Kōrero: Whāngai

Whārangi 3. Whāngai me te ture

Ngā whakaahua

Te whakamana ā-ture

Nō mai anō nō te wā ukiuki te tikanga o te whāngai e ora tonu ana i ēnei rā, ahakoa tonu ngā ākī o te ture, o te ao hurihuri hoki. He wā ka kore e arotia, he wā ka mōhiotia, he wā anō ka whakahētia. I te rautau 1800 ka whakaturehia te tikanga whāngai ki te Ture Whāngai o 1881, kāore i whakahēhia te tūranga o te whāngai. Nō te kēhi o Hineiti Rirerire ki Ngā Kaitiaki Tumatanui i te tau 1919 ka kitea e whai mana ai te whāngai ki raro i te ture o Aotearoa.

Whāngai me te whakahekenga takirua

Ko tētahi take matua e pā ana ki te āhua o te whāngai ko ngā whenua ka whakahekehia ki te whāngai. I te tau 1900 ka whakaara te mema paremata o te Tai Tokerau a Hōne Heke Ngāpua te take nei ki rō Paremata, me tana meatanga he rerekē rawa te mahi whāngai ki tērā o te Pākehā. Ko tāna i āwangawanga ko te rironga i te whāngai ngā whenua o ana mātua ake, me ōna mātua whāngai, ka kīia e ia he mahi touareare.

Te whakarerekē i ngā tikanga

I tīmata te tukanga o te whāngai ki roto i te punaha ture i te Ture Whakarerekē Kōkōraho Whenua Māori o te tau 1901. I whakaturehia kia rēhita te katoa o te hunga whāngai ki te Kōti Whenua Māori e āhei ai ki a rātou ngā whenua ō o rātou mātua whāngai. Nō te Ture Whenua Māori o 1909 katahi ka tino hāngaitia ki te ture, ā, ka noho kore mana te tikanga o te whāngai ki raro i te ture. Nō konā me whakamana rawa te kōti whenua Māori ka mana ā-ture ai te whāngai.

Ngā whāngai nō iwi kē

Nō te Aperira o te tau 1909 ka whakatauhia i tētahi hui o Tūwharetoa: ‘Mō ngā tamariki whāngai: Kaua e whaimana te tamaiti whāngai pākehā, ahakoa i rēhitatia ki ngā rawa a te matua whāngai Māori’.1 Nō te putanga o te Ture Whenua Māori i taua tau anō, ka whakaturehia e te Kōti Whenua Māori ko ngā tamariki Māori anake hei whāngai.

Te noho muna

Mai i te tau 1915, ka rēhitatia anō te nuinga o ngā tamariki whāngai ki ngā ingoa whānau whāngai o ō rātou mātua whāngai, ā, ka tīmata te mahi huna haere i ngā whakapapa ake o aua tamaiti. Hāunga tērā, ka noho tūwhera tonu ngā rongo kōti, ā, ka whakaputahia ngā whāngai Māori ki roto i te Kahiti me te New Zealand Gazette.

Nō te Ture Whāngai o te tau 1955 ka aukatia te mahi whāngai. Ka whakaarotia he pai ake kia motu katoatia ngā hononga o te tamaiti ki tōna whānau ake. Ka whakakorehia ngā tikanga Māori e pā ana ki te whāngai. Nō ngā tau tōmuri o te tekau tau 1980 ka whakahauhia ngā mahi whāngai kia hāngai ki tā te ture. Hāunga te kore mana o te tikanga whāngai ki tā te Ture Whāngai o 1955, kei te haere tonu te mahi whāngai ki roto i te ao Māori.

Te Ture Whenua me te whakamana i te whāngai

Nō te Te Ture Whenua Māori 1993 ka whakamanahia te whāngai kia whiwhi whenua. Ki tā te ture i kī ai, ‘ko te whāngai he mahi tikanga Māori’.

I roto I ēnei rā tonu kei te whakatewhatia te mahi whāngai. E ai ki a Wharehuia Milroy, ki tā Tūhoe, he uri toto tonu te whāngai nō tōna matua whāngai, ā, mā te hapū (te iwi rānei) e whakaae, tae rawa ki ngā wā e tukua ai he whenua. Pēnā ka manaaki te whāngai i ngā rūmate o te matua whāngai ka tukuna ki a ia ōna whenua.

Ki roto o Ngāti Mahuta, ka kite a Fred Kaa rāua ko Ngāpare Hopa ka taea hoki te whāngai i te tamaiti kāore e whai toto ki te whānau. He rite tonu ka tīmata te mahi whāngai i te whānautanga mai o te pēpē, hāunga ka taea hoki te whāngai i muri mai.

Kupu tāpiri
  1. I takoto ki Te Pipiwharauroa: He Kupu Whakamarama 134 (Haratua 1909), wh. 8. Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Basil Keane, 'Whāngai - Whāngai me te ture', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/whangai/page-3 (accessed 17 October 2017)

Story by Basil Keane, published 5 May 2011, updated 1 Jun 2017