Kōrero: Hēnare, James Clendon Tau

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Henare, James Clendon Tau

1911–1989

Nō Ngā Puhi; he kaihautū, he kaiārahi hōia, he tangata ahu whenua, he poutoko iwi

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Puna McConnell and Robin C. McConnell,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 2000.

I whānau a James Clendon (Hīmi Te Nana) Tau Hēnare ki Mōtatau, i te takiwā o Pēwhairangi (Bay of Islands), i te 18 o Noema o te tau 1911. Ko ia tētahi o ngā tamariki, tokowaru katoa rātou, a Hera Paerata rāua ko tana tāne, ko Taurekareka (Tau) Hēnare, e mahi pāmu ana i runga i ngā whenua o tōna iwi. O ā rāua tamariki, ko Hēnare te mea pōtiki o ngā mea tāne, tokoono nei rātou. Nō ngā tātai heke iho o Ngāti Whātua, o Ngā Puhi me ngā hapū huhua noa atu nei tōna pāpā a Tau. Ō aua hapū rā ko Ngāti Hine tōna tino hapū ake. Nō mai i a Te Rarawa, i a Ngāti Kahu me Te Aupōuri te whaea o Hēnare. Nā tō rātou tātai mai i te tupuna uretū nei, i a Rāhiri, i whai pānga ai tēnei whānau ki ngā tino toa rangatira kē nei o Te Tai Tokerau, pērā i a Kawiti rāua ko Hōne Heke. Hei mokopuna tuarua mai anō hoki a Hēnare mā Kānara Rāpata Winiata (Robert Wynyard), ko ia rā te kaiārahi i ngā hōia o Peretānia i te wā o ngā pakanga ki Te Tai Tokerau. Ko ngā waka nei o Hēnare ko Ngā-toki-mata-whao-rua, ko Māmari, ko Mamaru, ko Māhuhu-ki-te-rangi, ko Mātaatua, ko Tainui, ko Tākitimu, ko Horouta, ko Te Arawa, e tohu nei i ōna hononga atu ki a Waikato, ki a Ngāti Kahungunu, ki a Ngāti Porou, ki a Taranaki me Te Arawa.

Pau ake ana ngā tau tuatahi o Hēnare e whakatipua ake ana i tō rātou marae i Mōtatau. I te urunga o tana pāpā hei mema Pāremata mō Te Tai Tokerau i te tau 1914, i tino rerekē nei te āhua o tā rātou noho. Kitea ana te rerekē nei i ngā kura tuatahi i haerea e Hēnare, pērā i ngā kura Māori o Mōtatau, o Takapuna, o Awanui me Te One-i-Haukawakawa (Thorndon). Nā te urutā rewharewha o te tau 1918 i mate ai tana whaea a Hera.

Mai i tōna tāmanga i waitohua ia e ōna tīpuna hei kaiārahi mā rātou me tā rātou tohutohu i a ia, ahakoa tana whiwhi i te mātauranga Pākehā, me āta whakaako anō ia ki ngā tikanga Māori me te whakapapa, kātahi ia ka āhei i ngā rā haere ake nei ki te āwhina i tōna iwi. Tekau mā whā noa iho ōna tau ka puta ake nei ia i te whare wānanga whakamutunga o Ngāti Hine i Taumārere, i riro nei nā te tohunga rā, nā Hāre Whiro a ia i whakangungu ki ngā tikanga tapu o te noho a te Māori.

Kaha ana te aweawetia o Hēnare e ngā kaihautū Māori o te motu me ngā rangatira anō o Te Tai Tokerau. Nā te taumaha nei o tōna āhua i whakaīngoatia a ia ko ‘te Pīhopa’; piri kau ana ia ki a Te Rangi Hīroa (Peter Buck), ko ia rā te mema Māori mō Te Tai Tokerau me te āpiha hauora o te Tari o te Ora o mua, he pekapeka tonu mai tana mahi ki te kāinga o Hēnare mā i Mōtatau. He wā anō ka haere atu ia i te taha o tōna pāpā ki Pōneke (Wellington), ka noho i ngā kāinga o ngā mema Pāremata Māori nei, arā, i ngā kāinga o Tā Timi Kara (James Carroll), o Tā Māui Pōmare hoki.

I whakawhiwhia a Hēnare ki te karahipi hei mau atu i a ia ki te Kāreti o Te Aute, ēngari nā te mea he hoa tata tana pāpā rāua ko Pīhopa H. W. Cleary o te Hāhi Katorika, tonoa kētia atu ana a Hēnare ki te Kāreti o te Manawa Tapu (Sacred Heart College) mō ngā taitama i Ākarana (Auckland). I te mutunga o tana kura tuarua, nā ngā akiaki a tōna pāpā, i whakauru atu ai ia ki te kāreti ahu whenua o Te Maahi (Massey Agricultural College), ki te whai i te tohu mātauranga mō te whakahaere pāmu miraka kau. Kāti, nā te pāngia ōna e te mate i kore ai i oti tana akoranga, haere kē ana ia ki te mahi mā te kamupene ā-ohu miraka o Hikurangi i Te Tai Tokerau. Ko ngā mahi ake a Hēnare i te tekau tau atu i 1930, he tope pūihi, he kaimahi i runga pāmu, ā, noho hēkeretari nei ia mā tana pāpā, haere tahi nei rāua i ngā mahi a Tau huri noa i te motu. I te whakahaerenga o tētahi kaupapa ahu whenua Māori i te rohe o Ngāti Hine, whakatūria ana ko Hēnare hei kaiwhakahaere. Ki a rāua tahi ko tana pāpā, he mea nui te mahi whenua. Pau katoa i a rāua Te Ika-a-Māui te haere, e tirotiro ana i ngā kaupapa ahu whenua o tēnā wāhi, o tēnā wāhi. He whakawātea anō i te whenua hei whenua pāmu te mahi a Hēnare i Mōtatau.

Nō te 2 o Ākuhata o te tau 1933, i Ōtīria i Pēwhairangi, i moea ai e Hēnare a Roiho Keretene, Keretone rānei (Rose Cherrington), arā, ko ōna iwi nei ko Ngā Puhi, ko Ngāti Hine, ko Ngāti Whātua, ko Ngāti Porou me Ngāti Kahungunu. Riro ana nā te matua kēkē o Roiho, nā Kēnana Wiremu Keretone rāua i mārena. He epeepe tonu nei rāua, ā, i te wā e kohungahunga tonu ana i puta ai te whakahau a wō rāua tūpuna tāne rā, kia taumautia rāua i runga anō i te tikanga o te tomo. I te ekenga atu o ngā tau o Hēnare ki te 21 kātahi anō ka whakamōhiotia atu ki a ia te āhua o taua tikanga rā. He kaipānui reimana anō a Hēnare i te Hāhi Mihinare i te tata paunga o te tekau tau atu i 1930. Nō muri mai i noho a ia hei mema mō te hīnota o Ākarana mō te rua tekau tau, neke atu rānei.

I te matenga o tana pāpā i te tau 1940 ka ara ake nei ia hei manukura. Kitea ake anō hoki te tikanga o tēnei i ngā whakahau ōhākī mai a Tau Hēnare ki tana tama kia haere ia ki te pakanga. Nā te mea ko Tau rā te waha kōrero mō Te Tai Tokerau, e takohanga kē nei ki a ia, anō nei tāna he tono atu i ngā taitama Māori kia mate atu ki te Pakanga Tuatahi o te Ao. Mā te haere a tana tama, a Hēnare ki te Pakanga Tuarua, e whakamāmā ake te taimahatanga i runga i a ia. Tohua ana a Hēnare ki te tikanga pure o te karaka whati, he tikanga whakatakataka i te toa mō te pakanga. Nā tētahi tohunga kaumātua (he uri hikahika matua mai i a Te Kēmara, te tohunga matakite, tangata ruānuku nei o Ngā Puhi), ngā karakia i whakahaere i tētahi rauika nei a ngā rangatira me ngā kaumātua i te marae o Mōtatau. I te otinga o te pure, kātahi anō ka kīia ka tika a Hēnare ki te whawhai.

Kāore i roa i muri i te whakaurunga atu o Hēnare hei hōia noa ki te Ope Taua 28 (Māori) o Aotearoa (28th New Zealand (Māori) Battalion), arā, ki te hokowhitu Māori, i kōmihanatia a ia, arā, nō Ākuhata o te tau 1940 i tīmata te whakaako i a ia hei āpiha i te puni hōia o Māwaihākona (Trentham Military Camp). Wehe atu ana a Hēnare ki tāwāhi i te taha o te Ope Tānga Tuarima (5th Reinforcements), ā, pakanga mai ana ia i roto i te hokowhitu Māori i ngā kauhanga riri o Āwherika ki te Raki me ngā pakanga anō i Itari i te tau 1941 ki 1945. Nō te tau 1942 i whakakakea ia hei kāpene, ā, nō Hepetema o te tau 1944 i whakatūria ia hei meiha. Mai i tana tūranga kaingārahu paratunu nei, i whakanekehia ake ia hei kaingārahu mō te Kamupene A, ā, nō muri iho hei kaiwhakahaere mō te Kamupene Tari Matua (Headquarters Company). Nō te marama o Hune o te tau 1945, i riro i a Hēnare te whakahaere o te hokowhitu Māori, hei whakakapi mō Arapeta Awatere, ā, whakatūria atu anō hoki ia hei rūtene kānara. I a ia ka taotū nei i Arameina (El Alamein), i te marama o Oketopa o te tau 1942, whakahuahuatia ana tōna toa i ngā pānui, ā, i te ekenga atu nei ki te tau 1946, whakawhiwhia ana ia ki te tohu DSO. Mau mai ana ngā kōrero mōna ake, arā, mō tōna kore i mataku me tōna māia, āta kōrerotia hoki te pai o tana ārahi i tana kamupene i Cassino i Pēpuere o te tau 1944, tae atu ki te tino pai o tana whakahautūranga wairua ake i ōna hoa whawhai i te mura o te ahi i te tau 1945.

E noho ana te hokowhitu Māori ki te whawhai i Te Moananui-a-Kiwa, whāia ka whakahauraro nei ngā Hapanihi, ka whakahokia kētia mai nei e Hēnare tana hokowhitu ki te wā kāinga i Hānuere o te tau 1946. Nā te pakanga i whakapakari a Hēnare; pono ana ia kua kaha kē atu ia ki te whakahihiwa ake i ōna whakaaro, ki te kite ake i te kiko o te take, me te nuku kē atu o tōna pai ki te whakatepe i te mahi.

I tana kore e whakaae ki te tono mai a Te Puea Hērangi kia noho ia hei kaiārahi mō tōna iwi o Waikato, tuku rawa atu he pāmu māna, ko tana hokinga atu tēnā ki tana pāmu anō i Mōtatau. Hāunga te wā i a ia i Ākarana i ngā tau 1951 ki 1956 – ko ia nei te āpiha toko i te ora Māori mō te takiwā o te tāone nui o Ākarana, haere atu i Ākarana whaka-te-tonga ki Te Tai Tokerau – i Mōtatau kē rā ia e noho ana tae atu ki ngā tau pokapū o te tekau tau atu i 1970. Otirā, i tana tukunga i tana mahi, tāoki kē mai ana ia i Kawiti, e tata atu rā ki Ōrauta.

I te wā i muri mai o te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao, ko ngā mahi ake a Hēnare he whakapau i ōna kaha ki ngā mahi mā te katoa, whakaū hoki i te mātauranga tae atu ki te ārahi anō i tōna iwi. I te wā e ora tonu ana tōna pāpā pau katoa ana ōna kaha ki te whakamana ake i te Tiriti o Waitangi. Otirā, i ū anō hoki a Hīmi Hēnare ki tā tana pāpā i whai ai, me tana kī, koia nei te taumahatanga hei waha mā Te Tai Tokerau, arā, ko te tohe tonu i te Tiriti. Mai i te tau 1928, i noho ake ia hei mema mō te Rūnanga o te Tiriti o Waitangi, he komiti nō ngā whakahekenga mai o ngā rangatira nā rātou i haina te Tiriti. I tōna matenga, ko ia te mema whakamutunga o taua rūnanga. I mōhio pai ia ki ngā tama a ngā rangatira nā rātou i haina te Tiriti, me tana whakapono i mōhio tonu te hunga haina he aha atu te nui o te kaupapa nei, nā reira i tapu ai te Tiriti ki a rātou. I tohe anō ia, nā te mana o te Tiriti i āhei ai te Pākehā ki te noho ki Aotearoa. Ina koa te rite o te piringa tata nei o tana pāpā rāua ko Te Puea, te piringa anō hoki o Hēnare ki a Kīngi Korokī tae atu ki tana piki tūranga rā, ki te Arikinui, arā, ki te Kahurangi Te Ātairangikaahu.

I tino kī a Hēnare me mātua kākano rua a Aotearoa ka kākano maha ai. He pērā anō te taimaha o tana whakahē i ētahi o ngā whakaaro me ngā mahi whakaiti a te Pākehā. Ki tāna, he hua nui kei roto i te taha mākohakoha, whakahoahoa hoki o te Māori i tana noho, tāpiri atu hoki ki ana pūkenga auaha me tana manaaki i te tangata, he painga mō te motu kei te katoa o ēnei āhuatanga. Ehara a Hēnare i te tangata whakatutū i te puehu, ēngari he marohi tonu nei ngā whakaaro, otirā, ka tōtika mārika noa i a ia te whakamārama mai i aua whakaaro. Kāore ia i tino aro atu ki te puehu i tūtū nei i ngā taupatupatu mō te Tiriti, ā, i pono tonu a ia he nui tonu te ngākaunui mai o tētahi taha ki tētahi taha. Ko te tohu o tōna mana ko te rangatira nei o tana tū tangata ā-iwi, mau kaha nei ia ki ngā uaratanga Māori, me tana whakaaro atawhai i ngā wā katoa.

I te ao o te tauira whakaaro nei, whai kē ana a Hēnare i te titiro whānui, me te mahue i a ia o te noho ū tonu ki ngā kaupapa o ngā rōpū tōrangapū. Nā tōna kore i momoho ki te uru hei mema mō te Rōpū Nāhinara o Niu Tīreni mō te rohe pōti Māori o Te Tai Tokerau i te tau 1946, ka tonoa atu nei ia e te Pirimia, e Pita Pereiha (Peter Fraser) kia tū mō te Rōpū Reipa mō ngā pōti o te tau 1949. Kāore ia i whakaae, i te mea, ina uru ia hei mema mō te Rōpū Reipa, tērā e kitea he kimi hua noa iho tāna mahi i ngā āhuatanga o te wā. I te matenga o T. P. Paikea, te mema Māori mō Te Tai Tokerau i te tau 1963, ka whakataetaetia anō e Hēnare te tūranga mō te Rōpū Nāhinara, uru kē atu ana ko Matiu Rata, 454 te itinga iho o ngā pōti a Hēnare.

I tae atu a Hēnare ki te hui a ngā Rangatahi Māori (Young Māori Conference) i Ākarana i te tau 1939. Nō te tau 1940 i riro i a ia te tūranga o tana pāpā i runga i te Poari Kaitiaki o Waitangi mō te Motu (Waitangi National Trust Board), ā, i taua tau anō i riro i a ia te mahi hēkeretari whakahaere i te hui i Waitangi, whakanui i te rau tau o te hainatanga o te Tiriti. Tū whakarae ana ia i ngā mahi whakahaere o te taenga mai o te whānau o te Kīngitanga o Peretānia i ngā tau 1953 ki 1954, me te tau anō o 1963. I te takiwā o te hau kāinga, i runga āno hoki ia i te komiti Māori o Mōtatau, mema atu hoki mō ngā komiti tiaki marae o Mōtatau, o Waiōmio me Ōtīria. He mema anō hoki ia mō te komiti whakahaere ā-iwi o Kawakawa (Kawakawa Tribal Executive) me te komiti ā-rohe Māori o Te Tai Tokerau. He tangata kaha akiaki ia i te mahi ki te whai i te mātauranga, ā, eke atu ana ia ki ērā atu rōpū rā, pērā i te komiti tohutohu o tētahi poari mātauranga me tētahi komiti tohutohu o te motu mō te mātauranga Māori.

Nā tōna kaha ki te whakataki atu i ngā kaupapa a tōna iwi, i mārama haere ake ai te mōhio o te motu ki ngā whakaaro o te Māori. Ko ia ake te tino waha kōrero o te Wānanga Kaumātua Māori, kanohi ake anō hoki i ngā hui huhua mō Te Tai Tokerau. I te tau 1956, noho ake ana ia hei kanohi mō Aotearoa i te huranga i te tohu whakamaumahara mō te pakanga i Cassino, me te hui whakanui anō hoki i te rā o Waitangi i te tauranga taonga ā-iwi o Porinihia (Polynesian Cultural Centre) i Hawai’i i te tau 1980. I te tau 1984, ko ia te kaiwhaikōrero matua i te whakatuwheratanga o te whakakitenga Te Māori i New York. Ahakoa anō ōna tūranga hei mema nei mō te Poari Whakanohonoho Hōia (Rehabilitation Board), mō te poari o Ngā Pou Taunaha o Aotearoa (New Zealand Geographic Board), mō te Poari mō ngā Take Māori (Board of Māori Affairs), mō te kaunihera ā-rohe o Pēwhairangi (Bay of Islands County Council), mō te Poari Kaitiaki Māori o Te Taitokerau (Tai Tokerau Māori Trust Board), me te poari mō te pāka moana, pāka puri mahara o Pēwhairangi (Bay of Islands Maritime and Historic Parks Board). E korikori tonu mai ana te mahi a Hēnare i roto i te Kāhui o Hoani (Order of St John), i te rōpū mō ngā hōia mōrehu (RSA), i te rōpū Rotari (Rotary) me te rōpū tūhonohono i ngā tāngata ahu whenua o Niu Tīreni (Federated Farmers of New Zealand).

Kitea ana te mana me te manawanui o Hēnare i ana kōrerotanga ki a Eva Rickard, te wahine whakakorikori nei me ana kaitautāwhi i Waitangi i te tau 1984, me te tino whakahangahanga o tana whakahaere i te whakaīngoatanga i Te Ara-o-Hinehopu, ki te īngoa kē o Te Ara-o-Hongi (Hongi’s Track) i Te Rotoiti i te tau 1988. Kitea ana hoki tōna pono ki te kupu a tōna matua kia noho ia hei pononga mā te iwi, i tōna whakakāhoretanga atu i te tūranga hei Māngai Kāwanatanga, e hari kē ana i a ia ki tāwāhi. Nā tōna ngākaunui ki ngā mahi, i whakawhiwhia ai a ia ki te tohu CBE i te tau 1966, ki te tohu KBE, arā, ki te tohu Tā i te tau 1978. I riro hoki i a ia te Mētara Koroneihana a Erihāpeti Te Tuarua i te tau 1953, te Mētara mō te Tiupiri Hiriwa i te tau 1977, me te tohu hōnore LLD o te whare wānanga o Tāmaki-makau-rau (University of Auckland) i te tau 1986. Nō te tekau tau atu i 1980 i puta ake te rongo kōrero nei, arā, tērā e whakatūria a ia hei kāwana tianara Māori tuatahi mō Aotearoa, ēngari riro kē ana tēnei hōnore i a Tā Pāora (Paul) Reeves.

Tokoono ngā tamariki a Hēnare rāua ko Roiho, tokorima ā rāua whāngai. Neke atu i te rima tekau tau a Roiho e tautoko ana i tana hoa tāne, ā, kitea ana hoki tana kaha tautāwhi i ngā take Māori, i tana tūnga mai hei pakeke mō te Kōhanga Reo. Kei te mau haere tonu te mahi mai a āna tamariki, a āna irāmutu i āna nei mahi, e tautoko nei rātou kia ōrite tonu te ture hāpai ake i ngā mahi hapori, mahi mātauranga, mahi tūmatanui hoki. Ko te mahi nui a Hīmi Hēnare pea, e mau nei e mau nei, ko tana āwhina i te mahi whakatū i te kaupapa o te kōhanga reo hei ako i ngā tamariki, kāore anō kia haere ki te kura, ki te kōrero Māori. Noho tino hira ake ana tōna nei tohunga ki te whakahau, me tana noho heamana mai anō mō te rōpū reo Māori Wānanga Whakatauira, i tū ai te kōhanga reo.

Nō te 2 o Āperira o te tau 1989 i mate ai a Tā Hīmi Hēnare ki Kawakawa, ā, mahue ake ana ko tana hoa me ā rāua tamariki. I Ōtīria marae i Moerewa tōna tangihanga. Ko ētahi o ngā rangatira i tae atu ki te tangi ko te Kuini Māori, arā, ko te Arikinui, ko te Kāwana Tianara, ko te Pirimia me ngā hoa o Hīmi i te pakanga. Nehua ake ana a Tā Hīmi Hēnare i Mōtatau ki te nehu anō nei o te toa.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Puna McConnell and Robin C. McConnell. 'Hēnare, James Clendon Tau - Henare, James Clendon Tau', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 2000. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/5h15/henare-james-clendon-tau (accessed 14 December 2019)