Kōrero: Parore Te Āwhā

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Parore Te Awha

?–1887

Nō Te Roroa, nō Ngā Puhi; he kaihautū

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Garry Hooker,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1993.

I whānau a Parore Te Āwhā ki Mangakāhia i te takiwā pea o te tekau tau mai i 1790; he uri ia nō te hapū o Te Kuihi. I te taha ki tōna matua, ki a Toretumua Te Āwhā, i heke iho i a Toa, te ariki nui o Te Roroa, ngā huānga o Ngāti Whātua; nā te mokopuna a tēnei, nā Taramainuku, i tapa te īngoa o te hapū ki a Te Kuihi. I heke iho anō i a Te Ponaharakeke, te rangatira rongonui o Ngāti Ruangaio, o Ngā Puhi. He mokopuna tōna whaea a Pēhirangi nā Te Whakaaria; he kaihautū rongonui tēnei nō ōna hapū, nō Ngāi Tāwake me Ngāti Tautahi o Ngā Puhi; he huānga tata hoki ki a Hongi Hika.

E tamariki tonu ana a Parore, ka haria e ōna pakeke ki Kaihū. Ka noho rātou ki reira, ā, nō te whakaarotanga o Pōkaia, te tungāne o te whaea, ki te whakaeke i a Te Roroa, ka haria a Pēhirangi rātou ko āna tamariki ki Kaikohe ki te wāhi ruru. Te āhua nei, i pakeke ia ki reira. Tae rawa ki te tau 1821, kua noho kē rāua ko tana wahine matua, ko Tāwera ki Whāngārei. Hei tamāhine tēnei mā Kūkupa, te toa rangatira o Te Kuihi. Nō te mea he tuahine a Tāwera nō ngā rangatira, nō Te Tirarau rāua ko Te Ihi (kotahi te pāpā, ēngari he whaea kē, he whaea kē), ka noho tēnei hononga hei haumi whakaharahara.

Nā ngā whakaeke a Ngāti Maru i a Ngā Puhi i te tīmatanga o te tekau tau atu i 1820, ka heke a Parore, a Tāwera me Kūkupa mā ki te riu o Waipoua noho punanga ai. Ko Te Roroa, i te taha tonga o te pari o Maunganui me Ōpanake, i te riu o Kaihū e noho ana; kāre rātou i pai kia Parore mā e noho rā. Nō te mutunga o te tau 1824, nō te tīmatanga rānei o 1825, ka mōhio a Parore tērā e tae mai a Hongi Hika me tana ope taua o Ngā Puhi, koirā ka heke ki Te Kōpuru. Ka hui a Ngā Puhi rāua ko Te Roroa; ko te mutunga iho, ka kōrerotia a Ngā Puhi kia kaua ngā whenua o Te Roroa e takahia. Nō te tau i muri mai, i kuhu atu ai a Parore ki te taua a Pōmare I o Ngā Puhi, i mate rā i te urutomotanga i Waikato. Ahakoa tonu, kia puta ōna rongo mō te toa ki te riri, kāre kau.

Nō te tau 1831 i peka atu ai te kaihokohoko a Porake (J. S. Polack) ki te pā o Parore i Te Kauri i Waipoua. I te rokohanga atu ka tūtaki ki a Parore; ki tana kī he tangata pakari ia me te hanga pai o te āhua, ā, ko te tāroaroa hoki o te tū mai. Ahakoa kāre i tino rerekē atu ōna kākahu i ōna hoa, i kitea tonutia he tangata nui, he tangata ihiihi, kua taunga kē ki te whakatakoto kupu. Tūtaki rawa a Porake ki te wahine matua a Parore; kei tana kī, te ora kē o tērā wahine, te manamanahau hoki, ā, kāti mai i a ia te manaaki i te tangata. I whakapuaki atu a Parore i tōna tino hiahia ki te kaihokohoko rā kia haere mai te Pākehā ki tōna taha noho ai, kia riro mai i a ia ngā hua ohaoha. Tērā tētahi reta, nā Meketānara (Thomas McDonnell) pea o Hōreke i tuhi, e whakaweti ana ki te tango mai ki a ia te hokohoko i te muka harakeke me te rākau hei tira mō ngā kaipuke. Āwangawanga ana a Parore ki taua reta, kua tīmata kē rā ia ki te hoko muka i Kaihū, tira rākau hoki ki Te Hokianga.

Nō te tau 1836, nō muri mai i ngā whawhai ki a Te Roroa i Waipoua, i haere a Parore ki te noho i Kaipara moana mō tētahi wā āhua roa tonu nei. Ka riro ētahi whenua nāna nei i hoko ki a George Hawke, o Cornwall i Ingarangi, kia tīmata ai te whakanohonoho Pākehā ki runga i ngā whenua papatupu. I a ia e noho ana i Te Houhanga (Hoanga) i te tau 1838, ka whāia e ia ngā painga o te mahi hokohoko. I reira ka whakaae ia ki te hoko i te 1000 eka i te riu o Kaihū ki a Richard Day, he Pākehā i tae mai hei reo mō ētahi tāngata whai o Airani. Tahuri ana a Parore ki te whakapono o te Pākehā me āna tikanga ahu whenua. I a ia i Kaihū i 1838, ka tae mai a William Wade, te mihinare a te Rōpū Hāhi Mihinare (Church Missionary Society), ka kitea kua tū kē he whare karakia, he māra wīti hoki i tōna kāinga. Nō muri nei, ka hangaia he whare mihinare, ka nohoia e Hēmi Pura (James Buller) o te Hāhi Wēteriana.

Ākuanei, nā runga pea i ngā mana o ōna whanaunga o Ngāi Tāwake ki Pēwhairangi (Bay of Islands), i pōwhiritia a Parore kia hainatia te Whakapūtanga o te Rangatiratanga o Niu Tīreni o te tau 1835; nō te 25 o Hune 1837 rawa ka hainatia e ia. E rua anake ngā rangatira o Pēwhairangi i pōwhiritia kia tae atu ki Ākarana: ko ia, ko tana taokete ko Te Tirarau. Te āhua nei, he mea tuku e ia tana tama a Waata Te Ahu Parore kia haina i te Tiriti o Waitangi i te 6 o Pēpuere 1840. I te wā o te riri ki Te Tai Tokerau, i kīia nā Parore i kore ai a Ākarana (Auckland) i whakaekea e ngā ope taua a Kawiti. I kitea ai te whānuitanga o tōna mana i roto i Te Tai Tokerau, i te tukunga atu ki a ia o ngā kōrero tuhi mō taua hui i Kohimaramara (Kohimarama), i karangatia rā e te kāwana i te tau 1860, mō ngā kaihautū Māori. I te marama o Oketopa 1869, i noho ko Parore hei tino kaipōwhiri i te kāwana, i a Poena (George Bowen) ki Te Wairoa ki te raki; whakamahara rawa ia ki te kāwana, nā ngā mana o tōna rangatiratanga i tau te āio i tōna rohe.

Taka rawa mai ki ngā tekau tau atu i 1870, kua noho kē a Parore ki te tonga ki Mangawhare. Tautohe ana ia ki ōna whanaunga o Te Roroa me Ngāti Whātua i roto i te Kōti Whenua Māori. I pā ēnei take ki ngā whenua tūpuna o Te Roroa i te riu o Kaihū, ki te pari i Maunganui, ki Waipoua; ā, tua atu i tēnā ko tana mahi hokohoko whānui i ngā whenua ki te Karauna. Ahakoa tonu, hokona ana e Parore rātou ko Te Roroa me Ngāti Whātua mā te poraka o Tunatahi ki a J. M. Dargaville. Nō muri mai ka whakatūria te tāone o Tākiwira (Dargaville) ki reira. Rīhitia atu e rātou he whenua i Kaihū hei mahi harakeke. Whakatūria rawatia e ia ētahi kura Pākehā ki tōna rohe, kia tino whai wāhi ai tōna iwi ki te ao Pākehā. I mau tonu a ia ki ngā mahi a te Hāhi Wēteriana, i hangaia e ia he whare karakia ki tōna kāinga i te takiwā o 1875.

Nō te tau 1882 i hau ōna rongo ki te motu, nā te mea nāna nei te tahua moni hei utu i a Hirini Taiwhanga mā, i haere, i hoki huakore mai i te tuku i te pitihana a Ngā Puhi ki a Kuini Wikitōria. I noho koinei tonu te tono nui tuatahi a te Māori ki Ingarangi, i kaupapatia rā ki runga i te Tiriti o Waitangi. E tono ana te pitihana nei kia whakatūria he kōmihana roera hei tirotiro i ngā ture e takakino ana i te Tiriti. Ā, tua atu i tēnei, kia homai hoki he mana e tū ai he pāremata Māori. Ēngari hei tā ngā kōrero a ngā kāhui mana Pākehā, ko te hiahia kē o Parore kia kite ā tinana tonu tana irāmutu a Wiremu me tana mokopuna a Hakena i te Kuini. Heoi, ākuanei pea, i manaakitia e ia te kaupapa nei, he kite nōna, tērā ōna mana e takahia e te Pākehā e whakanohonoho haere rā.

E ai ki ngā kōrero mō Parore a te kaitiro, kaituhi kōrero ā tangata nei a Te Mete (S. Percy Smith), ka nui 'te ātaahua o te moko, te māia o te tangata, me te mana nui hoki ki roto ki tōna iwi.' Nō te 24 o Hepetema 1887 i mate ai, ā, tanumia ana ki Te Wharau i te 30 o taua marama. Nō tōna tangihanga, ka kitea ngā painga o te ao Pākehā i rapuhia e ia mō tana ao Māori me te kaha hoki o tōna mana rangatira ki roto i Te Tai Tokerau. Whakahirahira rawa atu ngā whakahaeretanga mō tōna tangihanga. Tare mai ana ngā haki maha i hoatu e ngā kāwana, e Poena rāua ko Heawai (William Jervois), ā, rewa ana te tangi a te pēne i te hīkoi a te hunga mate; e toru ngā waipūtanga. Nā tana mokopuna, nā Pouaka Parore ia i taua i roto i ngā mahi a te iwi. He tama a Pouaka nā Waata Parore. Kei te whare nui o Rāhiri, i Te Houhanga marae i Tākiwira, te whakaahua o Parore Te Āwhā e iri ana. Kitea tonutia atu ana tōna koroheketanga me te tau o tōna moko kua kōrerotia ake nei.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Garry Hooker. 'Parore Te Āwhā - Parore Te Awha', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1993. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/2p8/parore-te-awha (accessed 23 August 2019)