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Kōrero: Te Mātorohanga, Moihi

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Te Mātorohanga, Moihi

fl. 1836–1865

Nō Ngāti Kahungunu; he tohunga, he pūkorero

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e D. R. Simmons, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau i te 1993. He mea whakamāori nā Ngā Tangata Taumata Rau.

Ko Moihi Te Mātorohanga nō Ngāti Moe, he hapū nui nō Te Wairarapa. Ko Moihi (ko Mohi rānei) Torohanga tētahi o ōna īngoa. Ko Ngāti Whakawhena te hapū o tōna whānau. Tērā atu ētahi o ōna kārangarangatanga, arā, ko Ngāi Tahu o Te Wairarapa, ko Ngāi Tūkoko, ko Ngāti Kahukura-awhitia me Ngāti Kaumoana. I puta iho ēnei o ōna hapū i ngā moemoetanga o ngā uri o Kahungunu, o Tara, o Rangitāne, o Tahu i a rātau tonu. Ko tōna pāpā ko Tiina; ko te whaea ko Whenuarewa. Te āhua nei i whānau mai a Te Mātorohanga i te whakapaunga o te rau tau mai i 1700, i te tīmatanga rānei o te rau tau mai i 1800, ina hoki kua huri kē ngā turi ki muri i ngā taringa i tōna hemonga i mua tata atu i Ākuhata i te tau 1876. Ko te kōrero i whānau pea a ia ki Te Ewe‑o-Tiina, he kāinga i Te Wairarapa. Ākuanei pea kāore hoki i moe wahine, kāore hoki āna tamariki.

I a ia e taitama ana, ka whakaakona i ngā whare wānanga e rua, i Te Poho-o-Hinepae i Te Wairarapa, me Ngā Māhanga i Te Toka-a-Hinemoko i Te Rēinga, i te takiwā o Ngā Herehere. Kei te raki o Te Wairoa tēnei wāhi. Ko tōna tohunga i Ngā Māhanga, ko Nuku. Tērā pea i haere anō a ia ki tētahi whare wānanga e tata ana ki Ahuriri (Napier).

I te aronga pea ki te tau 1836, ka noho ko ia tētahi o ngā tohunga o Te Rāwheoro, te whare wānanga o Te Aitanga-a-Hauiti ki Ūawa (Tolaga Bay). E whā ōna marama ki reira. Nō te whakapaetanga a Nōpera Te Rangiuia – ahorangi o Te Rāwheoro – nā Te Mātorohanga i whaiwhaiā tana tama kia mate ka whakakāhoretia e ia te whakapae ka wehe mai. Kāore hoki ā muri i hokia.

Muri iho, ka noho ko Te Mātorohanga te tohunga whakapapa i te whare wānanga o Te Poho‑o-Hinepae. He wā e noho ana i Te Whiti, he pā e pātata atu ana ki Tūpurupuru (he wāhi kei Gladstone). He pānga whenua ō rātau ko ōna whanaunga tata, a Eraiti Te Here rāua ko Te Mapu, mai i Te Umu‑o-Puata ki Te Rata. Kei te poraka tēnei o Te Ahikōuka, kāore i tawhiti atu i Pāpāwai me Hūpēnui (Greytown). I hangaia e ia tōna whare i konei.

Nō te waerenga i Te Hautawa i Pāpāwai i te tau 1865, ka pātaia a Te Mātorohanga e ngā kaiwaere kia kōrerotia noatia mai e ia ngā kōrero a ngā kaumātua, kia pai ai tā rātau tuku ki ā rātau tamariki. Ka whakaae a Te Mātorohanga me te kī anō kia kimihia tētahi whare motuhake hei wāhi kōrerotanga i ngā kōrero. Ka tukua ko te whare o Terei Te Kohirangi rāua ko Pene Te Mātohi i te awa o Mangarara ka tatū. Ko Te Whatahoro Jury tētahi o ngā tauira. Nāna i tuhi ngā kōrero a Nēpia Pōhūhū mō ngā tikanga me ngā whakapapa o Ngāti Kahungunu i te tau 1863, i Ngāumutawa. Ka riro hoki ko ia te kaituhi i ngā kōrero a Te Mātorohanga.

Whakatūpato ana a Te Mātorohanga i āna tauira, 'E, kia taka te tau e mahi ana i tēnā mahi e oti ai.' Otirā, he nui, he whānui te kaupapa kōrero i tuhia ai, arā, mai i te waihangatanga o te ao, i te orokohanga ki te taunahatanga i Aotearoa, tae atu ki ngā whakapapa me ngā kōrero mō te iwi. Ko āna kōrero mō Kupe kua tuaruatia, kua tuatorutia, taka iho ki tēnei rā.

Ka haere ngā mahi, ka ngākaurua a Te Mātorohanga mō tōna whakaaetanga kia tuhia ngā kōrero. Ko tōna anipā kei tānoanoatia te tapu o ngā kōrero tuku iho. I Mei o te tau 1865, ka whakatakariri ki a Te Whatahoro. Ko tana kupu, kāore a Te Whatahoro i te āta mōhio ki te tapu me te hōhonutanga o ngā kōrero, i takea mai nei i te korekore. Ka tuaruatia anō e ia tana hiahia kia akona ngā mahi i roto i tētahi whare i āta wehea; kāore e tika kia akona i roto i te whare noho.

He wā anō, ka whākina e ia tōna mana matakite ki āna tauira. I te 10 o Mei, ka kōrerotia e ia tana moemoeā ki te iwi. Pau te pō i a ia e moe korohiko ana me te kite ake i te rangi uraura. He tohu whiu mō Ngāti Moe. Ka tonoa e ia tana tauira a Rīwai ki Hurunui‑o-rangi. I reira ka puta ko te kōrero a Pirika Pō, tērā a Ngāti Te Waiehu te haere atu ai ki te whakatutū puehu. Eke ana ki tā Te Mātorohanga. Nō te rā o muri mai, ka hoki a Rīwai ki Te Hautawa. Ka whakahokia e ia ētahi o Ngāti Moe, kei patua. Ka tae, ka kōrerotia atu e Te Mātorohanga tana moemoeā tuarua. Moe tonu iho kua kite i te tohu o te mate, i a Tūnui‑o-te-ika e haere mai ana ki te kokoti i a ia. Kātahi ka kōrerotia atu e Rīwai te kupu ohiti mai a Pirika Pō ki a ia. Ka kī atu a Te Mātorohanga kua turuki whakataha te mate, e kore e pā ki a rātau.

Te mutunga o ngā mahi o te whare wānanga i te 26 o Mei, ka puta anō tana kupu mō te tapu o ngā kōrero, ahakoa i tuhia ki te pukapuka, i tuhia rānei ki te ngākau. Whakatika atu, ka tangohia e ia ngā pukapuka, arā, ngā tauira e amuamu rā. I te ata pō, ka tahuna ngā kōhatu ki tō rātau ahi e kā rā i roto i te whare. Ka wera ngā kōhatu, ka kapea mai ngā ngārehu, ka taona atu ngā rīwai iti nei, 12 te nui. Ka maoa, ka utaina atu ko ngā pukapuka ki waenganui i ngā rīwai. Kātahi ka takina ngā karakia whakanoa.

Ehara a Te Mātorohanga i te tangata kaiponu. He tangata tuku i āna kōrero ki ngā tāngata e aro atu ana. He tokomaha ngā tauira i akona e ia. Mehemea kāore i te mārama tētahi kaupapa ki a ia, kua tukua te tauira ki a Nēpia Pōhūhū , ki a Rīhari Tohii rānei, mā rāua e whakatika mai. Pērā anō a Nēpia. Ka tuku i āna tauira mā Te Mātorohanga e whakaturuki.

Kāore i te mārama nō nahea rawa i mate ai a Te Mātorohanga. Ēngari i muri iho i tōna matenga, ka tuhia e Te Peehi (Elsdon Best) ngā kōrero mō te matenga o tētahi tohunga. Ākuanei pea, ko Te Mātorohanga tēnei. E ai ki tā Te Peehi, i te kai tahi te tohunga nei me ōna whanaunga, ka tae mai te tohu whakaari i tōna matenga. Ka haere te tohunga ki tahaki atu karakia ai. Ka mutu, kātahi ka tono ki te whānau kia whakatūria he tēneti hei wāhi hemonga mōna. Ka haere mai tana tauira matua, ka kīia atu e te tohunga nei kia whakaritea te tikanga whakahā, arā, kia ngongoa te hā o te tohunga kia riro ai i te tauira tōna mauri. Ka oti, ka tatari. Nā te tōrengitanga o te rā ki te pae i whakatakoto te ara hei takahitanga atu mō te tohunga nei ki ōna tīpuna i Rarohēnga.

Mau tonu i a Te Whatahoro ngā kōrero a Te Mātorohanga. Nō Pēpuere o 1899, i Pāpāwai, ka whakahaua e Tamahau Mahupuku kia whakaritea te karanga a Timi Kara (James Carroll), kia whakaemihia ngā kōrero tīpuna i te wā e ora tonu ana ngā pakeke mōhio. Ko te hiahia o Tamahau kia whakatūria ngā rōpū hei whakatutuki i tēnei karanga. Ka tū te hui ki Tāmakinui-a-Rua ki te tonga o Te Mātau-a-Māui (Hawke's Bay) i te 15 o Maehe 1907. He nui ngā kōrero kua oti kē te tuhi, i pānuitia i taua hui ki te aroaro o te Komiti o Tūpai, he komiti nō raro iho i te Komiti a Tānenui-a-Rangi. Ko ngā kōrero a Te Mātorohanga rāua ko Nēpia Pōhūhū i tuhia rā e Te Whatahoro, ētahi o ngā kōrero i tautokona ai he pono e te hui katoa. Ka tuhia anō ngā kōrero i tautokona rā, ā, whakamana rawa ki te moko o te komiti.

I te tau 1910, ka tukua ngā pukapuka o ngā kōrero a Te Mātorohanga rāua ko Nēpia Pōhūhū ki Te Whare Taonga o Aotearoa i Pōneke, kia tāia mai. Kāore i tutuki, ēngari nā Te Peehi i tuhi pūrua ki āna pukapuka. Kua kore ngā pukapuka tuatahi i tuhia ai e Te Whatahoro, ahakoa anō kei te toe tonu pea ētahi maramara whārangi o aua pukapuka. Kei te takoto tonu hoki tētahi wāhanga nā Te Whatahoro i tuhi anō, i te pākarukarutanga o te pukapuka tuatahi.

Ko ngā kōrero ā-tuhi i mau tonu, i wherawheratia nuitia e ngā tauira o te rau tau mai i 1900. Nō te tau 1913 me te tau 1915 ka puta ngā pukapuka e rua a Te Mete (S. Percy Smith), ko The lore of the whare-wānanga (ko ngā īngoa Māori ko 'Te kauwae-runga' me 'Te kauwae-raro'). Ko tana kupu, ko ngā pukapuka tuatahi a Te Whatahoro te puna o āna kōrero. E ai anō ki a ia nā Te Whatahoro tonu ēnei pukapuka i hoatu ki a ia mō te wā poto. Otirā i roto pea i ētahi o ngā pukapuka nei ngā tauira tuhituhi o ngā kōrero taketake a Te Mātorohanga rāua ko Nēpia Pōhūhū. Ēngari ko ētahi o ngā puna nō reira ngā kōrero a Te Mete, kāore rawa he painga. Nō reira, korotaha ana te titiro ki te pono o āna kōrero mō Ngāti Kahungunu. Ko ā Te Peehi pukapuka, ko The Māori, Māori religion and mythology me ērā atu anō o āna mahi, nō ngā kōrero i tuhia pūruatia rā e ia. Kia kore a Te Mātorohanga rātau ko ōna hoa, tae noa ki tā rātau kaituhi ki a Te Whatahoro, kāore e puta he kōrero mā Te Mete, mā Te Peehi me ngā kaituhi o muri iho.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

D. R. Simmons. 'Te Mātorohanga, Moihi', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1993. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/2t23/te-matorohanga-moihi (accessed 26 July 2024)