Kōrero: Kawiti, Te Ruki

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Kawiti, Te Ruki

?–1854

Nō Ngāpuhi; he rangatira, he toa taua

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Kene Hine Te Uira Martin, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau i te 1990. He mea whakamāori nā Ngā Tangata Taumata Rau.

Ko Kawiti tētahi o ngā tino rangatira o Ngā Puhi. I heke iho i a Nukutawhiti, rangatira o runga i a Ngā-toki-mata-whao-rua i ū mai rā ki Te Hokianga, ki a Rāhiri te tupuna o Ngā Puhi whānui. Ko tana matua ko Hunā, ko tana whaea ko Te Tāwai. Ko tana hapū ko Ngāti Hine e kīia nei tōna kōrero:

Ko Hikurangi, ko Mōtatau ngā maunga
Ko Taumārere te awa
Ko Hineāmaru te tupuna
Ko Ngāti Hine te hapū.

He kōrero anō:

Ngāti Hine, pukepukerau.

He puke, he rangatira; he whenua pukepuke hoki te rohe pōtae o Ngāti Hine.

 

Ka pakari a Kawiti, ka tukua ki te whare wānanga i roto o Taumārere. He kāinga tawhito nō Ngāti Hine. I te moenga i tana wahine i a Kawa, ka puta ngā uri tokotoru, he tāne katoa. Ko Taura te mātāmua, ko Wiremu Te Poro, ko Maihi Parāone Te Kuhanga tō muri. Ka mate a Kawa ka moe a Kawiti i a Te Tiwha, ka puta ko tā rāua tamāhine ko Tuahine.

He maha ngā kāinga, me ngā pā o Kawiti. Ko ana kāinga noho, ko Ōtūihu, ko Pūmanawa, ko Waiōmio, ko Taumārere, ko Ōrauta me Mangakāhia. Ko tana whare whakairo, ko Te Āhua-reka, i roto o Waiōmio. Kei kō tata atu e tū mai ana ko Te Rapunga, te whare hui i nāianei. Ko ōna pā tūwatawata ko Ōtārawa, i raro tonu iho i te tihi o Te Pouaka-a-Hineāmaru; ko Tikokauae, kei Mōtatau; ko Wahapū, kei te matatikerewhanga o Te Wahapū; ko Kāuauarau, kei Ahikiwi; ko Puketona; ko Ruapekapeka te pā e mōhiotia ana e te motu katoa.

Kīhai a Kawiti i pai kia noho tūturu te tangata ki roto i te pā whawhai ai, kei katia atu ka kore e puta ki waho. I tohu rawa ia ki te whenua paripari hei tūnga ki te riri. Ka arumia te hoariri, ka patua. Koia tēnei te take i hangaia ai ana pā whawhai ki te taha pari, ki te taha o te ngahere, kia kore ai a Ngāti Hine e kitea atu e te hoariri e huri ana mā muri, mā roto i te ngāherehere. E kore e warewaretia e te iwi ngā mahi a Kawiti ki te here i te riri. I te tau 1807–08 i te pakanga i Maunganui – ko Moremonui ki ētahi, ko Te One-i-haea ki ētahi – i parekura a Ngā Puhi i a Ngāti Whātua. Tata tonu ka mate atu a Hongi Hika ki reira; i waimarie i puta.

I te tau 1824, e ato ana a Kawiti i runga o tana whare i a Te Āhua-reka, i Waiōmio, ka heke mai a Te Whareumu i Puketutu, e ārahi mai ana i tana poaka. E whai mai ana i a Kawiti mō tana ngākau ki a Ngāti Whātua. Ka karanga iho a Kawiti: 'He aha anō tēnei, e Whare?' Ka whakautua ake e Te Whareumu: 'Te Karoro i Maunganui, tikina tā tāua whai, wetekina! Ka whiwhi, ka whiwhi, kaunene, kaunene, tapakuri! Ko taku ngākau ki a Ngāti Whātua, he taua rapu utu i te mate o aku whanaunga o Taurawhero rāua ko Koriwhai, i patua e Ngāti Whātua.' Ka tukua te poaka mā Kawiti, ka tohaina ki te iwi, hei whakaatu ki te katoa kua tautokona te ngākau a Te Whareumu. Ko te pūtake tēnā i uru ai a Ngāti Hine ki te pakanga i Te Ika-ā-ranganui i te tau 1825. Parekura rawa a Ngāti Whātua i a Ngā Puhi nui tonu. Ka ea te mate o Taurawhero rāua ko Koriwhai, me ērā atu o Ngā Puhi i matemate i Moremonui.

I muri o tērā pakanga ka totohe a Kawiti rāua ko Hongi Hika mō ētahi o ngā whanaunga o Kawiti, nō Kaipara. I tikina atu e ia i mua o te pakanga kei mate te katoa i a Hongi te patu. Ka tohe a Hongi: 'Ki te kore koe e homai i aku tāngata, ko te tae atu ahau ki a koe.' Ka whakahokia e Kawiti: 'Kei a koe te tikanga, ēngari, ki te takahi mai koe ki roto o Ōrauta, e kore koe e hoki. Ka peia koe e ahau i runga o Taiāmai.' Kīhai a Hongi i puta atu ki a Kawiti.

Ka whakatika a Ngāti Hine ki te whakahoki i a Ngāti Whātua ki Kaipara. Ā, i tukuna hoki e Kawiti a Mate Kairangatira, he tangata nō Ngāti Hine, ki a Ngāti Whātua hei whāriki mō te rongomau. Ko te rangatira o Ngāti Whātua i taua wā ko Waho. Anei te kōrero a Kawiti ki a Waho: 'Haria atu a Mate, whakamoea ki te wahine. Ka tini koe, ka karanga mai kia pakanga anō tāua.' Ka whakautua e Waho: 'Kāti, takahia ki raro i ō tāua waewae. Waiho ko Tirarau rāua ko Parore hei paretai mō tāua. E piki atu ko ahau, ko ahau anō hei utu; e piki mai ko koe, ko koe anō hei utu.' Hei whakatūpato atu hoki ki a Hongi Hika mehemea ka pā ia ki a Ngāti Whātua ā muri ake, ka tū mai a Ngāti Hine ki a Ngā Puhi.

I te taenga mai o te Pākehā ki te riu o Taumārere, ka rongo i ngā kōrero o te toa, o te ringakaha o Kawiti. Ka tapaina e rātou he īngoa hou ki a ia, ko Te Ruki (The Duke); e ai ki ngā kōrero he whakarite ki te toa o ngā toa o Ingarangi i tērā wā, ki te Tiuka o Wellington.

Ka taka ki te tau 1830 ka puta a Ngā Puhi ki Kororāreka (Russell) ki te ngaki i te mate o tō rātou rangatira, o Hengi i hinga i te pakanga e mōhiotia nei ko Te Whawhai a Ngā Wāhine ('The Girls' War'). Ka kuhu atu a Kawiti ki te hohou i te rongo. Ka inoi atu ki a Kiwikiwi kia tukuna te whenua i Kororāreka ki a Ngā Puhi kia tū ai te tatau pounamu. Ko taua whenua i riro mai i a Kawiti i te raupatu, ka kōrerohia: 'I haea e Kawiti te whenua, ka ora a Ngā Puhi.'

Ko ana whenua i Ōpua i riro anō hoki. I kīia nōna ka ngaro atu i Kaipara, ka mahi nanakiatia e tētahi o ngā mihinare i Paihia. Nā reira, ka tūpato rawa atu ia ki a Kāwana Wiremu Hopihona (William Hobson) me ana tāngata i Waitangi i te 5–6 o Pēpuere 1840. Kāore tonu a Kawiti i pai ki ngā ture o Ingarangi. Pūmau tonu ia ki te pupuri i ngā whenua mō te iwi, kei riro i te kāwanatanga ka noho pōhara te iwi, ka waiho hei pononga mā te Pākehā. Tino kore ia i whakaae ki te haina i te Tiriti o Waitangi. I wehi ia kei tangohia tana tohu tapu – tana moko – e te kāwanatanga hei tohu tuku whenua. Ko tana kupu ki te kāwana: 'Kāhore! Kāhore! E hoki! E hoki! He aha koia tāu i konei? Ko mātou ko ngā Māori e hiahia ana kia noho iho koe? Kāhore mātou e hiahia ana kia hereherea mātou, kia takahia mātou ki raro. Ko ngā mihinare e waiho iho, ēngari ko koe, me hoki atu ki tōu ake whenua. E kore au e whakaae kia noho iho koe. Kia aha ai koe i konei? Kia pūhia ai mātou i runga i ō mātou poti, i ō mātou waka i te pō? Ko ahau, ahakoa ko Kawiti ahau, kaua e hoehoe pēnei, e hoehoe pērā, nō te mea ko te kāwana, ko ana hōia, ko ana pū. Kāhore! Kāhore! E hoki! E hoki! Kāhore he wāhi i konei mō te kāwana.' Kore rawa a Kawiti i whakaae ki te haina i te Tiriti i te 6 o Pēpuere i Waitangi, arā, i te rā i hainatia ai e te nuinga. Heoi, ka pēhia e tana iwi. Ā, kia tūtaki rawa rāua ko te kāwana i te marama o Mei, kātahi anō ka tuku i tōna tohu. (Ka tuhia ki runga ake i o te hunga i haina i te 6 o Pēpuere.) Me te noho āwangawanga tonu. I kī a ia, e tinga ana, e kore e roa ka riro te whenua i te Pākehā, nā te mea, hohoro ana te whatungarongaro o te iwi Māori. Kāore tonu ia i rata ki te kaupapa, 'tuku i te whenua.'

Kāore e kore i manawa pā tonu ia mō tana tukunga i tana tohu. I te tau 1845 ka tae mai a Hōne Heke ki te kāinga o Kawiti i Pūmanawa. I haere mai me tana mere poke katoa i te tūtae. Ka hoatu ki a Kawiti. He āhua anō tērā nō mua, ina hiahia tētahi rangatira kia āwhinatia tana kaupapa e tētahi atu rangatira toa. Ka pātai a Kawiti: 'He aha koe i ahu mai ai ki a au, tē tahuri atu ai koe ki a Te Kohi rāua ko Te Nganga o Ngā Puhi. Ki ngā tuarā whānui hei pīkau i a koe?' Ka mea a Heke: 'Kua tae ahau ki a Ngā Puhi, ki Te Aupōuri, kāhore i tirotiro mai.' Ka whakautua e Kawiti: 'Tapahia i ngā ringa, i ngā waewae o te Pākehā kei taea anō te whakaara.' Nō te 11 o Maehe te haerenga atu o Hōne Heke ki te tope anō i te pou kara. Ko Kawiti me tana ope i whawhai mai i te tāone o Kororāreka hei mahi whakawai. Ko te tuawhā me te topenga whakamutunga tēnei a Heke i te pou kara, te tohu o te mana o Ingarangi ki runga i te whenua Māori. Te hinganga atu, takoto tonu atu mō ngā tau tekau mā rua.

Ko ngā hoa tauwhainga o te pakanga o 1845–46 i Te Tai Tokerau ko Kawiti rāua ko Heke ki ngā hōia o Peretānia (Great Britain) me ōna uku Māori. E toru ngā waitaua nui o Peretānia i hiki atu ki uta o Pēwhairangi (Bay of Islands). Ko te tuatahi i Puketutu, ka tū mai a Kawiti me ana toa i waho o te pā. I te tukinga atu o ngā hōia o Peretānia, ka huakina mai e ngā whakatoke a Kawiti mā te hiku. Ahakoa he maha i parekura, i raru i a rātou ngā Pākehā.

Ēngari ki te tirohia ngā kōrero a te Pākehā o taua wā, tērā e pōhēhētia ko te Māori kē i raru. He horo nō Kawiti ki te hopu i ngā tātai whawhai, kīhai rawa atu ia i tuku i ana toa kia whawhai i ngā wāhi mārakerake ā muri atu. Kātahi ka nuku ki Ōhaeawai, ka hangaia tana pā tūwatawata. He mea āta tātai mārika nāna. Nō te 1 o Hūrae ka huakina e ngā hōia o Peretānia. Kīhai i riro. Na, ko tēnei te ritenga o ngā hoa tauwhainga nei, arā, tokoono o ngā hōia o Peretānia ki te mea kotahi noa iho ā Kawiti. Ahakoa rā, ko tētahi mea nui rawa atu i riro ai te tāhuna i a Kawiti ko tana mōhio ki te whakatakoto tātai pakanga. E rima marama e noho kore whawhai ana ka puta mai ko te kāwana hou, ko Pitiroi (Robert FitzRoy) ki te kōrero kia houhia te rongo nō te mea he hiahia nōna kia tū whakahirahira anō te mana o Peretānia i takatakahia nei e Kawiti. Kāore a Kawiti i whakaae.

Rongo rawa atu ia, kua whakaae a Hōne Heke kia mau te rongo ki te kāwana. Ka mea atu a Kawiti: 'Kāti ki a koe me tōu takiwā. Tukua mai ki a au ki runga ki tōku takiwā. I mea ahau i ruku ai koe i te moana kia mau i a koe te ika o te kōpua ki tō kupenga; ko tēnei nā, i te ekenga o te wai ki ōu turi, kua hē tō manawa.'

Ka mahia e Kawiti tōna pā ki Tapuwaeharuru. I hua anō a Kawiti ko te mau mai ngā hōia i ā rātou pūrepo me ā rātou pū nunui. Ka keria he awaawa kia hōhonu tonu, ka tukuna ngā pūriri nunui, e 20 putu te roa, e 3 putu te mātotoru, e 8 putu o te tumu i tanua ki te oneone. Ko ēnei pūriri hei tūwatawata, kia kaha atu i tō Ōhaeawai. Kīhai i mahia he whare i roto i te pā, ēngari i keria he rua hei nohoanga mō ngā toa. E rua tekau ki te rua kotahi. He porowhita anō ngā tomokanga atu ki aua rua. Pakupakū mai ana ngā pū i waho, e noho atu ana a Kawiti mā i roto i ō rātou rua – anō he pekapeka. Ko Ruapekapeka tērā. He whakamīharotanga nā ngā hōia o taua wā, me te mano o te tangata i ngā whakatupuranga o muri mai tae noa mai ki tēnei rā. Ka noho ērā hei tauira mō ngā whakaawaawa i ngā pakanga nunui o te ao i tūria ai e ngā ope hōia o te Emepaea.

Ko te ope taua a Kawiti nō Ngāti Hine, nō Ngāti Manu, nō Te Kapotai anake. Ko Hōne Heke mā i noho kē mai i waho i te pā. I te korenga o Ngā Puhi i āwhina atu i a ia, ka waiata a Kawiti i tana takuate:

Kāore te mamae te wāhi ake nei
Kapakapatū ana te tau o taku ate
Ki te iwi rā e ka hurihia atu rā
Ki raro ki te maru o te Kuini
Hei hāpai mai i te patu a ware
Ki runga ki taku kiri ngārahu
Te ngū o taku ihu, na, ī.
E whakamaua mai rā ē
E te tini o te hoa
Kia riro ko ahau hei matangohi
Mō roto i te pakanga.
I mahara hoki au he riri kotahi
He riri pūpū te riri a Ngā Puhi,
Te riri a Rāhiri, te riri a Kaharau.
Kia tohi iho ana ki te tohi o te riri
Te tohi nei a Karakawhati
Hei huna i te tangata
Ki te pō nui a Rehua
Kāti ka whakaahora nei te tapu
I te tinana, i te whenua nā ī.
E titiro ana au ngā hau e whā
O runga o te rangi.
Tē ka tuku mai ko Ngāi Tai,
Ko te mere whakakopa o Te Hauāuru
He hau tama tāne.
Ko te ripo hara nui
Ko te maro hara nui
I waho o Māpuna e tangi ana ia.
He mumu tai, he wawā whenua
Kia tō te marino ki roto o Hokianga.
I tuku mai i Panguru, i Papata
Puke iringa kōrero o Te Hauāuru
Ka tere te taitapu, te kauranga o te rangi
He au mānutanga toroa, he hurihanga ā waka,
Tahuri ki te riri, ka riri tāua
Ki te riri wharawhara
Ki te riri whanaunga i roto i a Ngā Puhi.
Kawea mai te riri ki te mānu waitai
I roto i a Ngā Puhi Kōwhao-rau
E kore au e mutu te tū ki te pakanga
Kia kai rā anō au i te rereua o te Pō
Kātahi anō au ka mutu te tū ki te pakanga
Ka hinga hoki rā te wao nui a Tāne
Ka hinga ki raro na, ī.

 

Kei te takuate nei e whakahuatia ana a 'Ngā Puhi Kōwhaorau' – he whakarite mō te kore o Ngā Puhi e kotahi i te tini o ōna kōwhao. He whakatau mō ngā waka maha o tērā iwi – ko Ngā-toki-mata-whao-rua, ko Mātaatua, ko Te Māhuhu, ko Riukakara, ko Māmari me ētahi atu. Mō ngā rangatira o aua waka me ō rātou nei mana, me ā rātou nei tikanga. Tēnā, tēnā ki tōna nei rohe; tēnā, tēnā ki tōna whakaaro mō te āwhina i tētahi atu rangatira.

Nō te marama o Noema, ka tae mai ko Kāwana Hōri Kerei (George Grey). Kua hoki kē a Pitiroi ki Ingarangi. Ka whakarewa a Hōri Kerei i ana hōia, l,l00. Nō te whakapaunga o ngā rā o Tīhema ka karawhiua mai a Ruapekapeka e ngā pūrepo me ngā pū nunui. E rua ngā wiki e taiparatia ana; kore rawa i ngāueue. Nō te Rātapu, te 11 o Hānuere 1846, ka tomokia a Ruapekapeka. Kua wehewehea kē ētahi o ngā toa a Kawiti kia puta ki te taki i ngā hōia kia aru atu i a rātou ki te ngāherehere. He mea whakapōhēhē i ngā hōia e taui ana rātou. Ka arumia atu, ka ngāwari te puhipuhi i ngā kaiaru nō te mea i hangā he raihe kaha ki muri o Ruapekapeka hei waonga i a rātou i ngā hōia. Heoi anō kīhai i tutuki pai te kaupapa a ngā toa a Kawiti i whakataruna rā ki te taui. Ko ngā mea i noho mai ki a ia he rongorua ngā pānui. I kīia i te karakia rātou.

Ko te kōrero e 45 ngā Pākehā, e 30 ngā Māori i matemate. Ka whakarērea tērā pā. Kua poke hoki i te toto, pērā me Ōhaeawai. Ēngari, kīhai i tino riro i te taua o Peretānia te tāhuna. He marae nō Tū, he parekura, e kore e nohoia tuaruatia. Ka whakapau ngā rā o Hānuere, ka houhia te rongo e Kawiti rāua ko Hōne Heke. Ko te kōrero i tiaria e Kawiti he hou kōtuku ki te pōtae o te āpiha o ngā hōia hei tohu mō te rongo. Nō tēnei wā ka whakararata hoki a Kawiti rāua ko Tāmati Wāka Nene ki a rāua.

Ka nuku a Kawiti ki Waiōnui noho ai, ka nuku anō ki Pākaraka. He kōrero anō, nā Te Karu Whā (Henry Williams) a Kawiti i iriiri. Rānei pea? Ko tana ōhākī ki tana iwi: 'E te whānau, kei takahia e koutou ngā papa pounamu a ō koutou tūpuna e takoto nei. Waiho kia kākati te namu i te whārangi o te pukapuka hei konā ka tahuri atu ai. I muri nei hei poai Pākehā koutou.'

Kei te kākati pea te namu i tēnei rā. Nō te 5 o ngā rā o Mei 1854 ka mate a Kawiti ki Waiōmio. Pau te tau e tangihia ana, e noho pouaru ana tana iwi i Waiōmio. He wā tōna, ka whakahokia ana kōiwi ki Te Pouaka-a-Hineāmaru. Ka tau iho tana kahu rangatira ki runga ki tana tama, ki a Maihi.

Nō muri nei ka hangaia e tana mokopuna tuarua, e Tāwai, he marae ki Waiōmio. Hei maimai aroha, hei whakamaharatanga ki tana tupuna, ki a Kawiti. Kāore i oti ka mate a Tāwai. Nā ngā uri i whakaoti, ka whakamaua ko ngā īngoa katoa o ngā uri whakaheke ki te whare. Ko Tāwai, Te Riri, Maihi, Kawiti.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Kene Hine Te Uira Martin. 'Kawiti, Te Ruki', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1990. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/1k4/kawiti-te-ruki (accessed 2 December 2020)