Kōrero: Ōraukawa, Tāmati Hōne

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Oraukawa, Tamati Hone

fl. 1848–1869

Nō Ngāti Ruanui, nō Ngā Ruahine; he kaihautū

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Ian Church,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1990.

Ko Tāmati Hōne Ōraukawa nō Ngāti Manuhiakai o Ngā Ruahine, karangatanga hapū o Ngāti Ruanui o Taranaki ki te tonga. Ko ia te kaihautū matua o Ngā Ruahine mai i te tau 1840 ki te 1860. Ko tōna kāinga i Katotauru. He iti noa iho ngā kōrero mōna i mua atu o tēnei wā. E tamariki tonu ana ka mau hereheretia ia e Pōtatau Te Wherowhero o Waikato. Nō te tukunga kia hoki, ka huri ki te Hāhi Wēteriana. Nōna ka iriirihia ka whakaīngoatia kia Tāmati Hōne. I Āperira o te tau 1848 ka tuhi atu a Ōraukawa ki te mihingare Wēteriana, ki a Te Wunu (William Woon), i tana mīhana i Heretoa i Īnaua. I inoi atu kia whakamutua ana haere pāhekeheke, kei mahue pani anō rātou. Arā, pērā i te wā i mate ohorere ai tērā o ngā mihingare, a John Skevington, i ngā toru tau o mua atu. Ka taka ki te tau 1852 ka noho wehe rāua, he hae nō Te Wunu he aro kē nō te iwi ki a Ōraukawa mō ngā āhuatanga ki te taha wairua. Ahakoa te ngākaunui ki a Te Wunu, kīhai tērā i whaiwhakaaro mai ki a Ōraukawa. I te whakaaratanga i a Ōraukawa hei āteha Māori i te tau 1852, kāore i tautokona e Te Wunu.

Nō te marama o Hānuere i te tau 1853, ka riro nā Pīhopa Herewini (G. A. Selwyn) i whakapā a Ōraukawa. Ēngari nō te marama o Oketopa i te tau 1854 rā anō ia ka tango hākarameta i a Te Teira (Richard Taylor), te mihingare o te Rōpū Hāhi Mihingare (Church Missionary Society), i Katotauru. Ahakoa tana peke ki te Hāhi Mihingare, i tukuna tonu e ia te whenua, 70–80 eka, ki ngā Wēteriana hei papa whakaako i ngā tamariki Māori. Ā, tērā pea kia tū mai anō ai he kaiwhakahaere ki te tūranga o Te Wunu. Tae rawa atu ki a Hānuere o te tau 1854, ka unuhia tērā whakaaro, me tana kī anō kore rawa tana iwi e tuku whenua ki te Pākehā ā muri atu, ahakoa he aha te take. E whā marama i muri mai ka tae ia ki te hui i Manawapou i waho ake o Te Hāwera. I reira ka whakatauria e Ngāti Ruanui, e Ngā Rauru me Taranaki ngā rohe e tapu ai te hoko o ngā whenua.

Nō muri mai ka tupu he raruraru i waenganui i te hapū o Puketapu, he wāhanga nō Te Āti Awa, mō tētahi whenua i hokona i te takiwā o Nū Pāremata (New Plymouth). I roto i aua tautohe ka whakahaungia e Īhāia Te Kirikūmara kia patua a Rīmene, te tangata o Ngā Ruahine i pūremu ki te wahine a Īhāia. Ko Īhāia te kaihautū o Ōtaraua. Nō te 24 o Noema 1854 i patua ai a Rīmene. Tū ake ana a Ōraukawa me ana toa e 300, ka takina ki Waitara mā te ara o Te Whaka-ahurangi i te taha rāwhiti o Taranaki maunga. I te taenga atu ki Manaku ka tohea kia tuku a Īhāia i a ia. Tekau mā rua o te ope taua rā i matemate, tekau mā whā i taotū i te whakaekenga o te pā. I te mea kua rere te toto ka kīia e Ōraukawa kua ea te take. Hoki atu ana ki te kāinga, mā Te Whaka-ahurangi anō, kia kore ai e mataku ngā Pākehā o Nū Paremata. Nō te ngarotanga atu o Ōraukawa mā, ka hahua ngā tūpāpaku a Ngā Ruahine. Ka ahu a Ōraukawa me tana ope ki Wārea. Anō he whakataki i ngā mate i hinga i te karawaka. Kāti, ko te tino take kē he kimi haumi mō Taranaki. Mehemea kāore ngā mihingare, kua mārō kē te haere o te riri. Kia kitea ai tō rātou māia, ka hui tēnā iwi nui tokomaha, ki Weriweri, ka tohengia e Ōraukawa kia houhia te rongo.

Nō te hanganga a Arama Karaka o Puketapu i te pā o Nīnia ki runga ki te whenua i tautohengia rā i te tau 1855, ka tuhi mai ki a Ōraukawa kia āwhinatia ia. Ka whakahēngia e Ngāti Ruanui te tono. Ka kī atu kia whakarērea te pā. Kātahi ka whakapiri mai ko Te Waitere Kātātore rāua ko Wiremu Kīngi Te Rangitāke o Te Āti Awa ki te whakapae i te pā. Nō te whakaekenga, kīhai i tutuki.

Nō muri mai ka ara ake te kaupapa Kaingārara i roto o Ngāti Ruanui. Nā Tāmati Te Ito i tīmata, hei hiki i te tapu i ngā wāhi i whakatapua i mua. Nui atu te māuiui me te matemate o ngā tamariki a taua iwi. Ka whakapaengia nā te takatakahi i ngā wāhi tapu, me te raweke i ngā kōhatu tūreikura. Ka karia katoatia aua kōhatu, ka whakaputuputungia, ka tahuna he ahi ki runga hei tunutunu rīwai hei whakanoa. Nā Te Teira te kōrero ko Ōraukawa te tangata nāna i taki ēnei mahi.

Kātahi ka tae ki te wā i whakatika ai a Te Pāriha (Robert Parris) ki te hoko i te whenua i Whakangerengere. Ko ia hoki te kōmihana hoko whenua ā-rohe. Na, i Oketopa o te tau 1857, ko Ōraukawa tētahi o ngā kaihautū o Ngāti Ruanui i whakatūpato atu i a Te Pāriha kia kauaka e hokona taua whenua, ā, i tino whakakorea te hoko. I te whakaaratanga o te kōrero mō te Kīngi Māori i te tau 1856, ko Ōraukawa tētahi i whakaīngoatia. Nō te whiriwhiritanga, ka whakawātea ia i a ia mō Tōpia Tūroa o Te Āti Haunui-a-Pāpārangi. Ka tae ki te marama o Hānuere i te tau 1859, mene katoa mai te nuinga o Ngāti Ruanui i raro i te awe o Ōraukawa ki te tautoko i te Kīngitanga. Nō te 10 o Āperire 1860, ka aratakina e ia tana ope e 60 ki Ngāruawāhia ki te tuku i ō rātou whenua ki raro i te Kīngi. I tō rātou hokinga mai ka haere tahi mai te ope taua o Waikato me Ngāti Maniapoto ki te whawhai i Waitara.

E kōrerotia ana i uru a Ōraukawa ki te whawhai i Te Mōrere i Āperire o te tau 1864. Tokorua ana tama, ko Tiopira rāua ko Hāpeta i hinga tahi ki Te Mōrere. Ka titongia tana waiata tangi. I Mei, i Hune, ka tū ki te pakanga i Tātaraimaka. Taka rawa atu ki Pēpuere o te tau 1865, kua pakanga kē mai i Weraroa, te pā o ngā Hauhau i te awa o Waitōtara. I reira ka whakahaungia e ia a Rūtene Tianara Duncan Cameron kia whakahokia ana hōia ki te taha tonga o Kai Iwi.

Ka ngaro haere ngā kōrero mō ōna nekeneke i tēnei wā. Nō te 18 o Oketopa 1866, ka whakaekengia tana kāinga e te Ope Hōia Māori a Meiha Thomas McDonnell. Tokowhā ngā tāngata i mate, kotahi te wahine i mau herehere. Ka tū mai ngā whawhai a Tītokowaru i te taha tonga o Taranaki i te tau 1868–69, i reira anō a Ōraukawa. Ā, i te tau 1869 i noho rawa ia i Pungarehu, te wāhi tū tata atu ki Te Ngutu-o-te-manu i te taha raki o te awa o Waingongoro. Ākuanei pea nō muri tata iho ka mate a Ōraukawa. Ka taka ki tana mokopuna, ki a Te Kahu Pūkoro, tana rākau.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Ian Church. 'Ōraukawa, Tāmati Hōne - Oraukawa, Tamati Hone', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1990. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/1o4/oraukawa-tamati-hone (accessed 23 August 2019)