Kōrero: Te Atairangikaahu Korokī Te Rata Mahuta Tāwhiao Pōtatau Te Wherowhero

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Te Atairangikaahu Korokī Te Rata Mahuta Tāwhiao Pōtatau Te Wherowhero

1931–2006

Ngaati Mahuta, Ngaati Apakura, Ngaati Maniapoto; Kuiini Maaori

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Rāhui Papa rāua ko Paul Meredith, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau i te 2018. He mea whakamāori nā Te Haumihiata Mason.

Ko Te Arikinui, Kahurangi Te Atairangikaahu te wahine tuatahi i tohua hei aarahi i te Kiingitanga. Neke atu i te 40 tau ia e noho ana hei Kuiini, te nohoanga roa katoa o teetehi ariki Maaori. Hau ana te rongo o Te Atairangikaahu ki te motu, ko ia te whakatinanatanga o te tuakiri Maaori me te tohu o te mana Maaori, i te wā e kaha ana te kookiri a ngaai Maaori i toona reo, i toona ahurea me aana mōtika i raro i te Tiriti o Waitangi.

Ohinga me te whai i te maatauranga

Ko Pikimene Korokii Mahuta, noo muri ka moohiotia ko Te Atairangikaahu, te maataamua a Korokii, o Ngaati Mahuta me Ngaati Korokii, raaua ko Te Atairangikaahu, o Ngaati Apakura me Ngaati Maniapoto. I whaanau mai ia ki Waahi Paa i te 23 o Huurae 1931, ka mutu, e ai ki te koorero i tohua toona whaanautanga mai e te matakookiri. Ka rua tau a Piki, koia nei te ingoa moona i moohiotia, ka noho piki tuuranga toona matua moo toona tipuna matua, ka noho mai ko te Kiingi Maaori tuarima. He tuakana too Piki, a Tuura, he tamaahine naa Korokii ki wahine kee. Moo ngaa kootiro e rua nei, ka puta te kōrero a too raaua tipuna taane, a Kiingi Te Rata,  ‘Naaku a Tuura. Ko Piki, naa te ao. Kia pai te whakaako i a ia.’1 Araa atu anoo ngeetehi tamariki tokomaha i whaangaihia, tae atu ki a Robert Te Kotahi Mahuta.

I whakatupungia a Piki ki Waahi Paa, i atawhaitia e ngaa haawini (te hunga tiaki i te kaahui ariki). I kuraina ia ki te Kura Maaori o Raakaumanga, ka tohia ki ngaa mahi a te kaihautuu i a ia e ohi tonu ana. I tohutohua ia e tana tupuna whaea, e Te Puea Heerangi, ki te aarahi i te Kiingitanga ina tohua ia e ngaa rangatira moo te tuuranga. He awe nui tonu too Te Puea i oona tau toomua.  

Ka 15 ngaa tau o Piki ka tonoa ia e Te Puea ki te Waikato Diocesan School moo te kootiro. I noho ia ki Te Raahui Waahine, teetehi whare Weeteriana moo te taitamaahine i Kirikiriroa, e whakahaeretia ana e Sister Heeni Whakamaru me Minita A.J. Seamer, he minita kua riitaea. I konei ka ako ia i ngaa whanonga tika o te ao Paakehaa. I te kura ka tohua ia hei tauira ārahi, me tana whai waahi atu ki ngeetehi haakinakina peeraa i te taakaro hoari, te hake me te kauhoe, ka ako i te piana me te paanui puoro. I kaingaakautia hoki e ia te maataakoorero me te toikupu, he maha hoki ana paanuitanga toikupu i ngeetehi hui. E haere tonu ana te whakawhiwhi a Waikato Diocesan School i te Piki Mahuta Essay Cup moo te tuhinga roa papai katoa ki te reo Ingarihi e paa ana ki te titiro a te Maaori, ka mutu, ko te Piki Mahuta Centre he waahi hou moo ngaa mahi a te reehia me ngeetehi atu huihuinga.  

Ahakoa te hiahia o Te Puea kia tau te noho a Piki ki te ao Paakehaa, i whakapono ia he mea nui whakaharahara te pupuru tonu a Piki ki oona hononga ki te iwi, kia kaua e ngaro i a ia toona tuakiri Maaori. I te kaainga i Waahi Paa, ka kitea te tapairu nei e mahi ana i ngaa maara a te iwi, i te wharekai raanei. I ngaa hararei kura, i rite tonu tana noho ki te paamu a Te Puea, me te haere tonu o te whakaako i a ia. I muri iho ka puta te kupu aroha a Te Atairangikaahu moo Te Puea me toona ‘paakaha ki a au’.2 I whai atu ia i a Te Puea i teetehi haerenga ki Tonga me Rarotonga i te tau 1947, me te aata whai a Te Puea kia whakarangatirangia ko te ‘Tapairu, a Piki’, ngā toto ariki tonu, kaua ko ia.

I te 30 o Tiihema 1953, ka poowhiritia a Kuiini Irihāpeti II raaua ko te Tiuka o Edinburgh ki Tuurangawaewae i taa raaua taenga tuatahi mai ki Aotearoa. Ka whakaae te kaawanatanga ki te tono a Waikato kia tuu te tokorua roera nei ki waho o te marae o Tuurangawaewae, ka poowhiritia e te tapairu te Kuiini me te Tiuka kia tomo mai. Whakaae ana raaua, tangi ana te umere a te whakaminenga. Ka arahina atu te tokorua roera e te tapairu e Piki ki runga o Tuurangawaewae, ki roto anoo i te wharenui o Maahinaarangi, hoki whakamuri ana a Korokii. Ko te tohu o teenei mahi aana ki te tokomaha, ko te tohu i tana tautoko i a Piki hei piki tuuranga moona. Moo Waikato, he tohu te toronga poto nei i te whakauunga o te mana o the Kiingitanga.

Ko te whakaaro ia ka whakaritea he tono (whakarite maarena) moo te tamaahine a te kiingi Maaori, engari whakatau ana a Piki maana tonu e whiriwhiri he taane maana. Ka riro toona ngaakau ki a Whatumoana Paki o Raahui Pookeka, ko oona taatai whakapapa noo Waikato me Te Aupoouri tahi. Ahakoa he mokopuna ia naa Hori Paki, kua roa nei e noho haawini ana maa te Kiingitanga, tino kore nei a Te Puea i whakaae. I moe tonu te tokorua nei i teetehi maarena iti tuumataiti i Raahui Pookeka i te 3 o Noema 1952, ngeetehi wiki nei i muri o te matenga o Te Puea. Ka noho a Tapairu Piki Mahuta ko Tapairu Piki Paki, ka kawea ake e ia ngaa mahi a te wahine, naa wai, a te whaea. Tokowhitu aa raaua tamariki: ko Heeni, raatou ko Kiritookia e te Toomairangi, ko Tuuheitia, ko Kiki, ko Mihi ki te Ao, ko Maharaia, ko Manawa.

I oona tau tōmuri, ka roa a Kiingi Korokii e maauiui ana. Ka kaha ake te noho a Tapairu Piki hei kanohi moo toona matua i ngaa hui a te iwi me ngeetehi atu huihuinga puta noa i te motu, kitea ana te rangatira o tana tuu me toona aataahua.   

Kopounga hei Kuiini Maaori

I mate a Kiingi Korokii i te 18 o Mei 1966. I ngaa ra e ono o toona tangihanga, e 48 ngaa rangatira e waananga ana ko wai hei piki tuuranga moona. Ko ngeetehi o Waikato i whakapono kia mau tonu ko te tikanga o te ure taarewa, me te whakaputa i te whakaaro kia tohua ko te karanga tahi a Korokii, a Charlie Tuumate Mahuta. I puta anoo te whakaaro kua eke pea ki te waa e tukua ai te Kiingitanga ki te whaanau ariki o Te Heuheu o Ngaati Tuuwharetoa. Heoi, i te mutunga iho ka tau ngaa whakaaro o ngaa rangatira katoa. Ko Tapairu Piki hei piki tuuranga moo toona matua, ko toona taitara ko te Kuiini. Ka koorerohia atu te whakatau ki te tapairu e tangi taukuri nei. Manawa paa ana ia ki teenei taitara, i hiahia kee ki teetehi taitara Maaori peeraa i te ariki tapairu, heoi, ka whakaae ia ki te whakatau a ngaa rangatira. Heoi anoo, i kaha tonu tana whakamoohio haere i tana hiahia kia tohua toona ekenga ki te ahurewa tapu, ka tapaa ai i a ia ki te ingoa o tana whaea, a Te Atairangikaahu, i mate nei i te tau o mua atu.

I te 23 o Mei 1966, i te raa tonu i tanumia ai a Korokii, i runga anoo i ngaa tikanga o te whakawahinga, ka utaina te paipera i whakawahia ai a Pootatau Te Wherowhero me ngaa kiingi Maaori o muri mai, ki te upoko o Tapairu Piki, e Te Waharoa Tarapiipipi, ure puukaka o Wiremu Tamihana, te ‘kaiwhakatuu kiingi’ naana nei i whakawahi a Pootatau i te tau 1858.

Ka paatai te maangai o te Kiingitanga a Henare Tuuwhangai me peewhea he taitara moona. Ka whakaarohia te ariki, te ariki toihau, me te ariki taungaroa, noho muu ana te iwi. Ka puta te whakaaro o Tuuwhangai ki te kuiini, kua tangi te umere a te iwi me te whakaae – ‘hei Kuiini, hei Kuiini, hei Kuiini!’3 Ka noho a Tapairu Piki ko Te Arikinui, Queen Te Atairangikaahu, ko ‘te mokopuna a te motu’ anoo – te tohu kauanuanu moo te kopoua o te ariki Maaori, e te iwi Maaori, moo te iwi Maaori. I ngaa tau o muri iho, ka moohiotia ki toona ingoa aroha, ko ‘the Lady’.

Kaihautuu whakahaere tikanga

Ko teetehi o ngā mea tuatahi i whakapau kaha atu ai a Te Atairangikaahu ko te hanganga o te wharekai hou hei manaaki i te tini manuwhiri ka tae atu ki Tuurangawaewae Marae i Ngaaruawaahia, te ahurewa tapu o te Kiingitanga i waihangatia i runga i ngaa tohutohu a Te Puea i ngaa tau o te 1920 me te 1930. I whaaia e Te Atairangikaahu tonu te tautoko a Waikato me ngeetehi atu. Naa toona kaha i whakatuwherangia ai te wharekai, a Kimiora, e Kuiini Irihaapeti II i te 8 o Peepuere 1974.

Noo te Kuiini Maaori te kawenga ki te manaaki, kia taetae atu raanei ki ngaa tini huihuinga Maaori me ngaa hui ookawa, tae atu ki ngaa hui whakanui aa-tau i toona koroneihana, ki ngaa hui a Nga Marae Toopu, me ngaa mahi hoehoe waka i Tuurangawaewae. Haere ai a Te Atairangikaahu i ia tau ki ngaa poukai i ngaa marae o te Kiingitanga, kia kitekite ai te iwi i a ia ki oo raatou ake marae kaainga ki reira koorerorero ai i ngaa take o te raa. I huri anoo ia i te motu ki te whakatuwhera whare, te whakatuwhera whakaaturanga, i tae atu anoo ki ngaa tangihanga o ngaa rangatira o ngaa iwi. Haere maahorahora ana ia i waenga i teenaa, i teenaa hapori me te kitea oona e maatakitaki ana i te riiki, i te puoro whakaari me te ori hiiteki. Naa tana huatau, tana ngaakau whakaiti me te mahana o toona aahua, ka arohaina a Te Atairangikaahu e te iwi. I aana koorero i ngaa huihuinga i kitea toona atamai, toona wairua ngahau me te hoohonu o oona whakaaro.

I Tuurangawaewae, ka poowhiritia e Te Atairangikaahu ngaa kaawana-tianara o Aotearoa, ngaa piriimia me ngeetehi atu o te ao toorangapuu, tae atu ki ngaa taangata roera o Peretaania me ngeetehi atu whenua, ngaa upoko me ngaa minita o whenua kee, ngaa takawaenga kaawanatanga me ngaa amorangi haahi. Ko ngeetehi o ngaa manuwhiri nei ko Pirinihi Karauna Akihito raaua ko Pirinehe Karauna Michiko o Hapanihi i te tau 1973, ko te Secretary-General o te Kotahitanga o ngaa Iwi o te Ao, a Javier Pérez de Cuéllar i te tau 1985, me Nelson Mandela i te tau 1995. I rite tonu te tae atu a ngaa roopuu maangai o Te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa ki Tuurangawaewae, me te tuitui hononga whaanui a Te Atairangikaahu ki ngaa kaawai rangatira me ngaa kaawanatanga o Te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa. I te tau 1990 ka manaakitia e ia ngaa Kaihautuu o Te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa kei raro i te maru o Ingarangi.     

I whaanui anoo ngaa haerenga a Te Atairangikaahu ki taawaahi. I te tau 1975, ka haere ia i tana haerenga ookawa tuatahi, i tana whakaae atu ki te reo poowhiri a te kaawanatanga o Peretaania. I a ia e haere atu ana ka peka atu ia ki Iinia, ka noho hei manuwhiri ma Perehitini Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed. I te Vatican, ka manaakitia tuumataitihia a Te Atairangikaahu e Popa Paul VI. Naa te kauanuanu i tupu haere moona i ngaa haerenga nei, i oona waa anoo ka kaha kee atu tana tuu hei maangai, kaua moo te iwi Maaori anake, engari moo Aotearoa whaanui. Hei tauira, i tae atu ia ki te Hui Nui a Te Kotahitanga o ngaa Iwi o te Ao moo te Taiao me te Whanaketanga ki Rio de Janeiro i te tau 1992 hei mema o te roopuu o Aotearoa, ka kauwhau ki reira. He kaitautoko kaha anoo ia o te Taiopenga Toi o Te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa ka tuu i ia whaa tau.  

Whakataunga Raupatu a Waikato, 1995

He kaupapa matua te Whakataunga Raupatu a Waikato i te tau 1995 i te waa ki a Te Atairangikaahu. Naa te Ture Whakataunga Kereeme Maaori a Waikato-Maniapoto 1946 i whakatuuria ai te Poari Kaitiaki Maaori o Tainui ki te toha i ngaa utu a te Karauna ki te hunga noo raatou ngaa whenua i raupatuhia i ngaa tau o te 1860. Heoi anoo, kaaore te whakataunga o te 1946 i koorero moo te whakaekea o Waikato, ka mutu, kaaore i uru atu ngaa pikinga utu i te takanga o te waa ki ngaa utu. I tautokona e Te Atairangikaahu ngaa mahi a tana tungaane, a Robert Mahuta, a te Poari Kaitiaki Maaori o Tainui me Ngaa Marae Toopu e ea katoa ake ai ngaa puretumu, tae atu ki te whakahokia mai o te whenua.   

Ko te hua o oo raatou whakapaunga kaha ko te whakataunga tuatahi i raro i te Tiriti o Waitangi moo ngaa tuukinotanga e paa ana ki te rironga o ngaa whenua i mua. I te 22 o Mei 1995, te poo o mua atu i te huritau 29 o toona koroneihana, ka waitohua e Te Atairangikaahu raaua ko Piriimia Jim Bolger te Tiiti Whakataunga Raupatu a Waikato ki Tuurangawaewae. He wehenga anoo o roto o Waikato i whakahee i te whakataunga, i tohea anoo e ngeetehi iwi, me taa raatou whakahoe i te ‘koopaki puutea’ a te kaawanatanga, ina koa, te herea o te nui o te puutea ka whakawaateatia moo ngaa whakataunga Tiriti moo ngaa mamaetanga o mua. I aawangawanga te hunga whakahee kei noho te whakataunga a Waikato hei huarahi e whakamanatia ai taua kaupapa here. Kaaore a Te Atairangikaahu i aro ake ki eenei peehitanga mai, i moohio ia ki ngaa whakaritenga whaaiti katoa o te huihuinga, o te raa. Ka waitohua e ia te Tiiti, ka mutu, i taua Noema, i te aroaro o Te Atairangikaahu, ka whakamanahia e Kuiini Irihaapeti II te ture moo te Whakataunga Raupatu a Waikato.

Ka tupu haere te wairua pai i te whakataunga moo ngaa raa ki tua o ngaa iwi o Waikato, engari i ngaa tau ka whai iho, kaaore i whai painga ngeetehi o ngaa haumitanga, me te riri tara-aa-whare a ngeetehi o ngaa mema o te kaahui whakahaere hou, o Te Kauhanganui, me too raatou mana whakahaere, te Tekau-maa-rua. Ka taukumekume ngeetehi wehenga moo te whakahaere i ngaa hinonga rangatoopuu a te iwi. Ko te nuinga o te whiunga kupu i whiua ki a Taa Robert Mahuta, te maangai o Te Atairangikaahu ki te Tekau-maa-rua, engari puumau ana tana tautoko i a ia. Ko te otinga atu o ngaa tautohetohe ko te whakawhiua o Te Atairangikaahu; ki te tini o Waikato, he mahi whakahouhou, he mahi moorihariha te kawe i too raatou ariki ki te Kooti Teitei. Ki a raatou e taupatupatu ana ngaa tikanga o te ture Paakehaa ki ngaa tikanga o te Kiingitanga. Ka whakapuakina e Te Atairangikaahu toona mamae me toona riri i teetehi kauwhau roroa ki teetehi huihuinga motuhake a te iwi i Tuurangawaewae. Ka tautokona ia e tana apataki pono, naa wai, naa wai, ka tau te tautohetohe moo te aarahi i te iwi. Ka whaaia ko te ara matawhaaiti moo ngaa haumitanga, ka whai rawa haere te iwi.

Taunakitanga moo te reo me te ahurea Maaori

I tukua e Te Ataairangikahu toona mana me toona awe ki ngeetehi kaupapa maha tonu. Ko ngeetehi o ana tuuranga, ko ia te whakaruruhau o Ngaa Waahine Maaori Toko i te Ora me te koohanga reo. I kaha tonu ia ki te tautoko i te wahine Maaori, me te hiranga o te reo Maaori ki ngaa tamariki. Whai mana ana ngaa hui taumata a Ngaa Waahine Maaori Toko i te Ora i tana whai waahi atu, me te ngaakau harikoa o te hunga i tae atu i ana kauwhau. I tana torotoro haere i ngaa koohanga reo, hiamo katoa ana ngaa whaanau me ngaa kaiako, whakamanawatia ana ki te whaangai tonu i te reo ki ngaa mokopuna. I tautokona e ia te taiopenga kapa haka o te motu ka tuu i ia rua tau, me te tuu a ngaa kapa haka i ngaa tahatika o te awa o Waikato i Tuurangawaewae. I tautoko hoki ia i ngaa toi Maaori, tae atu ki te aranga mai anoo o ngaa mahi o te whare pora. I tana whakatere i te pukapuka a Miriam Evans raaua ko Ranui Ngarimu, The art of Māori weaving i te tau 2005, ka puta ana kupu whakanui i ngaa mahi o te whare pora me ngaa puukenga, ngaa puumanawa o te ringa whatu, te ringa raranga. 

I te tau 1970, ka noho ko Te Atairangikaahu te wahine Maaori tuatahi kia tohua hei Kahurangi o te Emepaea o Peretaania i te tohua oona e Kuiini Irihaapeti II tonu. I te tau 1987, ka noho a Kahurangi Te Atairangikaahu hei mema tuatahi o te Order of New Zealand, te hoonore tiketike katoa moo te kirirarau. I whakawhiwhia anoo ia ki te tohu kairangi hoonore e Te Whare Waananga o Waikato i te tau 1979, me te Tohu Kairangi Ture hoonore  e Te Whare Waananga o Wikitooria o Te Whanga-nui-a-Tara i te tau 1999. I te 1986 ka tohua ia hei Aapiha o te Most Venerable Order of St John. Ko teetehi o ngaa tohu tiketike a Toi Aotearoa kua whakaingoatia ko Te Tohu Aroha mō Te Arikinui Kahurangi Te Atairangikaahu hei whakahoonore i a ia.

Maauiuitanga whakamutunga me toona matenga

I whakanuia e Kahurangi Te Atairangikaahu te huritau 40 o tana koroneihana i te Mei 2006, engari i maarama i ngaa whakanui kotahi wiki nei te roa, e maauiui ana ia. Ko teetehi mea nui whakaharahara ko te konohete roera a ngaa kapa haka maataamua, i whakanuia ai ia e aa raatou titonga; he whakaaturanga anoo teenei i te arohaina oona i te tokomaha. Ko ngeetehi whakamaanawa i hopukia, tae atu ki te karere i a Pirinihi Charles, e mau ana i te korowai i kohaina ki tana matua i te haerenga roera mai o te tau 1953.

I te 15 o Aakuhata 2006, kua roa nei ia e maauiui ana, ka mate a Te Arikinui Kahurangi Te Atairangikaahu, kaaore i kotahi marama i muri o tana raa whaanau 75. Ko toona tangihanga, e ono raa nei te roa ki Tuurangawaewae Marae, me te tangihanga aa-motu te rite. Haere mai ana te tini whaaioio ki te tangi i a ia; i te aata nui o te tangata, ka haere ake te Ope Taua o Aotearoa ki te aawhina i te marae ki te whaangai i te manuwhiri. I te nui whakaharahara o toona mana me te tangi taukuri a te iwi, ka paahotia mataoratia ki ngaa hongere e toru o te pouaka whakaata, ki teetehi 430,000 taangata. Kei toona 100,000 te hunga i tae atu ki Tuurangawaewae i ngaa raa o te tangihanga. Tukua atu ana te kupu aroha e te ao nui tonu, tae atu ki a Kuiini Irihaapeti II.

I muri i te waananga whaanuitia, ka tohua te maataamua a Te Atairangikaahu, a Tuuheitia, hei piki tuuranga Ariki Maaori moona. Whai muri iho i te whakawahinga, ka tohia a Tuuheitia i te taha tonu o te waka tuupaapaku o toona whaea, i te raa tonu o te nehu. Ka kawea atu a Te Atairangikaahu e te waka o toona iwi a Tuumanako, ka whai i te awa o Waikato ki te maunga tapu o Taupiri Kuuao. E raarangi mai ana te tini whaaioio i ngaa tahatika o te awa, ka haere te poroporoaki a te tini nei i Taupiri. Ka tanumia tuumataitihia a Te Atairangikaahu ki te taumata haahaka o te maunga, ki te waahi kua taapuia moo ngaa ariki Maaori.

Kupu tāpiri
  1. Carmen Kirkwood. Te Arikinui and the millennium of Waikato. Ngāruawāhia, 2001, p. 23. Back
  2. Quoted in Michael King. Te Puea: a biography. Auckland, 1977, p. 303. Back
  3. Queen Te Atairangikaahu: the first twenty-five years. Ngāruawāhia, 1991, p. 2. Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Rāhui Papa and Paul Meredith. 'Te Atairangikaahu Korokī Te Rata Mahuta Tāwhiao Pōtatau Te Wherowhero', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 2018. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/6p2/te-atairangikaahu-koroki-te-rata-mahuta-tawhiao-potatau-te-wherowhero (accessed 20 April 2021)