Kōrero: Whāngai

Whārangi 1. Te tikanga whāngai

Ngā whakaahua

He aha te whāngai?

He tikanga Māori te whāngai e whakapakeketia ai te tamaiti e tētahi whanaunga atu i ōna mātua ake. Arā anō ōna ōritenga ki tōna aronga Pākehā, arā ka taea te whāngai mō te wā poto, wā roa rānei. Ko te tangata ka whāngai tamariki ka kīia he matua whāngai, arā, ko te tamaiti ka whāngaihia ka kīia he tamaiti whāngai.

Ko te tamaiti atawhai, tamaiti taurima anō ētahi o ōna karangatanga. Ka tohu katoa ēnei karangatanga ki te manaakitanga o te whāngai.

Whāngai me te atawhai

Mō ētahi, he rite tahi te tikanga o te tamaiti whāngai me te tamaiti atawhai, heoi kei ētahi iwi arā anō ōna paku rerekētanga.

E ai ki a Ahorangi Wharehuia Milroy ko te ‘"atawhai" tends to equate more with "fostered child" and "whāngai" with adopted child. Other synonyms which are used to describe an "atawhai" child … are tiaki (look after) and taurima (to treat with care) and whakatipu (to make grow)' ("atawhai" he pātata ake ki te "fostered child", ā, ko te "whāngai" he kōtata ake ki te “adopted child”. Ko ētahi atu kupu ōrite hei whakamārama i te tamaiti "atawhai" … he tiaki, he taurima, he whakatipu).1

Ngā tūāhua o te whāngai

He maha ngā take o te whāngai tamariki, pērā i te:

  • kimi kāinga mō te pani
  • tautoko i ngā whānau he uaua rawa te tautoko tamariki
  • tauawhi i te tamaiti he taiohi rawa ngā mātua
  • whakamaru i te tamaiti pōriro
  • kimi tamaiti mō te hunga rākau more
  • whakapakari i ngā here o te whānau me te hapū
  • kimi tamariki mō te hunga kaumātua hei whāngai ki ngā kōrero tuku iho
  • whāngai tamariki kia taka ai ngā whenua ki a rātou.

Te tamaiti Pōkiha

I te wā o ngā pakanga whenua ki Taranaki i te tau 1868, ka kāhakina e ngā hōia kāwanatanga tētahi tamaiti e ono tau te pakeke ko Ngātau Omahuru. Nāwai ka whāngaihia ia e e Pirimia e William Fox ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara. Nō tana pakeketanga ka hoki ia ki Taranaki ki tōna māmā a Hinewai rāua ko tōna matua a Te Karere.

Ngā whakarerekētanga i tā te Pākehā whāngai

He tikanga whānui te whāngai i mahia i runga i te whakaae a te whānau me te hapū. Mōhio tonu te tamaiti ki ōna mātua ake me ōna mātua whāngai. He whakataunga tēnei kāore i waiho mā te whaea, mā ngā mātua rānei engari mā te hapū whānui kē.

E ai ki ōna tikanga Pākehā, he āhuatanga te whāngai hei kimi kāinga mō ngā tamariki kua warea, kua noho pani rānei. Heoi i roto i te tikanga whāngai a te Māori, ko ētahi mātua ka tuku i ō rātou tamariki e hāngai ai ki tēnei tikanga. He rite tonu te wā ka hiahia ngā whānau e rua ki te tamaiti. Hāunga ngā whakamanatanga ā-ture ki te hunga whāngai, e haere tonu ana tēnei tikanga ki waho i te ture.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Basil Keane, 'Whāngai - Te tikanga whāngai', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/whangai/page-1 (accessed 28 June 2019)

Story by Basil Keane, published 5 May 2011, updated 1 Jun 2017