Kōrero: Mahuta, Tonga

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Mahuta, Tonga

1892/1893?–1947

Nō Ngāti Mahuta; he kaihautū

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Angela Ballara,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1996.

I whānau a Tonga Mahuta i te tau 1897 i te kāinga o tōna matua i Hukanui, e tata ana ki Waahi, i te takiwā o Rāhui Pōkeka (Huntly). Hei tama tuawhā ia, o ngā tamariki i te ora tonu, mā Mahuta Tāwhiao Pōtatau Te Wherowhero, te Kīngi Māori tuatoru. Ko tōna whaea ko Te Marae, hei tamāhine mā Amukete (Amuketi rānei) Te Kerei, he rangatira i hinga i te pakanga i Rangiriri i Noema o te tau 1863. Ko te tuakana o Tonga ko Te Rata, te Kīngi tuawhā. Ahakoa ngā kāwai rangatira o tōna whānau i toro atu ki ngā iwi nunui, ko tōna tino iwi ko Ngāti Mahuta. I kuraina a ia i te kura Māori o Rākaumanga (Rākaumanga Native School) tae noa ki te tau 1908, ā, i muri iho i ētehi kura i Rāhui Pōkeka, i Pārāwai (Thames), i Horotiu (Cambridge) me Ākarana (Auckland).

I te tīmatanga o te Pakanga Tuatahi o te Ao i te tau 1914, kāore anō a Tonga kia hipa atu i te 20 tau. E whakatenetene ana ngā kaiārahi o te Kīngitanga ki te tuku i ā rātou taitamariki ki te Ope Taua o Aotearoa (New Zealand Expeditionary Force) hei tūao, nō te mea, kāore anō kia tatū te raruraru mō ngā whenua o Waikato i murua, ka tahi, ā, kua hou kē atu rātou ki ngā akoranga Tariao a te hāhi Pai Mārire i whakaora mai, ka rua. Nā te tino kore rawa atu nei i pai o Tonga Mahuta ki te haere kia whakangungua a ia hei hōia ā-takiwā i te tau 1914, ka whainatia a ia. Ko te hiahia hoki kia tino mutu te whakatenetene a Waikato, nā reira ka whainatia anō ia me ērā o ngā kāwai rangatira o Waahi i te wā tōmua o te tau 1916. Ko te moni hei utu māna, e rima hereni. Nō Āperira o te tau 1916 ka whainatia anō ia. I te toronga atu a Meiha E. H. Northcroft i Waahi i te 26 o Hune 1916, ka rīria a ia e ngā kaiārahi o te Kīngitanga. I manawapā rātou, pēhea ana te uri o te Kāhui Ariki a Tonga ki te haere kia whakawaia a ia hei hōia ā-takiwā, ā, he kite nō rātou kāore i te pērātia te hunga Pākehā e ōrite ana te tūranga ki tō Tonga. Nō Āperira o te tau 1917, ka hāmenetia anō a Tonga.

Nō tētehi pānuitanga i te mara amo Hune 1917, e whakawhānui ana i ngā tikanga here o te Ture Puruma (Military Service Act) 1916, ka taea te Māori te whakahau hei hōia i roto i te Whakaihinga Māori o te Ope Taua (Native Expeditionary Force Reserve). Nā Hāmi Ārena (James Allen), te minita mō te whawhai (arā, i ngā wā o te maungārongo, ko tōna īngoa ko te minita ārai i te hoariri) i whakaahuru ngā kaipetihana o Te Arawa, me ērā atu o ngā iwi 'piripono', arā, mō ngā iwi o Waikato anake aua whakahau o te ture.

Nō te māpere o te 25 o Hune 1918, ka whakamenetia anō a Tonga Mahuta. Riro ana nā te rārangi īngoa muna a te kaute nui a te kāwanatanga te īngoa o Tonga i whakatūturu. E taki hui ana te Kīngitanga i Te Paina (Mercer), taupatupatu ai i te māperetanga, i te 7 o Hune ka tae atu ngā kātipa tokotoru, ka mau i ētehi Māori tokowhitu; ko Te Rauangaanga tētehi, te taina o Tonga. Ka haria a Te Rauangaanga ki te puni hōia i Narrow Neck i Takapuna, kei Tāmaki-makau-rau (Auckland). Kātahi ka tae atu a Māui Pōmare, te mema Pāremata mō Te Hauāuru, rāua ko G. W. S. Patterson, he kānara nō ngā hōia, ki te whakawhere i a ia kia tango i te kupu oati, ā, kia tuhia hoki e ia he reta e kī ana, he pai kē te haere ki te puni hōia, tēnā i te takahi i te ture; nō muri, i tukua haerea te reta nei ki roto katoa o Waikato. I te maunga o Tonga i te ture, ka karanga ia ki ōna hoa, e 44 te nui, e mau ana anō hoki, kia haere pai noa atu rātou ki te puni hōia, ā, kia kaua hoki e ātete. Nā ngā kōrero pea i te reta a tana taina i pēnei ai a Tonga.

O rātou ko Tonga mā i hopukina e te ture, e 34 kāhore i whakaae ki te mau kaka hōia, ki te whakawai rānei hei hōia; hei ngawhi i ēnei, i whakatikia rātou (he parāoa, he wai noa iho), kātahi ka mauria ki te whare herehere mō tētehi wā nei. Tokoono rātou i whiua e te kōti whakawā hōia, i whakatauria kia rua tau te maunga atu ki te whare herehere, mamahi taumaha ai. E pono ana ngā mana hōia nō Purūhia (Prussia) kē mai ētehi o ngā tūpuna o te tuahine o Tonga, o Te Puea Hērangi, i te taha ki tana koroua, ki a Te Hērangi (William Searancke), inarā i te pukuaroha kē ngā iwi o Waikato ki ngā Tiamana. Ina pea hei kaupare māna i te whakaaro nei, hei tautāwhi rānei i a Te Rauangaanga, nō Hepetema i whakaae ai a Tonga ki te mau kaka hōia, ki te whakawai hoki. Kāre i roa i muri mai, ka mutu te whawhai. Nō Hune o 1919, ka tukua katoatia ngā hōia ākonga me ngā herehere i Takapuna, ā, mutu tonu atu te whakahaerea o ngā wārati e mana tonu ana te ture ki te hopu i ngā Māori.

Ka moe a Tonga Mahuta i a Te Okewhare, te tamāhine a Te Awaiti Hiko rāua ko Te Aira; tokorua tahi rāua nō Ngāti Naho. Ka puta ngā uri, nuku atu pea i te tokotoru ngā mea tāne, tokotoru ngā mea wāhine. I a ia e tamariki ana, i ngākau nui a Tonga ki te tākaro rīki; nō roto i ngā tau, i whakaīngoatia ia hei mema ā mate noa ia, ki roto i te Rīki Whutupaoro o Niu Tīreni (New Zealand Rugby Football League). I mau haere tonu tōna hiahia ki te tākaro, me te aha, nō te tau 1925, ka meatia a ia hei mema mō te Poari Whakahaere Putu Paoro Mō te Taha Māori (Māori Advisory Board) o te Kotahitanga Whakahaere o ngā Mahi Putu Paoro Rakapī o Niu Tīreni (New Zealand Rugby Football Union). (Ko ēnei ngā īngoa tūturu o tērā wā mō ērā rōpū, arā, mō te Poari Māori Tohutohu i te Kotahitanga o ngā Rōpū Māori Whutupaoro o Aoteroa.)

He māuiui nō Te Rata, he kore pea nōna i pai kia tūtaki ia ki te manuhiri tauhou, ka riro nā Tonga me ērā o ngā tāina tōna tūranga i whakakapi. I te wā e kaha ana te whawhai i waenganui i ngā kaiārahi o te Kīngitanga mō te kaupapa a Rātana, nāwai, nāwai, ka whai kē a Tonga rātou ko ōna tāina i a Te Rata rāua ko Te Puea, tēnā i te kaupapa a Rātana e hāpai haeretia ana e Piupiu Te Wherowhero rāua ko Tupu Taingākawa. I manaakitia hoki te whakaaro o Āpirana Ngata mō te whakatōpū i ngā whenua. Taka rawa ki te tau 1929, kua tau kē te whakaaro o Ngata ko Tonga Mahuta te kaiārahi kaikaha hei ako i a Waikato ki ngā mea e taea ana e rātou, e pā ana ki te whakahaere i ō rātou whenua. Kātahi ka haere a Tonga i te taha o Te Rata ki Kāwhia i ngā marama o Pēpuere me Maehe o 1932, ki te whakahau i ngā kaupapa whakatōpū whenua, ki te whakatikatika hoki i te whenua, 600 eka te nui, mō Te Rata rātou ko ana tāina. I te matenga o Te Rata i te tau 1933, i whakataetae anō a Tonga rātou ko ana tāina ki a Te Puea, me kore e riro mai te taiohi nei a Korokī, te Kīngi tuarima, ki raro i a rātou.

Nō te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao, ahakoa kāore ētehi kaihautū o Waikato i tino rata rawa atu ki tana mahi, i kaha tonu a Tonga Mahuta ki te tautoko i ngā mahi āwhina i te whawhai. I whakaaetia e Te Puea rātou ko ērā atu o ngā kaiārahi o te Kīngitanga mā ia taitama tonu o Waikato e haina, whēnā he hiahia tērā nōna. Ēngari e noho tārewa tonu ana te kaupapa o ngā whenua muru: i te whakakāhoretanga o Waikato i te kamupeneheihana i te tau 1928, kāre a Waikato i mārama mō te aha te take i pūmau ai ā rātou tamariki tāne ki te kāwanatanga. I whakaae a Waikato ki ā rātou tāne ki te wawao i a Niu Tīreni ake, ki te āwhina ki te whakatupu kai kia rahi tonu, ka mutu. Tautāwhi ana a Tonga Mahuta i te whakaaro nei, ēngari kawea ana e ia tēnei tikanga ki kō noa atu. I hihiri tana akiaki i tōna iwi, i a Waikato ki te whakauru atu ki te taua tautiaki i te toi whenua (Home Guard). Nō tētehi hui i Pōneke (Wellington) i kōrero atu a Te Puea me ērā atu kaiārahi ki te pirimia, ki a Pita Pereiha (Peter Fraser) i ngā whakaaro o Waikato mō ngā āwhina i te whawhai. Taka ana ki a Tonga te mahi whakahaere ki te whakawhiti atu i te hunga tūao o Waikato ki roto ki ngā mahi, pērā i ngā mahi poka waro me ngā mahi i ngā whare patu kararehe. I whakahaua e ia tōna iwi ki te whakatupu i ngā kai tino āhei, ki te kohi moni hoki mō te tahua tāmau whenua. I mahi anō ia mā te tari hōia o te motu (National Service Department) i Kirikiriroa (Hamilton), ēngari mō tētehi wā noa iho nei.

Mō tētahi wā noa nei i waiho te take raupatu ki te taha i te whakaaetanga a Te Puea me ērā atu o ngā kaiārahi o te Kīngitanga i te tau 1946 ki tētehi tahua moni whakatau. Kia tika ai te whakahaere i ngā utu ā-tau, ka whakatūria te Poari Kaitiaki Māori o Tainui (Tainui Māori Trust Board). Nō te taenga mai o ngā moni tuatahi, ka kī a Tonga kia tukua ngā moni o ia tau hei hoko pāmu mā tēnā, mā tēnā o ngā hapū i mate i te muru. Kāre i arongia ake tāna i whakaaro ai. Nō te 13 o Maehe 1947, ka mate a Tonga i te mate kohi, i Waahi Pā. I mauria tana tūpāpaku ki Tūrangawaewae tangihia ai, ā, ka mutu tētehi tangihanga nui ko tērā. Kei Taupiri maunga e nehu ana. Kua mate noa atu a Te Okewhare i te 13 o Maehe 1944; mahue atu ana i muri i a Tonga, ko ngā tamariki tokoono.

Mai i te wā i whānau ai a Tonga Mahuta, ka noho ia i Waahi, i te kāinga i nōhia e tōna matua i mua, e Kīngi Mahuta. Ko ia tētehi o ngā kaiārahi i whakaae ki a Te Puea hei kaiārahi mō te kāhui Kīngitanga, ēngari me te whakatūpato anō, tērā kei riro katoa i a ia te mana o te Kīngitanga. Nāna i āwhina te kaupapa o te Kīngitanga ki te whakaū i te tuakiri motuhake, haere tonu ai te whakatupu, kia kitea ai hoki ngā mana o te kāhui ariki i roto i te ao Māori.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Angela Ballara. 'Mahuta, Tonga', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1996. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/3m34/mahuta-tonga (accessed 24 July 2019)