Kōrero: Te whānau tamariki

Whārangi 2. Ngā tikanga o te hapū me te whakawhānau

Ngā whakaahua

Tokorua ngā aronga o ngā kupu whānau me te hapū, ā, kei ia whakamārama e kitea ana te whakahirahira o te puhi me te whakawhānau ki te ao Māori. Kei te kōrero nei e kitea ana te whakahirahira o te whai tamariki, ‘Mate i te tamaiti he aurukōwhao; mate i te wahine he takerehāia’. Mehe ka ngaro ngā uri katoa o tētahi whānau ka kīa tērā he whare ngaro.

Te karapine o te pūtoto

I te wā e whakamamae ana te wahine i te whānautanga, ka mauria ia ki te tohunga, ki reira tākina ai te karakia whakatō tamariki. Ka māharahara ngā mātua o Āpirana Ngata ka kore rāua e whiwhi tamariki, nā reira ka haere ōna pakeke a Paratene rāua ko Katerina ki te tohunga ki te rapu rongoā. Nāwai ka hapū a Katerina, ā, ka rere ki waho ko Āpirana.

Ko te hei tiki anō tētahi kaitiaki whakawhānau. Nā Tāne i homai te tiki tuatahi ki a Hineteiwaiwa hei tiaki i taua mahi. Arā anō ngā kōrero mō ngā tipua kōhatu, rākau rānei he whakatō tamariki ki te wahine. Ko ētahi tauira ko te toka tipua o Uenukutuwhatu ki Kāwhia me Te Hunahuna-a-pō ki Kuhawaea.

He rākau more

Ko te huatea te kupu o te Tai Rāwhiti mō te wahine kāre e hapū. Ka whakataukī te tipuna rā a Hinenui, ‘Taku hē ki te huatea, nō muri kē ko Te Huauri.’ Ka moe a Hinenui i a Tawakewhakatō, engari ka noho huatea. Nā whai anō ka moea iho ko Tāmanuhiri, ā, ka hapū ia. Ko tētahi tikanga o te kupu huatea, ko te kore whai kiko. Arā atu ētahi tikanga mō tēnei kupu.

Mēnā kāre anō kia hapū te wahine, ka tū ake ia i runga i te whenua o tētahi tamaiti hou hei awhi i a ia ki te whānau tamariki. Pēnā he tāne, he wahine rānei tōna hiahia, kua tū ia i runga i te whenua o tētahi tamaiti tāne, wahine rānei. Ka whāngai tamariki anō ētahi wāhine, ā, mā tērā anō hei āwhina i a ia ki te whakawhānau.

Ārai hapū

Hei ārai whakawhānautanga, ka whakamahia te pirita, ngā pakiaka o te harakeke me ngā rau o te toetoe me te poroporo.

Ko tētahi tikanga i hua mai i muri i te taenga o te Pākehā hei aukati i te hapūtanga ko te tikanga whakapā.

Kumama kai

I te wā o te hapūtanga, kua kumama, kua karo rānei te wahine rā i ana kai. E kīa ana koinei ngā hiahia o te tamaiti kei roto i a ia.

Wāhi whakawhānau

Nā te tapu o te whakawhānau tamariki, kāre i whakawhānau ki roto i ngā whare noa. He wā kua mahia ki waho, ki roto whare kōhanga rānei. I te wā e whakawhānau ana te wahine, kua tūturi, me te pupuri anō i ngā pou. Whai muri i te whakawhānautanga, kua tahuna te whare rā, tae atu ki ōna whāriki, taonga katoa hoki.

Tūkino tamariki

Kore rawa te ringa pā i tau ki runga i ngā tamariki o Tauranga i te wā o te rautau 1800. E ai ki ngā tuhituhi a te mihinare Wīwī a Jean-Simon Bernard i te tau 1844, ‘The children here are completely free; the parents never do anything to them. They never beat them and do not allow anyone else to beat them' (He kore here te noho a te tamariki; kore rawa ngā mātua e patu i a rātou, ā, kāre e whakaaetia mā tētahi atu hoki rātou e patu).1

Whakamamae

Pēnā ka roa e whakawhānau ana te wahine, kua tuku karakia te tohunga. I uaua anō te whānautanga mai o Hineteiwaiwa. Ko te karakia nāna i whakamāmā ‘Ko te tuku o Hineteiwaiwa’. I tākina anō tēnei karakia mō te wahine o Whakaue i a Rangiuru i te whānautanga mai o Tūtānekai.

Ko te pito ka herea ake ki te muka me te tātā o te mākahakaha. Ka miria te pito i kotia ki te hinu o te tītoki hei whakamahu ake.

Ngā momo whānautanga

E toru ngā momo whānautanga: ko te rauru nui, arā he whānautanga ngāwari; te rauru whiria, arā he whānautanga e roa e whakamamae ana; me te rauru maruaitu, arā he aituā he tamaiti kahu. I pā te mate kahu pēnā ka tānoanoatia te tapu, i te mākutu rānei.

Mana me te tapu

He mea tuku iho te mana me te tapu. I roto i te kōrero mō Paikea, ka riri te rangatira a Uenuku tērā i whakamahia e Ruatapu (he pōriro) te heru o tērā o ana tama i a Kahutiaterangi (he ariki). Ka whakataurekareka a Uenuku i a Ruatapu ki te tama meamea i aitia i runga i te ‘moenga rau-kawakawa’, hāunga anō tāna mō Kahutiaterangi, ‘I aitia ki runga i te takapau wharanui.’

Kupu tāpiri
  1. I takoto ki Hugh Laracy, ‘The French connection’, New Zealand Listener, 27 Hui-tanguru–5 poutū-te-rangi 2010, wh. 24. Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Hope Tupara, 'Te whānau tamariki - Ngā tikanga o te hapū me te whakawhānau', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-whanau-tamariki/page-2 (accessed 23 April 2019)

Story by Hope Tupara, published 5 May 2011, updated 1 Jun 2017