Kōrero: Tūranga i te hapori

Whārangi 3. Te huringa rangatiratanga i te rautau 1800

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Te whakatakē i ngā rangatira

Ka panoni ngā whakahaerenga iwi o te Māori i te taenga mai o te Pākehā. Nō te tau 1848 ka tuhi atu tētahi rangatira o Waikato Ngapora ki a Kāwana Kerei: ‘Kore rawa ngā taurekareka o taku iwi e aro mai. Kāore ō rātou whakaaro rangatira mōku ... Nā koutou, Pākehā mā, i pēnei ai ... I mua he mana tō te ao Māori, ināianei kua kore.’1

Te tūranga karaitiana

I mua ka taka mai ngā mihinare Pākehā ki raro i te mana o ngā rangatira Māori. Nō te tahuri nui atu o te Māori ki te Rongopai, ka piki te mana mihinare. He nui te wā ko ngā taurekareka i huri ki te Rongopai ka noho hei mihinare tuatahi mō ō rātou iwi, ka raru ai i ētahi wā ki ō rātou rangatira ā-iwi.

Kamupene Niu Tireni

He mea ārahi te Kamupene o Niu Tireni e Edward Gibbon Wakefield. Ka whakapono a Wakefield ko ngā whenua Māori me hoko atu ki ngā Pākehā kia ‘rahi’ ai te moni mā te kamupene. Kotahi tekau o ngā whenua tāone me ngā whenua tuawhenua ka wehea mai mō te Māori, otirā ka purihia e te Pākehā mō ngā rangatira me ō rātou whānau. Ko te rautaki a te kamupene mā ngā Pākehā whai rawa e hoko whenua hei tuku mahi ki te hunga kaimahi, e whiwhi moni ai hoki rātou hei hoko whenua ā tōna wā. Ko te whakaaro hoki kia pēnei anō ngā ‘tāngata marea’ Māori nei ka mahi mā ō rātou rangatira ake, mā te pākehā rānei, ka whiwhi moni ai hei hoko whenua ake mō rātou ā tōna wā, rite ki te pākehā.

Te huri hei tangata whai rawa

Tērā tonu ētahi tāngata Māori i whai rawa, kia rite ki ngā rangatira o te ao Pākehā. Ko te rangatira whai rawa tērā o Wairarapa ko Tamahau Mahupuku tērā i whakarato i tana hapori – nāna i utu te Tauā Māori o Wairarapa, ko te niupepa reo Māori o Te Puke ki Hikurangi, ā ko te whakatūnga hoki o ētahi whare ki Pāpāwai ki Wairarapa.

Ko tēnei mea te pōti ka riro i te hunga whai whenua ake anake. I te tau 1853 100 ngā tāngata Māori i pōti.

I te tau 1893 ko Timi Kara uri Māori uri Pākehā hoki te Māori tuatahi kia toa i tētahi rohenga pōti Pākehā.

Māori hei ringa mahi ihu oneone

He nui ngā Pākehā i hiahia kia noho te Māori hei ringa mahi ihuoneone noa hei tautoko noa i ngā mahi a te Pākehā. I te tau 1862 ka mea a Henry Taylor:

I do not advocate for the Natives under present circumstances a refined education or high mental culture: it would be inconsistent if we take account of the position they are likely to hold for many years to come in the social scale, and inappropriate if we remember that they are better calculated by nature to get their living by manual than by mental labour.
Kia kaua e akohia te Māori ki ngā mātauranga ao whānui: kāre tērā e rite ki te tūranga mō rātou i ngā tau e heke mai nei, ā, mō ngā mahi ā-ringa hoki e tika ana mā rātou ehara kē ko ngā mahi ā-hinengaro.2

Heoi nā te kāreti tamatāne Māori o Te Aute i whakahaere akomanga wānanga, i puta ai ō rātou tauira hei kaimahi pūkenga hei rata, hei rōia, hei kaiako anō hoki. I whakahaua te kura e te tari mātauranga kia aro kē ki ngā mahi ā-ringa kē hei oranga mō te Māori.

Kupu tāpiri
  1. David Williams, ‘Crown policy affecting Māori knowledge systems and cultural practices.’ http://www.waitangi-tribunal.govt.nz/doclibrary/public/wai262/knowledgecultural_pr/Chapt04.pdf (i tirohia i te 16 Hui-tanguru 2011). Back
  2. I takoto ki ‘The Wananga Capital Establishment Report.’ Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Waitangi Tribunal, 1999, http://www.waitangi-tribunal.govt.nz/reports/viewchapter.asp?reportID=39e13093-2f4d-4971-aca0-28e811572755&chapter=4#pgfId-998802 (i tirohia i te 3 Haratua 2011). Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Basil Keane, 'Tūranga i te hapori - Te huringa rangatiratanga i te rautau 1800', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/turanga-i-te-hapori/page-3 (accessed 23 September 2021)

He kōrero nā Basil Keane, i tāngia i te 5 May 2011