Kōrero: Mahupuku, Hāmuera Tamahau

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Ngā whakaahua

Mahupuku, Hamuera Tamahau

1837–1842?–1904

Nō Ngāti Kahungunu; he ihorei, he kaiwhakahārau kararehe, he āteha, he kaipupuri nūpepa

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Angela Ballara,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1993.

E ai ki ngā kōrero kei runga i tana pōhatu whakamaumahara i Pāpāwai, nō te 25 o Hepetema 1840 i whānau ai a Hāmuera Tamahau Mahupuku. Arā atu ētahi kōrero e kī ana i whānau kē ia i te tau 1837, 1842 rānei. Ko ngā Pākehā e karanga ana i a ia ko Sam. Ki ngā Māori me ngā pukapuka kāwanatanga ko Hāmuera, ko Tamahau rānei ōna īngoa. E kīia ana i whānau ia i Rangataua pea, e tata rā ki Ngahereroa (Longbush) i Te Wairarapa ki uta rānei, i Pāhaoa ki tai rānei. Ko tana pāpā ko Mahupuku he uri mai i a Kahungunu me Tara: ko ōna tino hapū ko Ngāti Kahukuranui, ko Ngāti Moe me Ngāti Meroiti. Ko tana whaea ko Haumaiterangi, ina nei ko Hoana tētahi o ōna īngoa, nō Ngāti Hikawera. Ko Wiremu Hikawera Mahupuku te tuakana o Tamahau. Ā, karangatia tonutia ia ko Hikawera, ēngari i ētahi wā e mōhiotia nei ko Wī Te Weu.

Kei te ngaro ngā kōrero mō te wā i a Tamahau e tamariki ana me ngā mātauranga i whāia e ia. E ai ki ngā kōrero tērā pea nā Te Koreneho (William Colenso), nā William Ronaldson rānei o te Rōpū Hāhi Mihingare ia i iriiri. Tērā pea nāna anō ia i ako, ā, tērā pea he ākonga ia i te kāreti o Hato Tāmati i Pāpāwai i ngā tau atu i 1860 ki 1864. I te pokapūtanga o te tekau tau atu i 1860 e kōrerotia ana he tamaiti tutū a Tamahau. Mō tētahi wā nei a ia e mahi ana i te teihana o Huangarua. He tangata ātaahua a Tamahau, ā, he Pākehā ōna hoa tata. Mō ētahi tau maha tonu he whiuwhiu kau tana mahi. I noho rawa tana tuakana hei tino tuarā mō te Kīngitanga. Mō tētahi wā nei i te tekau tau atu i 1860 whai hoki a Tamahau i a ia.

E toru ngā wāhine a Tamahau. Ko Wairata, ko Hārete, ko Āreta, arā, ko Alice rānei ngā īngoa o tana wahine tuatahi. Ki ngā kōrero he wahine ātaahua, ā, hei tamāhine mā tētahi Pākehā patu tohorā, ko Jack Pain te īngoa. Nō Ngā Puhi pea tana wahine tuatoru a Clara. Ēngari, ko tana wahine tuarua, ko Raukura, he nui kē atu te kaha o tōna awe i ērā. Nā tana tāne tuatahi, nā Mātini Te Ore ka whai tūnga a Tamahau ki Pāpāwai. Nā konei ka tūtaki hoki ki a Te Mānihera Te Rangitaka-i-waho nāna nei ia i whakatū hei whakakapi i tōna tūranga whakahaere i ngā mahi a te iwi.

Nā te taunahatanga a Te Mānihera i whakaarahia ai a Tamahau hei tino kaiārahi mō te kāinga o Pāpāwai i te wā e tupu, e toro ana. Atu i tēnā he tangata whai rawa. Nō te mea he uri a Tamahau rāua ko Hikawera nō tētahi o ngā tino whānau o Ngāti Hikawera, ka riro i a rāua te mana whakahaere i tētahi wāhi nui tonu o te whenua o Ngā-waka-a-Kupe. Ārā anō ētahi whenua atu he pānga ō rāua. Nā te mahi rīhi whenua i rangatira ai rāua, ā, nā Hikawera tonu i mahi tāna ake teihana hipi. Nāna anō hoki i kōkiri te hiahia o Ngātuere Tāwhirimātea Tāwhao rāua ko Te Mānihera ki te hoko i Ngā-waka-a-Kupe. I te Kōti Whenua Māori o te tau 1890 me te tau 1892, i whakaae te tiati ki te kerēme a Ngāti Hikawera mō te poraka. Whakakoretia ana tā Ngātuere me tā Ngāti Kahukura-awhitia hoki. I te matenga o Hikawera i te tau 1891 riro katoa ōna pānga me tana mana i tana whakakapi, i a Tamahau.

I mahi hoki a Tamahau i te Kōti Whenua Māori. He māngai, he āteha nei āna mahi. I te wā e whakahaeretia ana ngā kerēme mō ngā roto o Te Wairarapa i ngā tau 1882 me 1883, ko ia te kaikōrero a Hoani Te Toru. I a ia e whakakōkohu ana i ngā rārangi īngoa, kei te kōkiri kē ia ki a Piripi Te Maari‑o-te-rangi me Te Mānihera. Ko tā ngā tokorua nei he whakakore atu i taua kēhi. Nā Tamahau rāua ko Parāone Pāhoro i akiaki atu a Rāniera Te Iho‑o-te-rangi me Piripi Te Maari ki ngā oranga e puta ana menā ka rēhitatia ngā īngoa o te iwi nō rātou te moana o Wairarapa. He pānga anō ō Tamahau rāua ko Hikawera ki reira.

E rua marama i muri mai i te matenga o Te Mānihera i te tau 1885, ka riro i a Tamahau tōna tūranga i ngā hui nui. Ēngari i Pāpāwai ka rua rāua ko te tuakana o Te Mānihera ko Hoani Te Rangitaka-i-waho ki te mahi i ngā mahi o reira. I whakatikatikaia haeretia e ia a Pāpāwai, ā, i whakatūria hoki e ia he whare nui mō ngā manuhiri. I ūwhia a runga ki te haeana, ā, he matapihi ōpure nei ngā wini. (Muri iho ka whakatūria a Hikurangi hei whare hou mō rātou.) Nā ngā moni hua o te hokonga i ngā rākau tōtara o ngā whenua o ngā Mahupuku i utu te whakatūtū haere i ērā o ngā whare papa rākau nei. Nō Ngāti Porou te rōpū i Pāpāwai i te tekau tau atu i 1880 e mahi ana i ngā whakairo mō te whare nā Hikawera nei i whakaaro. Nō te mutunga ka takohatia e Hikawera ki a Tamahau, nāna nei i whakatū te whare a Tākitimu i Kehemane (Tablelands) i ngā tau tuatahi o te tekau tau atu i 1890. Ka haere a Te Kooti ki te whakatuwheratanga, ka kī ia i tana kupu pōkaikaha, arā, mā te hau a roto e pupuhi.

Tērā pea nā te nui o ngā rawa a Tamahau i kaingākau nui ia ki ngā mea katoa a te Pākehā, me tana tautoko hoki i ngā kaupapa kua oti kē i te kāwanatanga te whakaaro mai, rite tonu ki tā te matua, mō te iwi Māori. Nō te tau l89l i kōrero ia ki te Kōmihana mō ngā Ture Whenua Māori. Kāore ia i whakaae mā ngā komiti Māori ngā whenua Māori e whakahaere. Ko tāna, kei noho kei whakararurarutia ngā tuakoi whenua o te rohe o Te Wairarapa. Nō te tau 1893 i uru atu ia ki ngā pāremata o te Kotahitanga. Ēngari i whakaparahako ia ki te haina i ngā kirihipi whakarārangi i ō rātou whakaaro. He tūpato nōna ki te kupu kōrero e mea ana kia hoatu te mana whakahaere o ngā whenua Māori ki te kāwanatanga o te Kotahitanga. I mautohea tonutia e ia ngā pire a te Kotahitanga kia riro te mana motuhake i te iwi Māori. Nāwai rā ngengere ai a Hēnare Tomoana, kua pau kē i a Tamahau ngā rā 10, hoki atu, hoki atu, tana tohe mō taua kupu kōrero kotahi nei. Ahakoa kāore anō kia hainatia e ia ngā kirihipi, nō te tau 1895 i tīmata ia ki te kōrero me whakanoho kē pea te pāremata ki Pāpāwai.

Nō te 26 o Ākuhata 1895 i mate ai a Piripi Te Maari. E rima marama i muri mai i tatū ai i a Tamahau me te kāwanatanga te hoko i ngā roto o Wairarapa, i kaha rā a Piripi kia kaua e hokona. I inoia e Tamahau me wātea tonu he huarahi ki ngā Māori e hiahia ana ki te hī i te roto, ā, whakawhirinaki anō ia mā te kāwanatanga e whakarite ko ēhea whenua e pai ana hei utu. (Kei te Rohe Pōtae ngā whenua iti te utu i whiriwhiria i muri mai.) Nāna hoki i whakahaere tētahi hākari harakoakoa i Pigeon Bush hei tohu whakaatu ki ngā Māori nō rātou nei te whenua i mua, kāre he riri ki te hunga kei runga i te whenua e noho ana i nāianei. Mīharo ana tana whaikōrero pōhiri ki ngā mema pāremata, ki a Te Hētana (Richard Seddon) me Timi Kara (James Carroll). Ko tā Te Hētana hoki, kīhai i hokona ngā roto, ēngari nā runga kē i te hoatu i riro ai i te kāwanatanga. Mō te tahua rā a te kāwanatanga, mō te £2,000, i mea ia hei utu i ngā nama ture a te iwi nō rātou rā ēnei whenua.

Nā te mea nā Tamahau i whakangāwari te tuku i ngā roto, ka noho ia hei hoa piri mō Te Hētana. I te tau 1897, i whakaae a Te Hētana rāua ko te Kāwana, ko Rōre Ranfurly me ētahi atu rangatira Pākehā ki te haere ki te whakatuwheratanga o te whare nui o Aotea–Te Waipounamu, i hangaia i Pāpāwai mō te Pāremata o te Kotahitanga. Rite tonu te hanga o tēnei whare ki te 'T', anō nei e rua kē ōna papa. He wāhi anō mō te moe me te kai, tae atu ki te whare hui he atamira nei mō ngā kaikōrero. I taua wā tonu i tāpaea e Tamahau te whare whakairo whakahirahira nei a Tākitimu ki te kāwanatanga. Nō te tau 1898, i whakahokia anō e ia tana tuku.

I ngā marama o Āperira me Oketopa 1897 i manaaki a Tamahau i ngā hui a te Pāremata o te Kotahitanga. I te wā o aua nohoanga i whakaarotia me uiui te whakataunga o te pitihana a Te Keepa Te Rangihiwinui ki te Kuini ki te whakarāhui mā ngā Māori anake ngā toenga whenua e rima miriona eka nei te nui. Ko Tamahau te paeārahi o te tira i haere tika atu ki a Te Hētana i Pōneke. I mea atu a Te Hētana ki a rātou ko te whakaaro o te Kuini, kei te kāwanatanga kē te tika mō te oranga mō ngā Māori, ā, kia waiho ake māna tā rātou take e whakaaro. Nōna hoki te whakaaro tuatahi kia whakatūria he poari whenua Māori.

Ko tētahi o ngā mahi a Tamahau i te tau 1897 he tā i te nūpepa Te Puke ki Hikurangi i roto i te reo Māori. Ko te ētita ko Pūrākau Maika. I te tīmatanga ko tēnei te waka kawe i ngā kōrero a te Kotahitanga. Nāwai rā ka whakanuia ake ngā take kōrero. Uru kau ana te karaipiture, te kōrero mō ngā waka, ngā whakapapa me ngā kōrero tiaki kāinga mā ngā wāhine. I whakahua rawatia hoki ngā mahi o te kāinga takiwā me ērā mai i tāwāhi. I whai wāhi mai a Āpirana Ngata ki te tuhituhi tonu mai mō te tauheke o te iwi, he aha ōna pūtake, he aha hoki ōna rongoā. I pānuitia e Tamahau tētahi pōhiri ki ngā tāngata mātau kia hui, kia kōrerohia e rātou ngā kōrero a ngā tūpuna Māori me ngā whakapapa. Nā konei i whakatūria ai te komiti a Tānenui-a-Rangi hei pupuri i ngā taonga tūpuna. Ā, mate atu a Tamahau i haere tonu te mahi a te komiti nei, ā, pānuitia tonutia hoki tana nūpepa. He nui ngā painga o Te Puke ki Hikurangi, arā, te waihanga i ngā whakaaro me te whāngai hoki i te hinengaro o ngā Māori o taua wā.

I muri iho o tana mahi i te tau 1897, ka whakatakotoria e Te Hētana tētahi pire 'mō te Whakatautau Whakahaere hoki i ngā Whenua Māori (for the Settlement and Administration of Native Lands)'. Ka pakaru te riri o ngā Māori mō te take i whakahāwea tēnei pire i te nuinga. Whakatūria ana e Tamahau tētahi hui nui i Pāpāwai i ngā marama o Mei me Hune 1898 hei kōrero i taua take. I konei kitea ai te kaha o te tauwehewehe i waenga i ngā iwi o te Kotahitanga. He nui tonu ngā mea i hiahia kia whakakorea te pire. Hāunga a Tamahau me ētahi o ngā rangatira tuarā mō te kāwanatanga, i hangaia kētia e rātou ētahi menemana kia noho he Māori te nuinga i runga i aua poari whenua, tae atu ki te whakanui ake i te mana o te iwi kāinga ki te whakahaere i ō rātou whenua me te āhua nei mō te noho tika. He maha tonu ngā mema o te Kotahitanga i whakahē i ēnei menemana nō te mea kīhai i whai i ngā ture o tō rātou Pāremata. I te marama o Hepetema ka pitihanatia e Tamahau te kāwanatanga kia whakaturetia te pire me ngā menemana o te hui i Pāpāwai. Ārā anō ētahi pitihana e akiaki ana kia porowhiua atu. Nō te whakahaerenga o te hui uiui a te Komiti Mō Ngā Mea Māori (Native Affairs Committee), ka puta ngā kupu tautoko a Tamahau i te kāwanatanga me tana kōrero anō hoki kāore te iwi i whakahēngia, i whakapōharatia rānei e ngā ture pāremata. Ki tana whakaaro, ko te mate kē o ngā Māori ko te kūare, ko te kore whakaaro.

Ahakoa he mema noa a Tamahau nō te Kotahitanga, kīhai ia i whai i tō rātou kawa tino rangatiratanga. He mema kē ia nō tētahi komiti o waho o te kāwanatanga e tautoko ana i ngā ture a Te Hētana, ina rā te Ture Whakahaere i ngā Whenua Māori (Māori Lands Administration Act) 1900 (i turakina e te pire o 1898, ā, muri iho i whakamanatia) me te Ture Kaunihera Māori, 1900. I te tīmatanga i āhua eke tonu i ngā ture nei ētahi o ngā hiahia o te Māori mō te mana motuhake ā-rohe me te tuku i a rātou kia hanga tikanga hou. Puta ana i roto i Te Puke ki Hikurangi ngā painga mai o ēnei mahi. I mihia hoki ngā mōrehu o te Kotahitanga, tae atu hoki ki a Tamahau, mō tēnei mahi i tutuki i a rātou.

E kīia ana, mai i te tau 1894 ki 1904 e £40,000 te moni i whakapaungia e Tamahau ki ētahi mahi nei āna. Ko tētahi o ēnei ko te Wairarapa Mounted Rifle Volunteers, he kamupene hōia Māori. I te tau 1901 i tono ia māna e whakahaere te mahi kohi moni hei whakatū taua hōia hei haere ki te whawhai i Āwherika ki te Tonga. Kāre te kāwanatanga o Ingarangi i whakaae ki tana tono. I whakatauria kētia ko ngā kiritea anake ka haere ki taua pakanga.

Ko Tamahau te rangatira manaaki i te tini i ētahi hui i tū ki Pāpāwai me Kehemane. He pēne paraihe whakatangitangi tāna i ēnei hui, ā, whai haere tonu i a ia ina haere ia ki te tāone. Ko tētahi o āna mahi whakamutunga ko te hanga i tētahi taiapa mō te marae i Pāpāwai. I muri i tōna matenga ka kohia ake ētahi rākau tōtara ka whakairotia hei tohu mō ngā tūpuna rangatira. Kia rite ki tāna i hiahia ai ka whakatūria kia pare whakaroto, hei tohu hoki tērā mō te rangimārie. (Nō mua atu hoki he whakamataku kē i te hoariri te kawa o ngā poupou huri whakawaho).

I mate a Tamahau i Pāpāwai i te 14 o Hānuere 1904. Kāore ōna uri, ēngari he whāngai tana ko Aketū Piripi. Ka mate taiohi tērā; 17 ōna tau. I tū te karakia Mihingare ki te reo Māori mō Tamahau. I haria te tūpāpaku ki Kehemane nehua ai, me te whai haere atu o te maha. I tae atu hoki a Te Hētana rāua ko Timi Kara ki te tangi. E ai ki te tiro a te hunga Pākehā o taua wā, kātahi mai te Māori tōmua rawa atu ko tēnei ko Tamahau. Ki te iwi maha o Pāpāwai ko ia tonu te kaihautū, ko te pāpā hoki.

I muri mai i tōna matenga, ka ngaro te rongo o Pāpāwai hei wāhi huihuinga mō te kāwanatanga o te motu ka tahi, mō te kāwanatanga o te Kotahitanga ka rua. Kore rawa e taea e te tangata tōna tūnga te whakakī. Takitahi noa te hunga whai pūkoro, e taea te waha ngā hui pērā te nui i ō mua. Ko ētahi i whakaaro i riro kē te mana o Pāpāwai i ngā Kaunihera Māori, nāna rā i tautoko kia whakatūria. Nā te hau i kihi a Aotea–Te Waipounamu i te tau 1934, ā, i te tau 1942, nā te rū i pakaru ai tētahi pōhatu māpere i whakatūria hei whakamaumaharatanga ki a Tamahau i Pāpāwai i te tau 1911. Ka porowhā haere te taiapa tōtara i Pāpāwai, ā, i te 31 o Tīhema 1911 ka wera katoa i te ahi a Tākitimu i Kehemane. Na, i eke tonu ki tā Te Kooti i kī ai, ka pūhia te papa e te hau.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Angela Ballara. 'Mahupuku, Hāmuera Tamahau - Mahupuku, Hamuera Tamahau', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1993. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/2m27/mahupuku-hamuera-tamahau (accessed 24 July 2019)