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Whāngai – customary fostering and adoption

by Basil Keane

He tikanga Māori te whāngai e tuku ana i te tamariki kia whakatipuhia e tētahi whanaunga. Ko ētahi tumomo whāngai mō te whakaheke kōrero pērā i te mokopuna, i te pani, te pōriro rānei kua atawhaingia e te whānau.


The custom of whāngai

He aha te whāngai?

He tikanga Māori te whāngai e whakapakeketia ai te tamaiti e tētahi whanaunga atu i ōna mātua ake. Arā anō ōna ōritenga ki tōna aronga Pākehā, arā ka taea te whāngai mō te wā poto, wā roa rānei. Ko te tangata ka whāngai tamariki ka kīia he matua whāngai, arā, ko te tamaiti ka whāngaihia ka kīia he tamaiti whāngai.

Ko te tamaiti atawhai, tamaiti taurima anō ētahi o ōna karangatanga. Ka tohu katoa ēnei karangatanga ki te manaakitanga o te whāngai.

Whāngai me te atawhai

Mō ētahi, he rite tahi te tikanga o te tamaiti whāngai me te tamaiti atawhai, heoi kei ētahi iwi arā anō ōna paku rerekētanga.

E ai ki a Ahorangi Wharehuia Milroy ko te ‘"atawhai" tends to equate more with "fostered child" and "whāngai" with adopted child. Other synonyms which are used to describe an "atawhai" child … are tiaki (look after) and taurima (to treat with care) and whakatipu (to make grow)' ("atawhai" he pātata ake ki te "fostered child", ā, ko te "whāngai" he kōtata ake ki te “adopted child”. Ko ētahi atu kupu ōrite hei whakamārama i te tamaiti "atawhai" … he tiaki, he taurima, he whakatipu).1

Ngā tūāhua o te whāngai

He maha ngā take o te whāngai tamariki, pērā i te:

  • kimi kāinga mō te pani
  • tautoko i ngā whānau he uaua rawa te tautoko tamariki
  • tauawhi i te tamaiti he taiohi rawa ngā mātua
  • whakamaru i te tamaiti pōriro
  • kimi tamaiti mō te hunga rākau more
  • whakapakari i ngā here o te whānau me te hapū
  • kimi tamariki mō te hunga kaumātua hei whāngai ki ngā kōrero tuku iho
  • whāngai tamariki kia taka ai ngā whenua ki a rātou.

Te tamaiti Pōkiha

I te wā o ngā pakanga whenua ki Taranaki i te tau 1868, ka kāhakina e ngā hōia kāwanatanga tētahi tamaiti e ono tau te pakeke ko Ngātau Omahuru. Nāwai ka whāngaihia ia e e Pirimia e William Fox ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara. Nō tana pakeketanga ka hoki ia ki Taranaki ki tōna māmā a Hinewai rāua ko tōna matua a Te Karere.

Ngā whakarerekētanga i tā te Pākehā whāngai

He tikanga whānui te whāngai i mahia i runga i te whakaae a te whānau me te hapū. Mōhio tonu te tamaiti ki ōna mātua ake me ōna mātua whāngai. He whakataunga tēnei kāore i waiho mā te whaea, mā ngā mātua rānei engari mā te hapū whānui kē.

E ai ki ōna tikanga Pākehā, he āhuatanga te whāngai hei kimi kāinga mō ngā tamariki kua warea, kua noho pani rānei. Heoi i roto i te tikanga whāngai a te Māori, ko ētahi mātua ka tuku i ō rātou tamariki e hāngai ai ki tēnei tikanga. He rite tonu te wā ka hiahia ngā whānau e rua ki te tamaiti. Hāunga ngā whakamanatanga ā-ture ki te hunga whāngai, e haere tonu ana tēnei tikanga ki waho i te ture.

Footnotes

Traditions and history

Māui

Ko Māui tipua tonu tētahi o ngā whāngai rongonui o te ao Māori. I tōna whānautanga mai, ka pōhehe tōna whaea ka mate kahu a Māui, ā, ka tākaia ia ki tōna tikitiki, ka porowhiua ki te moana. Heoi ka ora tonu a Māui, ā, ka pae tōna tinana ki uta. Nō muri iho ka kitea e tōna koroua e Tamanui-ki-te-rangi, ā, ka riro māna e whāngai, e whakangungu hoki te tamaiti ki ngā whakapapa, ngā kōrero tuku iho, te haka me te waiata. Nō muri rawa ka tūtaki ki ōna mātua ake. He momo whāngai nui tēnei, arā, te tamaiti i whangaihia e te kaumātua me te ako ki ngā kōrero a tōna iwi.

Ko Uenuku rāua ko Ihuparapara

Ko te atua o te āniwaniwa ko Uenuku. Nō tētahi rangi ka huri ia i tōna āhua ki tērā o Tamatea-arikinui, matua o Kahungunu, ā, ka moea e ia te wahine a Tamatea a Ihuparapara. Ka hapū a Ihuparapara, ā, ka puta ki waho he kōtiro. I te whakapono o Ihuparapara ka mate te tamaiti, ka mauria e ia ki te tuahu. Nō te hokinga mai o Uenuku i te rangi ka kawea e ia tōna tamāhine ki rāwāhi i te moana uriuri o Hinemoana, ki reira whāngaihia ai ia e Te Tini-o-te-petipeti. Whai muri i te pure me te tohi o te tamaiti, ka whakaingoa houtia te tamaiti ko Uenukutiti. I te kawa o te pure, ka tawhana tētahi uenuku ki runga ake i te tuahu, he tohu tērā i reira tonu hoki a Uenuku.

Tūtānekai

E rongonui tonu ana a Tūtānekai me tōna moenga ki te puhi ataahua ki a Hinemoa. Heoi i whānau pōriro mai a ia ki tēnei ao. Ko tōna whaea tērā ko Rangiuru, te wahine matua a te rangatira a Whakaue. Ka mutu ko Tūtānekai te hua o te moe pūremu o Rangiuru ki te rangatira ki a Tuwharetoa. Hāunga anō te mārama o Whakaue ki te moe pūremu, ka arohaina tonu te tamaiti rā anō nei nāna ake a Tūtānekai. E kī ana a Te Rangikāheke hei ‘matua whāngai’ a Whakaue mā Tūtānekai, ka mutu ‘Ko Tūtānekai ka atawhaitia e Whakaue, anō ko tana tamaiti tupu ake’.

Tāmati Wāka Nene

Nō waenga i te rautau 1800 ka haere te rangatira o Ngāpuhi a Tāmati Wāka Nene ki Tauranga, kia kite i tōna whanaunga a Matetakahia, i whakapaetia mō te kōhuru i tētahi Pākehā. Ka whakapae a Nene nā Matetakahia te hara ā ka pūhia kia mate. Nō te kitenga kua hē ia ka riro i a ia te tama a Matetakahia a Timoti hei atawhai. Ka mate a Nene, ka riro mā te tuakana o Nene mā Eruera Patuone e atawhai a Timoti. Nā te āhuatanga ki te atawhai, tē riro i a Timoti ngā whenua o Nene, o Patuone rānei.

Te matua whāngai i a Kuini Wikitoria

Ko 1863 te tau ka piri atu a Hariata Pomare rāua ko tana tāne a Hare ki tētahi tira haere ki Ingarangi. Ka tūtaki te tira nei ki a Kuini Wikitoria, me tana mātaki atu kua hapū a Hariata. Ko tana tono kia riro māna e whāngai te tamaiti rā. I te whānautanga mai o te tamaiti ka tapaina ia ko Albert Victor. Nō muri mai ka tūtaki rātou ko ōna mātua ki a Kuini Wikitoria. Nō muri mai ka tuhia, ‘Kāore pea ētahi tāngata i te mōhio he tamaiti whāngai Māori tā te Kuini, ko te tama i a Pomare, nō Ngapuhi’.1

Ingoa mana

Nā te kairangahau tikanga ā-iwi nā George Graham i tuhi mō tētahi whāngaitanga, ka tohu te rangatira i tētahi Mokopuna hei ingoa mana. Ka mea tēnei nāna anō taua tamaiti, ahakoa whakatupuhia e ōna mātua ake.

Ngāti Pou

Tērā tētahi rangatira o Ngāti Pou o Waikato ka tono ia ki te puta tana mokopuna he wahine, me tapa ki a Huiawa-rua, engari mēnā he tāne me tapa ki a Te Horeta. I te whānautanga mai he kōtiro te tamaiti ā ka tapaia ko Huiawa-rua. Nāwai rā ka moe i tana whanaunga i a Te Horeta.

Ngāti Whanaunga

Ka tono te rangatira o Ngāti Whanaunga kia tapaia tana mokopuna ki te ingoa o tōna kuia ki a Kahupeka, ā, ka tukuna ki a ia ōna whenua. Nāwai ka tau te noho a tōna whānau ki reira, ka waihangatia he māra, ā, ka whakatipuhia ngā māra. I muri mai ka hokona e te rangatira taua whenua ki tētahi Pākehā me te kore whakapā atu ki taua kōtiro. Nāwai ka whakarērea e rātou te whenua, ka tahuna ngā whare, ka orotahia ngā māra. Hāunga tonu te ngana o te koroua ki te whakatau i te rangimārie me te whānau, ka mate ia. Katahi ka whāia kia tomohia a Kahupeka ki te mokopuna a te koroua rā nā runga i tana ōhākī, engari kāore i tutuki ka whakatauākītia, ‘He tara whai ka uru ki roto, e kore e taea te whakahokia’.

Footnotes
    • Te Pipiwharauroa: He Kupu Whakamarama 27 (Haratua 1900), wh. 4. Back

Whāngai and the law

Te whakamana ā-ture

Nō mai anō nō te wā ukiuki te tikanga o te whāngai e ora tonu ana i ēnei rā, ahakoa tonu ngā ākī o te ture, o te ao hurihuri hoki. He wā ka kore e arotia, he wā ka mōhiotia, he wā anō ka whakahētia. I te rautau 1800 ka whakaturehia te tikanga whāngai ki te Ture Whāngai o 1881, kāore i whakahēhia te tūranga o te whāngai. Nō te kēhi o Hineiti Rirerire ki Ngā Kaitiaki Tumatanui i te tau 1919 ka kitea e whai mana ai te whāngai ki raro i te ture o Aotearoa.

Whāngai me te whakahekenga takirua

Ko tētahi take matua e pā ana ki te āhua o te whāngai ko ngā whenua ka whakahekehia ki te whāngai. I te tau 1900 ka whakaara te mema paremata o te Tai Tokerau a Hōne Heke Ngāpua te take nei ki rō Paremata, me tana meatanga he rerekē rawa te mahi whāngai ki tērā o te Pākehā. Ko tāna i āwangawanga ko te rironga i te whāngai ngā whenua o ana mātua ake, me ōna mātua whāngai, ka kīia e ia he mahi touareare.

Te whakarerekē i ngā tikanga

I tīmata te tukanga o te whāngai ki roto i te punaha ture i te Ture Whakarerekē Kōkōraho Whenua Māori o te tau 1901. I whakaturehia kia rēhita te katoa o te hunga whāngai ki te Kōti Whenua Māori e āhei ai ki a rātou ngā whenua ō o rātou mātua whāngai. Nō te Ture Whenua Māori o 1909 katahi ka tino hāngaitia ki te ture, ā, ka noho kore mana te tikanga o te whāngai ki raro i te ture. Nō konā me whakamana rawa te kōti whenua Māori ka mana ā-ture ai te whāngai.

Ngā whāngai nō iwi kē

Nō te Aperira o te tau 1909 ka whakatauhia i tētahi hui o Tūwharetoa: ‘Mō ngā tamariki whāngai: Kaua e whaimana te tamaiti whāngai pākehā, ahakoa i rēhitatia ki ngā rawa a te matua whāngai Māori’.1 Nō te putanga o te Ture Whenua Māori i taua tau anō, ka whakaturehia e te Kōti Whenua Māori ko ngā tamariki Māori anake hei whāngai.

Te noho muna

Mai i te tau 1915, ka rēhitatia anō te nuinga o ngā tamariki whāngai ki ngā ingoa whānau whāngai o ō rātou mātua whāngai, ā, ka tīmata te mahi huna haere i ngā whakapapa ake o aua tamaiti. Hāunga tērā, ka noho tūwhera tonu ngā rongo kōti, ā, ka whakaputahia ngā whāngai Māori ki roto i te Kahiti me te New Zealand Gazette.

Nō te Ture Whāngai o te tau 1955 ka aukatia te mahi whāngai. Ka whakaarotia he pai ake kia motu katoatia ngā hononga o te tamaiti ki tōna whānau ake. Ka whakakorehia ngā tikanga Māori e pā ana ki te whāngai. Nō ngā tau tōmuri o te tekau tau 1980 ka whakahauhia ngā mahi whāngai kia hāngai ki tā te ture. Hāunga te kore mana o te tikanga whāngai ki tā te Ture Whāngai o 1955, kei te haere tonu te mahi whāngai ki roto i te ao Māori.

Te Ture Whenua me te whakamana i te whāngai

Nō te Te Ture Whenua Māori 1993 ka whakamanahia te whāngai kia whiwhi whenua. Ki tā te ture i kī ai, ‘ko te whāngai he mahi tikanga Māori’.

I roto I ēnei rā tonu kei te whakatewhatia te mahi whāngai. E ai ki a Wharehuia Milroy, ki tā Tūhoe, he uri toto tonu te whāngai nō tōna matua whāngai, ā, mā te hapū (te iwi rānei) e whakaae, tae rawa ki ngā wā e tukua ai he whenua. Pēnā ka manaaki te whāngai i ngā rūmate o te matua whāngai ka tukuna ki a ia ōna whenua.

Ki roto o Ngāti Mahuta, ka kite a Fred Kaa rāua ko Ngāpare Hopa ka taea hoki te whāngai i te tamaiti kāore e whai toto ki te whānau. He rite tonu ka tīmata te mahi whāngai i te whānautanga mai o te pēpē, hāunga ka taea hoki te whāngai i muri mai.

Footnotes
    • I takoto ki Te Pipiwharauroa: He Kupu Whakamarama 134 (Haratua 1909), wh. 8. Back

Whāngai in modern times

Ngā take whāngai

He whewheia nui te whāngai ki tā te Pākehā whakamahi. Engari ki tā te Māori, he nui ngā hua i te whāngai tamariki. E ai ki te kairangahau a Joan Metge; ara katoa ngā kaupapa huhua mō tēnei tikanga:

It could not prevent some children from feeling rejected by their birth parents or deprived of the special love of a mother; it could not prevent siblings being split up or atawhai being overworked or abused in particular cases. But philosophically and in practice it had many strengths and advantages.
Kāore tēnei tikanga e aukati i te tamaiti mai i ōna mātua ake, e aukati rānei i te aroha o te māmā; heoi kāore e taea i tēnei tikanga te whakaea katoa i ngā tauwehewehe whānau, i te tūkino rānei o tēnei mea o te atawhai. Engari ia ko te huatau kei roto ake i tēnei tikanga ara noa atu ōna painga.1

Nga whāngai rongonui

  • ko te rangatira o Ngāti Porou a Rāpata Wahawaha, nāna i whāngai te matua o Apirana Ngata, a Paratene Ngata
  • ko te mokopuna a te kingi Māori a Tawhiao a Te Puea Hērangi. Neke atu i te 50 te maha o ana whāngai
  • te rangatira o Ngāpuhi Tā Hemi Henare. Tokoono ana tamariki ake, e rima ana tamariki whāngai.

Ko ētahi tamariki whāngai:

  • ko Edward Pōhau Ellison, tētahi o ngā rata Māori tuatahi
  • te tohunga reo me te kaituhi a Pei Te Hurinui Jones
  • ko Tahupōtiki Wiremu Rātana, te kaiwhakaū i te Hāhi Rātana
  • ko te kaiwaiata ko Inia te Wiata
  • ko Robert Te Kotahitanga Māhuta, te tungāne whāngai o te kuini Māori a Te Ātairangikaahu
  • ko Billy T. James, tētahi o ngā kaiwhakangahau rongonui o Aotearoa
  • ko Wira Gardiner, kaimahi kāwanatanga, tiamana o te Tertiary Education Commission i te tau 2010
  • ko te kaitākaro o Ngā Rau Hiriwa ko Joline Henry.

Māori me te whāngai

He wā anō ka whakamanahia ā-ture te whāngai, he wā ka kore anō. I te tau 1997 ka whakatau ake a Hirini Mead ko te tamaiti Māori te taonga nui rawa o te ao Māori, ā, me whakaaro ngā tika e whai ake nei:

  • te mana kia mohio ki ngā āhuatanga o tōna whāngaitanga
  • te mana kia mōhio ki tōna whakapapa
  • te mana whānaungatanga (kinship) – kia paihere i a ia ki tōna hapū, iwi rānei
  • te mana tikanga whakaaro – kia whai wāhi ki roto i tōna ao Māori.

Te tikanga panoni o te whāngai

E ai ki te rangahau o ngā tāngata whāngai ka kitea ko ngā kaupapa nui ko te whanaungatanga, me te whakapau ngākau ki tō whānau i ngā tau ō muri atu. 'The practice is diluted today. It has many faces, many manifestations. Gone are the values, the history and the very essence that makes us intrinsically Maori.' (Ki tā ētahi kei te rerekē haere tēnei tikanga o te whāngai. Ara noa atu ōna kanohi, me ōna āhua i ēnei rā. Kua kore ngā tikanga, ngā hītori hoki e paihere nei i a tātou ki tō tātou Māoritanga).2

E ai ki te whakatepe a te hunga kairangahau, ‘[t]he preservation of this traditional practice is reliant upon Maori whānau practising and living by the values and principles that underlie it. Also seen by most to be pivotal to its maintenance are: current Māori participating in the practice; teaching future generations the values of this practice; and providing whāngai with positive environments that include the opportunity to interact in the wider whānau group' (Ko te oranga tonutanga o tēnei tikanga kei ngā whānau Māori e pupuri ana kia ū kia pūmau ki ngā tikanga me ngā ūara ō roto. Ko tētahi atu mea nui: ko te whai wāhi o Ngāi Māori i tēnei tikanga; ko te ako i ngā uara o tēnei tikanga ki ngā reanga; me te whakatipu i te tamaiti ki roto ki te aroha me te manaaki o te whānau whānui).3

Footnotes

How to cite this page: Basil Keane, 'Whāngai', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/whangai/print (accessed 22 October 2019)

Story by Basil Keane, published 5 May 2011, updated 1 Jun 2017