Kōrero: Taonui Hīkaka

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Taonui Hikaka

?–1892

Nō Ngāti Maniapoto; he rangatira

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Gary Scott,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1993.

Nō te tīmatanga o ngā tau tekau atu i 1840 i whānau ai a Taonui Hīkaka, i Paripari pea, e tata ana rā ki te tāone e kīia ana i nāianei ko Te Kūiti. He uri whakaheke ia nō Rakataura nō runga i a Tainui waka. Ko Taonui Hīkaka anō hoki (ko Hīkaka tonu rānei) te īngoa o tōna pāpā, nō Ngāti Rora, he hapū nō Ngāti Maniapoto. Kei te kīia ko Niapo o Ngāti Hia pea tōna whaea. Nō te tau 1844 i peitatia e George French Angus te āhua o Niapo rāua ko Taonui pakeke ki tētehi whakaahua. Arā atu anō ētehi i tō rātou rōpū nāna anō i peita. Te āhua nei tokowhā ngā tamariki a Taonui rāua ko Niapo i tua atu i a Taonui tamaiti, arā, ko Te Kurī (ko Ngāturi tētehi o ngā īngoa), ko Tanirau, ko Te Naunau Hīkaka, ko Tautau, me tō rātou tuahine, me Paeata Mihinoa, i moe rā i a Louis Hetet, he kaihoko taputapu nō Parani.

Ko Taonui pakeke tonu te poutokomanawa o ngā pakanga i waenganui i a Waikato rāua ko Taranaki i ngā tau tekau atu i 1820 me 1830. I te whakapaenga o te pā o Rangiuru, i kō tata atu i te wahapū o te awa o Ōtaki, i te tau 1834, ka ika huiruatia e ia a Te Tupeotū rāua ko Te Hautehoro. Rāua tahi he toa. Ka whakairia atu a Hīkaka hei īngoa mōna mō tōna hīkaka ki te whai, ki te patu i aua tāngata rā. He tangata whai mana, i whakaarotia hei ūpoko mō te Kīngitanga. E kīia ana ko ia anake te tangata i pakari ki te whakahoki i te tīkai a Pōtatau Te Wherowhero mō Ngāti Maniapoto, i titoa rā e ia ki te waiata. Hoatu ana e Pōtatau ko te hūtu maitai o Hongi Hika hei whakarata i a Taonui. Nā Kīngi Hōri Te Tuawhā i whakawhiwhi ki a Hongi, nāna ki a Pōtatau.

Kāore e kore i takina a Taonui tamaiti e tōnā pāpā rāua ko Tāwhana Tīkaokao ki Waitara i Āperira o te tau 1863, ki te pakanga ki te ope taua a te kāwanatanga. Ahakoa te tamariki ōna, tū rawa ia i te taha o tōna pāpā i te mura o te pakanga. Nā konei, ka matatau a Taonui ki ngā mahi a Tū. I te mutunga o ngā pakanga, kua hau kē tōna rongo.

Nō te wā pea o ngā tekau tau atu i 1860 ka mate a Taonui pakeke. Ka noho ko Taonui tamaiti hei rangatira mō Ngāti Rora. Tū rawa ake te tokotoru tapu, ko ia, ko Wahanui Huatare, ko Rewi Maniapoto hei ārahi i a Ngāti Maniapoto, ahakoa anō he tino tamariki ake a Taonui i ōna hoa.

I ngā tau tīmatanga o te tekau tau atu i 1870, ka tipu te raruraru i waenganui i a Ngāti Maniapoto rāua ko Waikato; ko ngā whenua raupatu te take. Tata te tōtara wāhi rua o te haumi i tīmataria i te wā o te pakanga. Tino māharahara ana a Ngāti Maniapoto. I te tau 1875 ka tūtaki a Te Mākarini (Donald McLean), minita mō ngā take Māori, ki a Tāwhiao. Ka takoto te kōrero a Te Mākarini, tērā ka whakaaetia tētehi wāhi o te mana motuhake o te Kīngitanga ki tōna ake rohe, ēngari e kore e whakahokia atu ngā whenua raupatu. Pērā anō te kōrero a te pirimia, a Tā Hōri Kerei (George Grey) i Hānuere o te tau 1878 i Te Kōpua. I reira hoki a Rewi Maniapoto i taua hui. Porowhiua mai ana ngā kōrero whakakīkī a ēnei tāngata.

I Hune o te tau 1878, ka hui anō a Hōri Kerei rāua ko Rewi i Waitara. I reira hoki a Taonui. Kāore a Rewi rāua ko Taonui i hoki ki Waikato; tata pau ana te tau i noho tonu ai rāua i Waitara ahakoa ngā tono a te Kauhanganui a Tāwhiao me Ngāti Maniapoto kia hoki atu. Ko te whakapae a te tokomaha o Ngāti Maniapoto kua pokanoa te mahi a te tokorua nei, huri kē ana rāua ki te whakahoahoa atu ki te kāwanatanga. I te hokinga rawa ake o rāua ki te kāinga i riro kē nā Taonui i parepare te nohonga o Rewi i Waitara, i te hui a Ngāti Maniapoto i Te Kōpua i te tau 1879.

Ka taka ki te tau 1880, kua taipūtia a Ngāti Maniapoto e ngā raruraru hoko whenua, ahakoa anō tō rātou pūmau ki te kati a te Kīngitanga i te hoko whenua me te kaupare atu i ngā mahi kōti whenua i roto i te Rohe Pōtae. I taua tau anō, ka whakatika atu a Tāwhiao ka whakamātau ki te pou i te Kīngitanga ki Hikurangi, i te tonga o Pirongia maunga, kia kore ai ngā pononga a te Kīngitanga e hoko noa i ngā whenua. Ka tautokona e Rewi, e Wahanui rātou ko Taonui te whakaaro o Tāwhiao. I te tau 1883 ka tukua tā rātou pitihana – 412 ngā moko o runga – ki te Kāwana me ngā Whare Pāremata e rua. Kī tonu te pitihana i ō rātou riri amuamu mō ngā ture e tāmi ana i tō rātou tino rangatiratanga ki te whenua i oatitia rā i roto i te Tiriti o Waitangi.

Nā te kerēme a ētehi atu iwi i ngā whenua o Ngāti Maniapoto, āpiti atu hoki ki te kaha hiahia o te kāwanatanga ki aua whenua anō, ka noho rīriri te iwi. Kua hāngai te rere o ngā wero ki ngā rangatira pērā i a Wahanui rāua ko Taonui, i mau tonu rā ki te kupu a Tāwhiao kia kaua e hokona te whenua. Kua kaha hoki ngā tono ki te Kōti Whenua Māori, kia whakatauria ngā rohe whenua o Ngāti Maniapoto. I Noema o te tau 1883, ka tae rā a Te Paraihe (John Bryce), te minita mō ngā take Māori, ki te hui i Kihikihi. I reira ka whakatakotoria e ngā rangatira ā rātou kerēme ki ngā whenua mai i Waikato tae rawa ki te tonga, ki Ruapehu, 2.4 miriona eka te nui. I taua hui anō, ka whakaarahia ake e Te Paraihe te patunga i tētehi Pākehā i haere pokanoa ki ngā whenua o te Kīngitanga i te tau 1880. Ko Taonui te māngai kōrero i mahi tahi me te minita mō taua take.

Te mutunga iho, ka whakarērea e Taonui rāua ko Wahanui te kaupapa a te Kīngitanga. Nō te 1 o Tīhema i te tau 1883, ka whakaaetia e rātou ko Rewi kia rūritia e Te Mete (S. P. Smith) ngā pae o te Rohe Pōtae. I te wehi o Taonui kei ngaro tōna mana ki ngā whenua, ā, kei whāwhai te wāwāhi, i tohe ia me noho moana tonu ō rātou whenua. Tapu rawa tā rāua whakaaetanga ko Wahanui kia rūritia ngā whenua, āwhinatia ana e rāua te kāwanatanga ki te whakawātea i ngā tūtukinga waewae. He nui te tautoko a Taonui kia hangaia te ara tereina matua. Tuhi rawa hoki i tana reta tautoko ki a Te Paranihi (John Ballance), i te mutunga o te tau 1884. Nō te 15 o Āperira, te tau 1885, tū ana te tokotoru nei, a Taonui, a Wahanui, a Rewi i te parenga awa o Pūniu kia huripokina ai te oneone tuatahi. I reira hoki te pirimia, a Rāpata Taute (Robert Stout). Ka puta te kupu whakahē a ētehi rangatira tokorua o Waikato ki a Taute mō te ara tereina. Ki a rāua nō Waikato kē te whenua. Aukatia ana e te kupu a Taonui te pirimia, 'Nō mātou te whenua, ka huripokina te oneone, ā, ka oti atu te huripoki i te rā tonu nei!'

I noho pōuri tonu a ia ki te Kōti Whenua Māori. Arā anō hoki tētehi take whakakawakawa i a ia, ko te mana kore o te Komiti Mō Ngā Mea Māori (Native Affairs Committee) i te Pāremata. Ki a ia, me maha atu ngā tūru Māori ki te Pāremata, ā, me taka hoki te mana whenua ki raro i ngā hapū, mā ngā komiti hapū hoki e whakahaere. Kore rawa ia i whakaae kia taka te mana whenua ki raro i te tangata kotahi. Tautokona ana e Te Paranihi tēnei whakaaro o Taonui. Hui putuputu tonu rāua i ngā tau o muri iho. Nō te tau 1886, ka whakamōhiotia ia e Te Paranihi ki te kāwana i Ākarana (Auckland).

Nō te tau 1886 anō hoki ka uru atu ia ki ngā kōhetehete ki a Ngāti Tūwharetoa mō te poraka whenua o Taupōnui-a-Tia i kō tata atu i te moana o Taupō. Tae rawa atu ia i taua tau anō rā ki te hui a te Kōti kua oti kē te whakatau kia taka te whenua ki a Ngāti Tūwharetoa. Kua oti kē tana tono kia whakatārewatia te kēhi, kāore i tutuki. Ka tono kia kōtitia anō, ā, kia whai wāhi ia ki te hoki ki te kōrerorero ki tōna iwi. Nā te kore o te kaiwhakawā e tahuri atu, ka kapatau ki te puta, ka whakaraua a ia, he ihu hīkaka nōna ki te kōti rā te whakapae. I kōrerotia rawatia tēnei raruraru i te Pāremata. Mutu iho, ka riro mā tētehi kōmihana uiui hei whakatau. I te tau 1888, ka rere tana pitihana ki te Komiti Mō Ngā Mea Māori kia turakina atu te kaiwhakawā matua o te Kōti Whenua Māori, kia whakatūria atu ko tētehi kaiwhakawā e matatau ana ki te reo me ngā tikanga a te Māori. Me tana tono anō hoki kia whakahoutia ngā tikanga whakahaere o taua kōti.

Taka iho ki te tau 1891, i te tohe tonu a Taonui. Ka tū ia ki mua i te Kōmihana mō ngā Ture Whenua Māori, ka tono kia tangohia atu ngā here nanati i te mana o Ngāti Maniapoto ki te rīhi i ōna whenua. Ka hoki anō a ia ki te take o Taupōnui-a-Tia, ka tono kia whakaroatia atu te wā hei utunga mā ngā Māori i ngā utu rūri. Ka tuaruatia anō e ia tana tohe kia maha atu ngā mema Māori i te Pāremata. Nō te marama whakamutunga o taua tau, ka hui a Taonui rāua ko Wahanui ki a Alfred Cadman, te minita mō ngā take Māori. Kāore tonu rāua i whakaae ki te hoko here kore noa i te whenua, hāunga ka tono anō rāua i te mana rīhi ki te tangata kotahi. Ka tono hoki ki te minita kia riro māna e whakapai ngā ture whenua kia kore ai e anuanu ki te Māori.

Rite tonu te rahi o Taonui ki a Wahanui. Neke atu i te ono putu te roa. Nā Gottfried Lindauer i whakairo tōna āhua ēngari he mea tuhi pūrua kē pea mai i tētehi whakaahua. Kua mate kē hoki a Taonui i taua wā. Nā Lindauer hoki i tā kia whā ngā hae moko mai i te parehe o te ihu kātahi ka whakapae i te rae, kia rite ki te moko o Taonui pakeke i tāia ai e George French Angas i te tau 1844. Kāore hoki ēnei hae i ngā whakaahua o Taonui tamaiti.

Nō Wahanui anake te mana nui atu i tō Taonui i roto i a Ngāti Maniapoto i te tekau tau mai i 1880. Tino iti ana te kitenga i ngā tuhituhi e kī ana he tangata whaikōrero a Taonui. I pau tōna kaha pērā i a Wahanui ki te tohe oranga mō tōna iwi i te huakanga o te Rohe Pōtae ki te Pākehā. He nui ōna pānga whenua. Mahue ake ana ko te wahine a Taonui, e ngaro nei tōna īngoa. Kāore rāua i whai tamariki. Nā tōna whare ngaro ka mahue iho ōna whenua me ōna rawa ki tōna teina, ki a Te Naunau Hīkaka. Ohorere ana te matenga o Taonui Hīkaka i Te Kūiti i te 2 o Tīhema i te tau 1892. Hei tohu i tōna mana, 800 te kura tuohu i tae i ngā rā e rima ki tōna tangihanga.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Gary Scott. 'Taonui Hīkaka - Taonui Hikaka', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1993. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/2t8/taonui-hikaka (accessed 17 October 2019)