Kōrero: Jury, Hoani Te Whatahoro

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Ngā whakaahua

Jury, Hoani Te Whatahoro

1841–1923

Nō Ngāti Kahungunu, nō Rangitāne; he tangata mātau, he kaituhi, he kaiwhakamāori

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e M. J. Parsons,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1990.

I whānau a Hoani Te Whatahoro Jury ki Rākaukākā i Tūranganui-ā-Kiwa (Poverty Bay) i te 4 o Pēpuere 1841. Ko ētahi īngoa anō ōna ko John Alfred Jury, ko Te Whatahoro Jury, ko Hoani Turi Te Whatahoro, ko John Alfred Te Whatahoro Jury. Ko ia te mātāmua a Te Aitū-o-te-rangi, wahine rangatira o Te Wairarapa, rāua ko tana tāne ko John Milsome Jury, te kāmura a Te Wiremu (William Williams) te mihinare. I te marama o Maehe 1842, ka mutu te noho taupua a Pēhi Tūtepākihirangi me tana iwi i Nukutaurua, ka hokihoki iho ngā 400 ki tō rātou whenua tupu i Te Wairarapa. Ko Hoani rātou ko ana mātua ētahi i taua tira. Te taunga mai, ko Te Kopi-a-Uenuku i Palliser Bay. Ka taka ki te tau 1845 ka nuku anō a Hoani Te Whatahoro mā. Kua rīhingia kē hoki ngā whenua ki ngā Pākehā o Te Wairarapa mō ā rātou mahinga hipi.

Ka whakawhiti ngā mātua o Hoani i te wahapū ārai i te roto i Ōnoke, ka tomo ki Wairarapa moana, ka pikiwhakarunga i te awa o Ruamāhanga ki Te Waka-ā-paua (Jury's Island). Ka hangaia te kāinga tuatahi o ngā mātua o Hoani ki reira, ki ngā whenua o Te Aitū. I whakatipuria a Hoani ki Te Waka-ā-paua i waenga i a Ngāti Moe, te hapū o tōna kōkā. Ko tana pānga tērā ki ngā iwi o Rangitāne me Ngāti Kahungunu. Nā Te Aitū tonu a Hoani, arā, a Tiaki, he īngoa o tana taitamarikitanga, i whakamōhio ki ngā taunga ika i Wairarapa moana; ki ngā roherohenga me ngā wāhi tapu o tō rātou whenua. Ka pakeke, ka haere hei kaimahi tiaki i ngā kararehe a Angus McMaster o Tuhitarata, he teihana kararehe tata atu ki Wairarapa moana.

Nā tō rātou matua tonu a Hoani me ana taina, ko Annie rāua ko Charles, i ako ki te kōrero pukapuka, ki te tuhituhi. He aha rā ka tukuna a Hoani ki Pōneke (Wellington) mā Kerewhata (Mr Crawford) e whakaako. Ka māharahara a Te Aitū ki tana tamaiti he noho kē mai i te kāinga o te tangata tauhou. Ka pau te marama, ka whakahokia mai a Hoani ki te kāinga e te whanaunga o tōna whaea. Ko tana haerenga ki ngā kura mīhana. E ai ki te kōrero, nā Kāwana Hōri Kerei (George Grey) i utu ērā āhuatanga.

I te tau 1854, 13 noa ngā tau o Hoani Te Whatahoro, ka mate tōna whaea. I muri mai ka tautohetohe rāua ko tōna matua mō ngā hōiho, ka wehe rāua. Ā, ka nuku hoki te matua me ana tamariki ririki ki Glendower, he whenua i Ponatahi. E waru ngā tau o Annie, e whā o Charles i taua wā. Ka taitama a Te Whatahoro ka tono i ngā whenua o tana whaea o Te Aitū i te Kōti Whenua Māori i Hūpēnui (Greytown). Nā tana matua anō ia i āwhina, ka whakataungia te 55 eka i Te Waka-ā-Paua ki ana tāina; ko te 400 eka i Wharehanga e toro atu rā ki te moana ki a Te Whatahoro.

Ka mahi a Te Whatahoro ki te tuhi i ngā tikanga Māori, tōnui ana ngā mahi i oti i a ia. Tekau mā whitu pea ngā tau o Te Whatahoro i te huihuinga mai o tana iwi ki te wānanga i ngā āhuatanga ki ō rātou whenua, me tō te kāwanatanga mana whakahaere. Ka tono te hui ki ō rātou tohunga kia whakamāramahia, kia kōrerohia ngā tikanga, ngā ture i ngā rā o mua – ngā taonga tuku iho a te iwi. Ka whakaae ngā tohunga tokotoru – ko Te Mātorohanga, arā ko Moihi Torohanga, hei kaikōrero, ko ngā mea e rua (kāore i whakaīngoatia) hei āwhina hei whakauru, hei whakakī haere, hei āpiti atu i ngā mea ka mahue. Ka whakaritea e te iwi me tuhituhi ngā kōrero, ko Te Whatahoro rāua ko Āporo Te Kumeroa hei kaituhi. Koia tonu nei tana mahi haere noa. Ā, ka taka ki te tau 1865 i te huinga ki Pāpāwai, he pā tata atu rā ki Hūpēnui, ko Te Whatahoro anō te kaituhi, ko Te Mātorohanga, ko Paratene Te Okawhare me Nēpia Pōhūhū ngā kaikōrero. Whai tonu a Te Whatahoro ki te tuhituhi i ngā kōrero a Nēpia Pōhūhū rāua ko Te Mātorohanga, ā matemate noa rāua i te tekau tau mai i 1880.

He mahi kē anō tā Te Whatahoro i te tau 1868. Koia hei whakatakoto i ngā tono a te tangata ki te aroaro o te Kōti Whenua Māori – i Horowhenua, i Te Whanganui-a-Tara (Wellington Harbour), i Te Wairarapa, i Heretaunga, i Tūranga (Gisborne), i Ūawa, me ētahi atu wāhi i Te Ika-a-Māui nei. Atu i te tau 1870–1877 i Whanganui kē a ia e noho ana, i Pūtiki. Ko ia te kaiwhakamāori me te kaituhi i reira. I Tūranga me Ūawa a ia i te tau 1878 atu ki te pokapūtanga o ngā tau 1880.

I te tau 1883 ka tae atu ngā kaikauwhau o Te Hāhi o Ihu Karaiti mō Te Hunga Tapu o ngā Rā o Muri Nei, arā, te Hāhi Mōmona, ki waenga i ngā Māori o Te Oreore. Ko Te Whatahoro tētahi o ngā tangata i huri ki tērā Hāhi, ka noho ko ia tētahi o ngā kaiwhakamāori i Te Pukapuka Tapu a ngā Mōmona i te tau 1886–1888. Nō te 26 o Hune 1900, i Pāpāwai, ka iriirihia, ka whakaūngia a Te Whatahoro ki roto i tērā Hāhi.

I ngā tau mai i 1890 ka uru a Te Whatahoro ki ngā mahi a Te Kotahitanga. Ko tā rātou kaupapa ko te whakatū pāremata hei tautoko i te kaupapa mana motuhake mō te Māori. Ki ō rātou whakaaro kei te Tiriti o Waitangi e takoto ana tērā tikanga hei whai mā rātou. Ka hiahiatia e te Pāremata Māori kia whakamutua ngā mahi a te Kōti Whenua. Me tuku iho ngā āteha Māori i ērā tūranga; ā, mā ngā Māori tonu e whakahaere te hoko o ō rātou whenua. Ka pōtitia i Waipatu, i Heretaunga, i a Hune 1892, ko Te Whatahoro hei tiamana mō te Pāremata Māori.

Nō te tau 1902 ka hoki anō a Te Whatahoro ki Whanganui. I reira ka tuhituhia e ia ngā kōrero tuku iho a Ngāti Tūwharetoa i kōrerohia e Te Umukura rāua ko Whāiti-ngā-rerewaka. Kāore i roa ka hiki ki Ōhotu, i te tonga o Taihape, mahi pāmu ai, ki te tau 1909. Neke noa atu i te 40 tau ōna e hokihoki ana ki Pāpāwai.

I te tau 1899 i Pāpāwai, ka whakaarahia mai e Tamahau Mahupuku te kaupapa o te wā i a Te Mātorohanga, kia kohikohia ngā kōrero o mua. Ka inoia e ia kia whakaemihia mai ngā pukapuka tawhito. Ka whakatūria te Komiti a Tānenuia-Rangi, ka taki huihui i ngā tau 1905–1910 ki te whiriwhiri i ngā kōrero i kao mai. He mema a Te Whatahoro nō taua Komiti. Ka tautokona he pukapuka, ka whakamanahia ki te hīri a te Komiti ki ia whārangi, ki ia whārangi. Ko ētahi o aua tuhituhinga i whakaahuangia ka tukuna ki te Whare Taonga o Aotearoa i Pōneke. Heoi ko ngā tuhinga taketake ake, kua ngarongaro katoa.

Ka taka ki a Pēpuere 1907, ka whakaurua a Te Whatahoro ki te Polynesian Society, ka noho hei mema tuhituhi ā mate noa. E rua ngā kaupapa kōrero a Te Whatahoro i tāia ki ā rātou pukapuka. Tuatahi, 'He Waiata-karakia' ('An ancient Maori poem') – he kohikohinga kōrero mō te waiata mōteatea a Tūhotoariki, nā George H. Davies i whakapākehā i taua tau anō rā. Tuarua, i te tau 1909, 'Ko te tikanga o tēnei kupu, o Ariki'. Nā Davies anō i whakapākehā.

Ahakoa anō nā Te Whatahoro i kohikohi ngā kōrero hōhonu o mua, ko te nuinga i tukuna ki ngā tohunga Pākehā pērā i a Te Pēhi (Elsdon Best), i a T. W. Downes, i a S. Percy Smith, i a Hōne Waiti (John White). Ka tinihangatia e ngā autaia nei, ka tāia me te mea nei nā rātou ake i kohikohi, ka hunaia te īngoa o Te Whatahoro. Kore rawa i tukuna he mihi, he whakatau atu ki te tangata nāna kē ngā kōrero. Ka tikina atu e Downes, ka tuhia ki tana 'History of the Ngati Kahu-ngunu', he wāhi i tāia e te Journal of the Polynesian Society i ngā tau 1914 me 1916. Pērā anō a S. Percy Smith, ka mahia whānakotia e ia ngā kōrero a Te Mātorohanga me Nēpia Pōhūhū; e 48 tau nei te otinga atu i a Te Whatahoro te tuhi. Ka riro ka tāia e Smith ko te Kauwae-runga me te Kauwae-raro ( The lore of the whare-wananga ), nāna tonu ngā whakamāori. Nō te tau 1913 ka whakapukapukatia te wāhi tuatahi o ngā kōrero nei. Kei te toru o ngā pukapuka whakamahara, arā, ko ngā Memoirs o te Polynesian Society e whakaatu ana. Nō te tau 1913, 1914, i mahia ai te wāhi tuarua, he wāhanga tāia e te Journal. I te taenga ki 1915 ka tikina atu anō aua kōrero i te Journal ka tāia ki te pukapuka tuawhā o ngā Memoirs. I aua whakatā katoa ka ngaro te wairua kōrero a ngā koroua rā i te mahi whakamāori a Smith. Kei te Whare Wānanga o Ākarana (University of Auckland), kei te Alexander Turnbull Library, me te Whare Taonga o Aotearoa ki Pōneke, e takoto ana ngā tuhituhi a Te Whatahoro. He tino tangata tērā.

Tokowhitu ana wāhine, tekau mā rima ana tamariki. Ko te wahine matua ko Pane Īhaka Te Moe Whatarau. Nā rāua, ko Te Aitū-o-te-rangi Wikitōria (ko Sue Materoa anō tētahi o ana īngoa), me Muretū William. Hei taina ki a Pane te wahine tuarua, a Hera Īhaka Te Moe Whatarau. Ka puta ko Meri Kiriwera, ko Te Waikuini, ko Te Hiwa. Te wahine tuatoru ko Hūhana Āpiata ka puta ko Tīweka Rangihikitia. Tokoiwa a rāua tamariki ko tana wahine tuawhā, ko Keriana Te Pōtaeaute. Ko Tēpora tō mua, ka rere i muri ko Te Urunga, ko Puhinga-i-te-rangi Margaret, ko Rēnata Te Manga, ko Takotoroa, ko Mākāretu, ko Te Rina, ko Manapōuri Te Rina Huitau, ko Hāmuera Porourangi. Kīhai i puta he uri i ēnei o ana wāhine: ko Mata Pōhoua, ko Mata Te Rautahi ngā īngoa o te tuarima; ko Hera Ērena Rongo, ko Hera Ferris, ka mutu. Heoi, i noho ēnei wāhine ki te taurima i ētahi o ngā mokopuna.

Nō te 26 o Hepetema 1923, ka mate a Te Whatahoro i te kāinga o tana tamāhine, o Te Aitū-o-te-rangi, i Hūpēnui. Kei te urupā i Pāpāwai e tāpuke ana. He tangata tēnei i eke rawa ki ngā taumata e ono o te whare wānanga. Ko te whakamaharatanga ki a Te Whatahoro kei ngā tuhituhi o te mahau o Hikurangi whare kei Pāpāwai. Kei ngā kōrero mō tana whaea te whakapapa.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

M. J. Parsons. 'Jury, Hoani Te Whatahoro', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1990. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/1j6/jury-hoani-te-whatahoro (accessed 15 August 2018)