001, ka taka tēnei ki te e 56,221. I taua wā anō, ka piki te rahi o ngā wāhine whakawhānau tamariki mā te e 70%, heoi, tokoiti rātou i hiahia ki te whakawhānau tamariki. Ko ngā wāhine e whakawhānau tamariki ana, kei te tiaki kia pakeke ake rātou. I te tau 2004, ko ngā wāhine e 30 – 34 te pakeke kei runga noa atu mō te whakawhānau tamariki.

Kei te pakupaku haere ngā whānau. I te tau 2001, e 35.3% o ngā whānau kotahi anake te tamaiti. I paheke te rahi o ngā whānau e toru ā rātou tamariki, mai i te 19.3% i te tau 1962 ki te 17.7% i te tau 2001.

Te noho motuhake

Ko Aotearoa te whenua tuatoru i te ao mō te rahi o ngā whānau kotahi anake te pakeke (whai muri i a Kānata me Ingarangi). I te tau 2001, 31% o ngā whānau kotahi anake te pakeke. Kei te āta piki tēnei tatauranga. Nui atu te pānga o te rawakore ki ēnei whānau tērā ki ngā whānau e rua ngā pakeke. Ko te nuinga o ngā pakeke motuhake he wāhine, neke atu i te haurua o ēnei wāhine kei waenganui i te 17-34 tau te pakeke.

Te mārena me te wehe

Kei te heke te rahi o te hunga e hiahia ana kia mārena. Kua paheke ngā mārena mai i te 45.5 mō ia 1,000 tāngata i te tau 1971, ki te 16.2 mō ia 1000 tāngata i te tau 1992. Tatū ki ēnei rā, kei tēnei taumata tonu.

Kei te tatari te hunga mārena kia pakeke ake rātou. I te tau 1971, tata ki te 33% o ngā wāhine i mārena i a rātou e rangatahi tonu ana; tae rawa ki te tau 1999, kua paheke tēnei ki te 3% anake.

I waenganui i ngā tau 1976 me 1999, ka kake te rahi o ngā wehenga (ngā wehenga i roto i ngā mārena 1,000) mai i te 7.4 ki te 12.6. I te tau 2002 neke atu i te 10,000 ngā wehenga tūturu – tata ki te haurua o ngā mārena.

Ngā kāinga

I te tau 2001, kei raro i te 3 ngā tāngata e noho ana kei te whare kotahi (3.5 tāngata i te tau 1976). Kua kake ngā tāngata noho i tō rātou kotahi ki te 300,000, (hauwhā o te tatauranga katoa). Ko tētahi o ngā take pēnei ai, ko te noho ora o ngā wāhine noho motuhake kia 65 tau te pakeke neke atu.

Ngā kāinga whawhao

Ki te kake te rahi o ngā tāngata e noho ana ki tētahi whare ki runga ake i tētahi taumata, kīia ai taua kāinga he kāinga whawhao. I te tau 2001, e 5% o ngā kāinga he kāinga whawhao. Nāwai ā, ka mahea tēnei āhuatanga. I te tau 1986, e 72,924 ngā kāinga he iti rawa ngā rūma; tae ki te tau 2001, kua heke tēnei ki te e 65,088.

Ko te hunga ka noho ki te tonga o Tāmaki te hunga nui kei ngā kāinga whawhao. Kaha ake te pānga o tēnei āhuatanga ki ngā Māori me ngā tāngata o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa.

Te hoko me te pupuri whare

Noho ai te e 33% o te taupori ki ngā whare rīhi. Ko te iwi Māori me ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa ngā iwi nui kei ngā whare rīhi. Ko ngā Pākehā kei te noho i ō rātou whare karekau he mōkete, nā te mea he pakeke ake te taupori Pākehā, ka mutu kua roa rātou e utu ana i ā rātou mōkete. I te tau 2001, ka heke te tini pupuri whare mai i te 73.8% i tau 1991, ki te 67.8 %.

Te reti me te pupuri whare

Ahakoa te mea he ngāwari te tango mōkete i te tekau tau atu i 1990, kua kore te nuinga o ngā tāngata o Aotearoa e hiahia te hoko whare. Mai i te tau 1981, ka piki te tokomaha rīhi whare, ka heke te tokomaha e noho ana kei ō rātou kāinga ake. Kua heke te toharite o te hunga pupuri whare mai i te 74% i ngā tau tōmua o te tekau tau atu i 1990, ki te 68%. Heoi he teitei tonu tēnei tatauranga mō ngā whenua kei roto i te OECD.

Ngā momo whare

Ko te nuinga o ngā momo whare ki Aotearoa (e 80%) ko ngā whare tū motuhake mō te whānau kotahi. Heoi kei te piki haere ngā nohoanga piri tahi.

Kei te piki haere te maha o ngā whare e whā ngā rūma neke atu. He tohu tēnei kei te nui haere ngā rawa, kei te tawhiti atu te hunga whai moni whiwhi pai ki tērā te hunga kāore i te nui ā rātou moni whiwhi. I te tau 2001, e 73.5% o ngā kāinga, kei waenganui i te kotahi me te toru ngā rūma, he hekenga mai te 80.5% i te tau 1991. I waenganui i ngā tau 1991 me 2001 ka kake te tokomaha o ngā whare e whā ki te ono ngā rūma, mai i te 16% ki te 20.4%.

Tērā tētahi tōpūtanga tāngata e rua ō rātou kāinga, ko tētahi he kāinga hararei. Nā te nui haere o ngā rawa, kua kore ngā kōpuha noa – bach (crib rānei ki Te Wai Pounamu); kua hanga nui kē ētahi o ēnei whare tuarua.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

John Wilson, 'Hapori - Ngā whānau, ngā kāinga', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/hapori/page-3 (accessed 21 November 2019)

He kōrero nā John Wilson, i tāngia i te 8 Feb 2005