Kōrero: Kawiti, Maihi Parāone

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Kawiti, Maihi Paraone

1807–1889

Nō Ngāti Hine; he ihorei

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Kene Hine Te Uira Martin,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1993.

E ai ki ngā kōrero a ōna whanaunga, i whānau a Maihi Parāone Kawiti ki Waiōmio, te kōhanga o Ngāti Hine i Pēwhairangi (Bay of Islands) i te tau 1807. Ko tōna īngoa i a ia i whānau ai ko Te Kūhanga. Ko ia te pōtiki o ngā tama tokotoru a Te Ruki Kawiti rāua ko tana whāereere, ko Kawa. Ko ngā īngoa o ngā tuākana o Maihi ko Taura rāua ko Wiremu Te Poro; he tuahine anō tōna, ko Tūwahinenui, ēngari he māmā kē, he pāpā kē rānei.

Nō te 27 o Tīhema i te tau 1840, ka iriiria a Maihi ki Te Waimate. Whakairia ana te īngoa o Maihi Parāone (Marsh Brown) ki a ia, ā, ka mahue ake a Te Kūhanga. Nā tāna haere ki ngā mīhana Pākehā, ka mōhio ki te tuhituhi me te kōrero pukapuka i te reo Māori. He pukumahi ki te tuhituhi ki ōna whanaunga, ki ōna hoa me ngā āpiha a te kāwanatanga. Kei te mau āna tuhituhinga i tēnei rā. Kei roto i tana ōhākī e mau ana ngā kōrero mō ngā āhuatanga i pā ki a Ngāti Hine i te wā i a ia e ora ana. He tangata tito waiata; kei te mau tonu tētahi o āna waiata i tōna iwi, i a Ngāti Hine.

E kīia ana i whara paku nei ia i tētahi pakanga i Te Ahuahu i te tau 1845. Ka tukua ki ōna whanaunga i Mangakāhia whakaruru ai. Ākuanei pea i riro rawa ko ia hei kaiako i tētahi kura mīhana i Mangakāhia mō te wā nei, i mua i tōna hokinga ki te kāinga. Nō te hemonga o tōna pāpā, o Te Ruki Kawiti i te tau o 1854, ka heke iho te rangatiratanga o Ngāti Hine ki a Maihi. Kua hemo hoki tōna tuakana a Taura i mua atu, he ika nā Tū. Arā atu anō ngā kāwai rangatira o Ngāti Hine i nui ake i tō Maihi, ēngari kore rawa i uia tōna rangatiratanga e ērā.

Nā tōna hiahia kia mau te rongo ki ngā iwi i waho atu i te kotahitanga o Ngā Puhi, ka moea e ia ngā wāhine o ēnei iwi. Ko tana wahine tuatahi ko Huingariri, he tamāhine nā Te Heke rāua ko Wairumaki o Ngā Puhi. Kotahi tā rāua tamaiti, he tāne, ko Hirini. Moe rawa atu i a Tere, nō te rohe o Whanganui. Kīhai he hua o tēnei moenga. Ko tana wahine tuatoru ko Hēningārino o Waikato. Tokoono rawa ngā tamariki o tēnei moenga. Ko ngā mea tāne ko Ranga, ko Te Riri, ko Huru; ko ngā mea wāhine ko Hui, ko Warati, ko Te Here. I whānau katoa ngā tamariki a Maihi ki Kamiria (Miria) marae i Waiōmio, koroheke atu ki reira.

Riro ana i a ia te tūnga takawaenga o tōna pāpā, riro ana hoki ko ia hei whakatau i ngā rīriri o ngā iwi o Te Tai Tokerau i ngā tau pokapū o 1850. Ko te nuinga o aua raruraru i āhei ia ki te whakatikatika. He tangata ririka ki te hahau i te waewae takahi i tōna mana; kāore e tukua te kupu kia hipa. I te tau 1857 ka totohe a Tāmati Wāka Nene kia whakaaratia e Maihi te pou kara ki te karahiwi o Maiki i Kororāreka (Russell). Ahakoa te ōhākī a tōna pāpā, a Te Ruki Kawiti kia riro mā Maihi hei whakatutuki tēnei kaupapa, kīhai a Maihi i hiahia kia riro mā Tāmati a ia e kōrero. I te turakitanga i taua pou kara i te wā o te pakanga i Te Tai Tokerau, kāore te kāwanatanga i tahuri ki te whakatū i taua pou. Ki a Maihi, mā te hapū anō nāna i turaki taua pou hei whakatū. Mā konei ka kitea te ngākau pono ki te kāwanatanga.

Arā atu anō tētahi take i ngana ai a Maihi ki te whakatū i taua pou. Kua whakatūria e Waikato ko Pōtatau Te Wherowhero hei kīngi, ā, kua tae atu tā rātou tono ki a Maihi kia tū ko ia hei kāwana i raro i te Kīngi mō Te Tai Tokerau. Ki a Maihi he whakaiti tēnei, i te mea kei raro iho tēnei i tō Pōtatau tūranga. Tere tonu te whakaatu a Maihi i te kaha o tōna mana. Ka tuaina tētahi rākau, ā, ka tōia ki Maiki. Whā rau ngā tangata tō. Taka rawa ki te tīmatanga o 1858, kua rere anō te kara a te Kuini i runga i te pou nei. Ka tapaia e rātou taua pou ko 'Te Whakakotahitanga i ngā iwi.' E hia tau i muri iho ka tae atu te whakakapi a Pōtatau, a Kīngi Tāwhiao kia kite i a Maihi i Waiōmio i Āperira o te tau 1885. Ka tukua e Maihi tana kupu whakamanamana ki a Tāwhiao, 'Waihotia hei i a koe hei ariki mō tō rohe, hei i a au hei ariki mō taku nei rohe; na, kei konei anō ngā ariki katoa o Ngā Puhi. Waihotia ki tērā.'

Arā anō tētahi kaupapa o 1858 i puta ai te kaha o Maihi ki te pupuri i tōna mana. I te putanga o te whakaaro o Ngā Puhi ki te hanga tāone ki Ōkaihau, whakatika atu a Maihi ka tono ki a Kāwana Koa Parāone (Thomas Gore Browne) kia whakatūria he tāone ki Kawakawa. Ka tukua e ia te whenua o Kawakawa hei hoko atu ki te kāwanatanga. Ina tata ka tū te tāone rā. I ngā tau tīmatanga o 1860, ka noho hei pokapū mahi waro.

I te taenga o Kāwana Parāone ki Te Tai Tokerau, ka whakawhiwhia e ia a Maihi ki tētahi taonga hīri, he rei, hei tohu i te rongomau me te kotahitanga o te iwi Pākehā me te iwi Māori. Ko te āhua o te taonga nei he mea whakairo kia rite ki te ringa o Kuini Wikitōria. Ka īngoatia ko Rongomau. Kei te mau ngā kōrero a Maihi mō ēnei kaupapa i roto i Ko te Pukapuka o te Kotahitanga ki te Rongomau i tāia ai e te tari o te Northern Luminary i Kawakawa ki Pēwhairangi. I muri tonu mai i te whakatūnga anō i te pou kara, ka tuhi atu a Maihi ki te kāwanatanga kia tukua atu tētahi wāhanga utu mō taua mahi, ēngari kīhai i whakaae mai. I te tīmatanga o Noema 1861, ka whakaarahia anō e Maihi tēnei take me ngā mea o muri mai i tō rāua tūtakitanga ko Kāwana Hōri Kerei (George Grey) i Kororāreka. Ka whakahuatia e ia te haerenga o tōna pāpā, o Te Ruki Kawiti ki Ākarana (Auckland). 'I reira ka oati koe ki a ia, ka oati ia ki a koe. I te matenga o taku pāpā i te mau tonu tana oati.' Ki a Maihi i tutuki te oati whakawhanaunga a tōna pāpā i ngā iwi e rua ēngari kua wareware kē i a Hōri Kerei tana oati.

I Hānuere o te tau 1862 ka tū tētahi hui ki Kawakawa ki te whakatū i a Maihi hei rangatira. Kāore i tutuki tēnei take. Whakatika atu a Maihi ka rohea ngā whenua o Ngāti Hine i ō Ngā Puhi hei utu i te takahanga i tōna mana karangatia ana ko 'Te Rohe Pōtae o Ngāti Hine.' He mea wehewehe anō hoki ngā whenua o Ngāti Hine, ā, tukua ana te mana ki ngā whānau i runga i aua whenua e noho ana. I te tau 1887 ka karangatia ēnei whenua ko te poraka o Mōtatau.

I te tau 1859 ka whakatūria a Maihi hei āteha i raro i te Ture Whakawā ki ngā Takiwā Māori (Native Circuit Courts Act) 1858, tae noa ki te tau 1886. Ko te āhua nei he tāmutumutu taua tūnga. Nō muri mai i te tau 1876, ka whakamahia e Maihi te whare o Te Porowini i Taumārere hei whare kōti mōna. Ka tū hoki ia hei mema mō te rūnanga i hui tuatahi ai ki Te Waimate i te tau 1862. Ko tētahi o ngā kaupapa a tēnei rūnanga he whakamana i te ture, ā, ka riro mā ia mema hei whakatinana ina hoki ki tōna rohe. Nō te tau 1865, ka rukea ake te kaupapa rūnanga.

Nā Maihi i whakatutuki ngā ōhākī a tōna pāpā, a Te Ruki Kawiti mō Ngāti Hine i kōrerotia rā e ia i mua i tōna hemonga. Ko tētahi o āna whakahau ko te ako i te iwi ki ngā tikanga a te Pākehā. Ka tukua e Maihi tōna wharenui a Mārama-tautini hei kura i Hepetema o te tau 1873. Kotahi marama i muri mai, ka tū he hui ki te whakarite i tētahi wāhi hei tūranga mō te kura hou; ka riro mā te kāwanatanga hei utu. Ka tau te kōrero kia kaua e whakautua ngā tamariki o Ngāti Hine, hāunga ngā tamariki o ētahi atu iwi.

Nō te tau 1875 rawa ka tū te kura ki Waiōmio, ēngari he mate kē hoki. Nā te mamao o te kura, he tokoiti noa iho ngā tamariki e tae ana. Āpiti atu ko te matekai o ngā tamariki, ā, ko te iti o te moni e utua ana e te kāwanatanga ki te kaiwhakaako, ki a Daniel Lorrigan. Kīhai i whakarongotia te tono a Maihi kia whakatūria he whare nohoanga mō ngā tamariki ki te kura. Ka whakaritea e ia he wāhi noho mō ngā tamariki ki Waiōmio, ā, ka whakahaua hoki ngā mātua kia haere ki te kura tao kai ai mā rātou. Ko tana tono kia riro mā te kāwanatanga hei tuku mai ngā kai, kīhai i whakaaetia nā te mea kāore hoki e hoatu ana he kai mā ngā tamariki Pākehā. I te tau 1876, i te tokoiti tonu ngā tamariki e haere ana ki te kura.

Ko ētahi kaupapa i uru atu ai a Maihi ko ngā mahi kaipakihi. I te pito o te tau 1873, ka whakatūria e ia he mira mahi puehu parāoa, mahi hītau harakeke ki Matairiri, i Taumārere. Ka tonoa e ia ētahi £800 i te kāwanatanga hei whakatū i te mira, ko ngā whenua hei punga. Kīhai i puta te ihu o tēnei mahi kaipakihi he waipuketia tonutia nō te wāhi tūnga o te mira i ngā wā e tino whakaheke ana te marangai. Ka taka ki te tau 1877 ka rīhitia te mira ēngari ko te hiahia o te kairīhi ki te neke i taua mira ki Kororāreka kia kore ai e riro i te waipuke. I te tau 1880 ka riro te mira me ētahi whenua i te kāwanatanga hei utu i ngā nama a Maihi. Nō te Ākuhata o taua tau anō, ka kati hoki te kura. I tēnei wā, kua taki hāereere kē ngā tāngata ki te keri kāpia, ā, kua haria hoki ā rātou tamariki.

Arā atu anō ngā raruraru o te tau 1880. I Hepetema ka kakari a Maihi rāua ko William Sims, te kaitono kirimana o te huarahi tereina e poka ana i Taumārere kia tae ki Ōpua. Ka katia e Maihi ngā mahi a te Pākehā nei i te takiwā e pātata ana ki te mira i Matairiri, me te kī anō ki te hiahia te kāwanatanga ki ngā whenua i taua takiwā, mā te moni rawa ka riro. Ka tukua te kupu whakatūpato ki a Maihi kia whakaaetia ngā mahi kia haere tonu, nā te mea i raro i te Ture mō ngā Mahi Nunui (Public Works Act) o 1876, e taea ana te poka mā runga i ngā whenua ahakoa nō wai, ā, ka utua e te kāwanatanga ngā whenua i riro. Ki te totohe tonu a Maihi ki te kati i ngā mahi a te kaitono kirimana ka whiua ia. Te mutunga atu ka oti te huarahi tereina ki Ōpua, kāore a Ngāti Hine i whakararuraru. Ēngari, tohe tonu a Maihi kia utua ngā whenua i tangohia, i runga i tana mahara kāore anō kia utua ngā kāpeneheihana mō aua whenua.

I te wā e haere ana ngā rūri o ngā whenua o Ōpua, ka kārangirangi a Maihi ki te awe o te mana o te Tiriti o Waitangi i hainatia rā e tōna pāpā. I roto i tana reta ki te kairūri matua, ki a Te Mete (S. Percy Smith) ka puta tana whakahē. Ka tāpiritia atu tōna mana ki te whenua i Ōpua i raro i te Tiriti o Waitangi. Ahakoa ēnei tūtukinga waewae, kaha tonu ia ki te noho tahi me te Pākehā, ā, ki te whiriwhiri hoki i āna ture kua mana nei ki te ngau i a rātou ko tōna iwi. Taka ki ētahi kaupapa, kore rawa ia e whakaae. I te tau 1881, ka takatakahia ngā rua kōiwi o Ngāti Hine i Waiōmio e te Pākehā. Ka tuhia tana reta ki a T. P. Moody, te kaiwhakahaere o ngā mahi waro i Kawakawa, e kī atu ana ki te mau he Pākehā e takahi ana i ngā ana o Waiōmio, ka whiua.

I taua tau anō, ka arumia e Maihi he huarahi hou mō ngā take o te Tiriti o Waitangi e whakararu tonu nei i ōna mahara. Ka tahuri rātou ko ngā rangatira o Te Tai Tokerau ki te whakaara i te Tiriti hei tāwharau i ngā whenua e hiakaitia ana e te Pākehā, ā, ki te mirimiri i ngā mema pāremata kia aro mai ki a rātou. Ka hangaia he wharenui e ngā iwi o reira, ko Te Tiriti o Waitangi, ā, nō Maehe o te tau 1881, ka huakina. Ko te tikanga o taua whare, hei wāhi kōrerorero i ngā take e pā ana ki te Tiriti, ā, hei whare whakamaharatanga hoki ki ngā oati i waenganui i te Māori me te Pākehā. He nui te āwhina ā-moni, ā-mahi a Ngāti Hine i tēnei whare. I te whakatuwheratanga o taua whare, ka tau te kōrero kia hangaia he pāremata Māori kia ōrite atu tōna mana ki tō te pāremata Pākehā ā tōna wā. Tautoko ana a Maihi i tēnei take. Kāore te kāwanatanga i rata mai ēngari huihui tonu te rūnanga o Waitangi ki te whiriwhiri i ngā take e pā ana ki te Tiriti. I te tau 1882 ka hainatia he pitihana ki Ingarangi kia whakamanahia te Tiriti. Ā, he mea āwhina atu anō i a Maihi, ka tīmata hoki tā rātou whakahoahoa atu ki te Kīngitanga me te rongopai a Te Whiti. Otirā kīhai i kotahi ēnei wāhanga e toru.

Ahakoa te tautoko a Maihi rātou ko ngā rangatira tokomaha i te kaupapa pāremata Māori ka tīmata tana titiro korotaha ki ngā mahi a te kāwanatanga e whakatakoto tikanga rā kia wātea ai te mana motuhake ki te Māori. Kāore hoki te kāwanatanga i tautoko i te Ture Komiti Māori o 1883. Heoi ka taka te wā, ka tangohia e Ngā Puhi whānui te momo mana motuhake e ōrite ana ki tērā i hiahiatia rā e te Kāwanatanga mō rātou, hei whakatū ture mō rātou anō. I te tau 1884 ka whakatūria e rātou ngā komiti ā-iwi hei whakahaere i ngā kaupapa mō ia rohe. I taua tau anō, ka tū a Te Rapunga whare i te marae o Miria. He rite anō ōna kaupapa ki te whare o Te Porowini i Taumārere. Ka hangaia ngā ture hou mō ia iwi. Ko ngā mea o Ngāti Hine i uru ki te hara, ka utu whaina ki te kaiwhakawā, ki a Maihi. Tū tonu ēnei ture i waenga i a Ngāti Hine kia mate rā anō a Maihi.

Ka haere tonu ngā mahi a Maihi ki te huaki i ngā whenua o Pēwhairangi mō te Pākehā i runga i tana oati i te wā i whakatūria anō te pou kara i Maiki. Ēngari, me tōna mōhio anō ki te kore e āta haere ngā mahi huaki whenua, ka kore he toenga mō Ngāti Hine. Ko te tikanga mai anō o te Rohe Pōtae o Ngāti Hine he rohenga mai i ngā whenua o Ngāti Hine i ērā o Ngā Puhi, ka mataku te kāwanatanga ki te haere pokanoa atu ki ngā whenua. Ka whakaputaina e ia te pepa whakaū i tōna mana ki te whenua; nā tana kaunihera kaumātua i haina. Ka utaina atu te hīri o Rongomau ki runga, kātahi, i te tau 1887, ka tukua ki te Kāwanatanga.

I te tau 1889 ka pāngia a Maihi e te mate urutā, he taipō pīwa. I a ia e whakahemohemo ana ka tono ki tana tamaiti irāmutu, ki a Hōterene Kawiti kia riro māna hei manaaki tana wahine a Hēningārino. Ka tukua hoki e ia tōna mana ki a Hōterene; kua mate rā hoki tana mātāmua a Hirini, ā, ko āna tama o te moenga tuatoru, ko Ranga rāua ko Te Riri i te tino tamariki tonu. I muri iho o te hemonga o Maihi i te 21 o Mei 1889, ka moea e Hōterene a Hēningārino, ka puta tā rāua tamaiti a Mate, he wahine.

I whakaaetia te hiahia o Maihi kia nehua ia i runga i ngā tikanga Karaitiana. Takaia rawatia ki ōna pūeru rangatira kātahi ka haria atu ki te urupā hou o Wairere tanu ai mō tētahi wā poto. Ko te take, kia tapu ai i tōna tūpāpaku a Wairere. Muri iho ka hahua, kātahi ka nehua ki te urupā o Ōtārawa, kāore i tino mamao atu i ngā rua kōiwi i tanua ai a Hineāmaru (he tipuna nō Ngāti Hine) rāua ko Kawiti me te tini o Ngāti Hine.

Ka mate a Maihi, ka weheruatia tōna whare a Mārama-tautini; he wāhanga i hikitia ki Kawakawa hei hōro mō te marae; he wāhanga i hikitia e tētahi o ōna whanaunga hei whare mōna i tana pāmu i Waiōmio. Ka toe ko tētahi rākau oke (oak) i whakatupuria i te wā i whakatuwheratia ai a Mārama-tautini, me te puna. He mea taiepa taua puna kia kore ai e inumia ōna wai. He poraka ngā kai o taua puna i nāianei, ā, ka rongohia atu anō he reo kēhua e okaka ana ina haeretia te wāhi i tū ai a Mārama-tautini.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Kene Hine Te Uira Martin. 'Kawiti, Maihi Parāone - Kawiti, Maihi Paraone', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1993. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/2k6/kawiti-maihi-paraone (accessed 18 November 2019)