Kōrero: Hapori

Whārangi 1. Te iwi o Aotearoa

Ngā whakaahua

Pēhea te rahi o te taupori o Aotearoa?

I te marama o Āperira o te tau 2003, ka eke te taupori o Aotearoa ki te whā miriona, mai i te 2 miriona i te tau 1952 me te toru miriona i te tau 1973. Kei te piki haere tonu, nā te tipu o te iwi kāinga me te tau mai o ngā manene. I te tau ka eke i te marama o Hune i te tau 2004, e 57,890 ngā pēpi i whānau mai.

I te tau 2002, ka piki te taupori mā te e 38,198, nā te nui o ngā manene. Ka rerekē tēnei rahi ia tau: I ngā tau 1999-2000, neke atu i te 20,000 te hekenga o te taupori nā te mea he nui ake te hunga i wehe ki tāwāhi, tērā i te hunga i hōu mai ki Aotearoa.

Te pakeke; te tāne me te wahine

Kei te kaumātua haere te taupori. I te mutunga o te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao ka kaha te piki o te taupori, nā te nui o ngā pēpi me te taetae mai o te hunga manene. I te tau 1971, e 32% o te taupori i raro iho i te 15 tau; kia tae ki te tau 2001, kua heke tēnei ki te e 23%.

He tamariki ake te taupori Māori tērā i te taupori whānui. E 3% anake o te iwi Māori kei runga ake i te 65 tau (e 12% mō te taupori whānui). He pērā anō mō ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa, arā, he tamariki ake rātou i te taupori whānui.

He tokomaha ake ngā wāhine i ngā tāne, paku nei. Ka kitea tēnei nui i te hunga ka eke ki te tau e 65. Ko Te Tai Poutini anake te takiwā he rahi ake ngā tāne i ngā wāhine.

Māori

E 14% o te taupori o Aotearoa (e 526,281 i te tau 2001) he Māori. Ko te titiro, ka kake whakarunga tēnei rahi, nā te mea kei te nui ake ngā pēpi Māori kei te whānau mai tērā i ngā pēpi Pākehā, Āhia rānei.

Te kanorau o Aotearoa

E 75% o te taupori he kiritea, nā te mea i mua i tekau tau o 1970, i ahu mai te nuinga o ngā manene i Ūropi. Nō nā tata nei taetae mai ai ngā iwi o ngā moutere o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa me Āhia. Kia tae ki te tau 2001, neke atu i te e 250,000 te rahi o ia o ēnei hapori.

Tokomaha ake ngā tamariki ka whānau mai he rerekē ngā matawaka o tōna whāea me tōna matua. I te tau 2001, 18% o ngā tamariki i raro iho i te 15 tau ehara nō te tōpūtanga iwi kotahi. Neke atu i te haurua o ēnei tamariki he Pākehā, he Māori rānei ō rātou pakeke.

Kei te memeha te taupori Pākehā, nā te tokoiti o ngā pēpi kei te whānau mai, me te kaha ake o ētahi atu iwi ki te whakawhānau tamariki.

Te wāhi ki te Māori

Ko te Māori te tangata whenua o Aotearoa. He wāhi nui ngā tikanga a te Māori ki te tuakiri o Aotearoa. Mārama te kitea o ngā rerekētanga a te Māori me te Pākehā i ngā whakahaere o ia iwi, pērā i te tangihanga.

Nui atu ngā mate ka pā ki te Māori tērā ngā mate ka pā ki ētahi atu iwi. Tōmua

atu te matemate o te Māori, karukaru ake ō rātou kāinga, nui atu te Māori kei te pāngia e ngā mate, ā, kāore hoki te Māori i te puta i te mātauranga. He pērā anō ngā mate ka pā ki ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa.

Te noho pai a ngā iwi

Tatū rawa ki te pokapū o te rau tau 1900, kei te noho tonu te nuinga o te iwi Māori ki ngā taiwhenua. I waenganui i ngā tau 1951 me 1971 ka kake te taupori Māori noho tāone mai i te 20% ki te 58%. Tae ana ki te tau 2001, kua rite te rahi o te Māori e noho ana ki ngā tāone ki ētahi atu iwi. Nō te tīmatanga o te noho tata a te Pākehā me te Māori, ka whakamātauhia te kōrero mō tēnei motu e mea ana, ‘koinei te whenua pai rawa mō te noho pai a ngā iwi’. I te tau 1971 ka tohungia tētahi kaitakawaenga whakawhanaunga ā-iwi hei tāmi i te whakatoihara iwi.

Ngā iwi o ngā moutere o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa

I te tau 2001, haurua o te taupori mai ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa ka ahu mai i Hāmoa (231,800); ka whai ko ngā tāngata o ngā Kuki Airani (52,000), whai muri iho ko te iwi o Tonga (40,700). He tokomaha ake ngā tāngata o Rarotonga, o Niue, o Tokelau e noho ana ki Aotearoa tērā i te hunga kāinga e noho rā ki aua moutere.

Neke atu i te haurua o te taupori o ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa i whānau mai ki Aotearoa. He rangatahi te nuinga, nui rātou kei te noho ki Tāmaki-makau-rau.

Ngā iwi o Āhia

I waenganui i te tau 1991 me te tau 2001, ka huarua te tipu o te taupori Āhia ki Aotearoa. Tae ana ki te tau 2001, e 6.6% o te taupori whānui he Āhia. Ko ngā tāngata mai Haina te tōpūtanga tāngata nui mai Āhia, whai muri ko ērā nō Īnia. Kua roa te noho a ētahi whānau mai ēnei whenua ki Aotearoa.

Noho ai te nuinga (e 66%) o te taupori Āhia ki te tāone nui o Tāmaki-makau-rau. Ka rongo rātou i ngā whakawhiu o te hunga whakahē i te kuhu o te manene ki Aotearoa. He tautohenga tēnei ka hāpaitia e ētahi kaitōrangapū. Heoi, ko te kōrero nui pea, e whakaae ana te hapori whānui o Aotearoa ki te manene.

Ngā reo

Kōrerohia ai te reo Ingarihi e te nuinga o ngā tāngata o Aotearoa. Heoi, nō te whakaoranga o te reo Māori, me te mātotoru o ngā manene ki tēnei motu, i te tau 2001, neke atu i te hāwhe miriona ngā tāngata kei te mōhio ki te kōrero i tētahi reo i tua atu i te reo Ingarihi.

Neke atu i te e 160,000 ngā tāngata kōrero Māori. Kotahi te Māori i roto i te tokowhā kei te kōrero Māori. Kua takoto ngā rautaki e ora ai te reo.

Whai muri i te reo Ingarihi me te reo Māori, ko te reo Hāmoa, e kōrerohia ana e te e 80,000 tāngata. Whai muri ko te reo o Tonga me ngā momo reo o Haina, arā te Cantonese me te Mandarin.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

John Wilson, 'Hapori - Te iwi o Aotearoa', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/hapori/page-1 (accessed 16 October 2018)

Story by John Wilson, published 8 Feb 2005