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Te whānau tamariki – pregnancy and birth

by Hope Tupara

I ngā wā ō mua he whare kōhanga tō ngā wāhine e hapū ana. He maha ngā tikanga me ngā karakia whakahaere. Ko tā ngā whaea he whakawaiata i te tamaiti ki ngā oriori, ngā whakapapa me ngā kōrero tuku iho a te iwi.


Birth in Māori tradition

Ko Hineteiwaiwa, ko Hinauri, ko Hina, ko Rona, ko Hinekōtea, ko Hinekōrito, ko Hine-mākehu rātou ko Hine-korako ngā tīpuna rongonui o te Māori mō te whakawhānau me te koiora tangata. E kitea ana hoki ēnei tīpuna i ngā tikanga mō te puhi me te whakawhānau, tae atu ki te whakatere waka, te hī ika, te whakatō kai, te mahi raranga me ērā atu mahi a te Māori. Ka aratakina anō ēnei mahi e te taiao, te whiti me te heke o te marama, o ngā whetū me te āhuarangi. Heoi ko Hineteiwaiwa te atua e rongotia whānui ana.

Te whānau tuatahi

Ko ngā mātua tōmua rawa o te ao ko Ranginui te matua, ko te whaea ko Papatūānuku. Ka whānau i a Papa ā rāua tamariki, ka noho ai i roto i te pōuri kenekene i waenganui i te tauawhi a ō rātou mātua. I runga i te ārahi a Tāne, ka wehe a Rangi rāua ko Papa, wehe ko te ao mārama.

Hineahuone

Kīhai te wahine tuatahi i whānau mai, engari i ahua. Ko te ingoa o tēnei tipuna ko Hineahuone. Nā Tāne ia i hanga, ā, nāna i whakatihe te mauri ora ki roto ki a ia. Ā, ka moe a Hineahuone i a Tāne ka puta he wahine, ko Hine-tītama. Ka moe anō a Tāne ka moe i a Hine-tītama, ā, nō tana karakia atu kātahi ka whānau he uri ki a ia. Ko te ingoa o tāna tamaiti ko Hine-rau-whārangi. Ko ia te tamaiti i matua tohia ki te wai. Nō te mātau i a Hine-tītama ko Tāne tonu tōna matua, ka rere ia ki Rarohenga, ā, ka mōhiotia ia ko Hine-nui-te-pō.

Tiki

Tērā anō te kōrero mō te wahine tuatahi e pā ana hoki ki ngā kōrero mō Tiki. Ka noho tungāne ia mō Tāne rāua ko Tūmatauenga, hāunga kei ētahi e whakapono ana nā rāua tahi i hanga i a Tiki. He atua tonu atu a Tiki. Ka moe ia i tana wahine tuatahi ko Marikoriko te ingoa. I hangaia tērā i te one, ka mutu he mea hanga e te Arohirohi o te Rā, e te tangi pāorooro. Ko tā rāua tamaiti mātaamua ko Kauataata.

Māui

E ai ki ngā kōrero ka whānau kahukahu mai a Māui. Ka tākaitia e Taranga tana pōtiki ki te tikitiki o tōna māhunga, i kīa ai ko Māui-tikitiki-a-Taranga. Kātahi ka rukea e te kuia rā tana tamaiti ki te wai, engari ka paea mai ki uta, ā, kitea rawa iho e tōna koroua. I ngā wā o mua he atua kahukahu te tamaiti whānau kahu.

Whakapapa o te ao tūroa

I runga i te tātai whakapapa e tūhono ai te Māori ki tōna ao tūroa. Tērā te wā ka kāhakina e Rongomāui ngā kūmara a tōna tuakana a Whānui. Ka moe i tāna wahine ka whānau te kūmara. Ahakoa ka tāmaoa e ia te kūmara, nāwai ka mōhiotia tonu tana mahi. Nō konā ia i rere ai me tana tamāhine a Hinemataiti ki raro. Ko Hinemataiti he tipuna nō te kiore.

Whakawhānau

I ahu mai ngā tikanga whakawhānau i te tipuna i a Tura. Ka pae a Tura ki tētahi motu kē, ka moe i te wahine o reira ko Turakihau te ingoa. Ka hapū te wahine nei. Ka eke te wā e whānau mai tā rāua tamaiti ka tae mai ngā hungarei ki te kawe taonga matā. E tangi haere ana te iwi rā mōna. Ka pātai a Tura, hei aha rātou e tangi ana, ā ka whakahokia ko te tikanga o te iwi rā, he poka mai i te pēpē mā te matā, ā, ka mate noa ia. Kātahi ka hangaia e Tura he whare mō tana wahine. E rua ngā pou o tēnei whare, ko te pou-tama-wahine, hei pupuritanga mōna, me te pou-tama-tāne, hei rākau toko i a ia. I te putanga mai o te tamaiti ka whakawehea e ia te whenua mō tōna atua mō Mua. Kātahi ka tohia. Ko te ingoa o tā rāua tama ko Tauira-ahua.

Whakapapa

Ka taketakea mai ngā mea katoa o te tikanga whakaaro Māori tūturu i te whakapapa. Ka hono ngā mea katoa o te ao tūroa i te whakapapa – ngā atua, te taiao, te tangata me ngā mea ora katoa. Mā te whakapapa ka mārama ake ai ki te ao nui mārama i mua, i muri, ā, haere ake nei.


Traditional practices – pregnancy and birth

Tokorua ngā aronga o ngā kupu whānau me te hapū, ā, kei ia whakamārama e kitea ana te whakahirahira o te puhi me te whakawhānau ki te ao Māori. Kei te kōrero nei e kitea ana te whakahirahira o te whai tamariki, ‘Mate i te tamaiti he aurukōwhao; mate i te wahine he takerehāia’. Mehe ka ngaro ngā uri katoa o tētahi whānau ka kīa tērā he whare ngaro.

Te karapine o te pūtoto

I te wā e whakamamae ana te wahine i te whānautanga, ka mauria ia ki te tohunga, ki reira tākina ai te karakia whakatō tamariki. Ka māharahara ngā mātua o Āpirana Ngata ka kore rāua e whiwhi tamariki, nā reira ka haere ōna pakeke a Paratene rāua ko Katerina ki te tohunga ki te rapu rongoā. Nāwai ka hapū a Katerina, ā, ka rere ki waho ko Āpirana.

Ko te hei tiki anō tētahi kaitiaki whakawhānau. Nā Tāne i homai te tiki tuatahi ki a Hineteiwaiwa hei tiaki i taua mahi. Arā anō ngā kōrero mō ngā tipua kōhatu, rākau rānei he whakatō tamariki ki te wahine. Ko ētahi tauira ko te toka tipua o Uenukutuwhatu ki Kāwhia me Te Hunahuna-a-pō ki Kuhawaea.

He rākau more

Ko te huatea te kupu o te Tai Rāwhiti mō te wahine kāre e hapū. Ka whakataukī te tipuna rā a Hinenui, ‘Taku hē ki te huatea, nō muri kē ko Te Huauri.’ Ka moe a Hinenui i a Tawakewhakatō, engari ka noho huatea. Nā whai anō ka moea iho ko Tāmanuhiri, ā, ka hapū ia. Ko tētahi tikanga o te kupu huatea, ko te kore whai kiko. Arā atu ētahi tikanga mō tēnei kupu.

Mēnā kāre anō kia hapū te wahine, ka tū ake ia i runga i te whenua o tētahi tamaiti hou hei awhi i a ia ki te whānau tamariki. Pēnā he tāne, he wahine rānei tōna hiahia, kua tū ia i runga i te whenua o tētahi tamaiti tāne, wahine rānei. Ka whāngai tamariki anō ētahi wāhine, ā, mā tērā anō hei āwhina i a ia ki te whakawhānau.

Ārai hapū

Hei ārai whakawhānautanga, ka whakamahia te pirita, ngā pakiaka o te harakeke me ngā rau o te toetoe me te poroporo.

Ko tētahi tikanga i hua mai i muri i te taenga o te Pākehā hei aukati i te hapūtanga ko te tikanga whakapā.

Kumama kai

I te wā o te hapūtanga, kua kumama, kua karo rānei te wahine rā i ana kai. E kīa ana koinei ngā hiahia o te tamaiti kei roto i a ia.

Wāhi whakawhānau

Nā te tapu o te whakawhānau tamariki, kāre i whakawhānau ki roto i ngā whare noa. He wā kua mahia ki waho, ki roto whare kōhanga rānei. I te wā e whakawhānau ana te wahine, kua tūturi, me te pupuri anō i ngā pou. Whai muri i te whakawhānautanga, kua tahuna te whare rā, tae atu ki ōna whāriki, taonga katoa hoki.

Tūkino tamariki

Kore rawa te ringa pā i tau ki runga i ngā tamariki o Tauranga i te wā o te rautau 1800. E ai ki ngā tuhituhi a te mihinare Wīwī a Jean-Simon Bernard i te tau 1844, ‘The children here are completely free; the parents never do anything to them. They never beat them and do not allow anyone else to beat them' (He kore here te noho a te tamariki; kore rawa ngā mātua e patu i a rātou, ā, kāre e whakaaetia mā tētahi atu hoki rātou e patu).1

Whakamamae

Pēnā ka roa e whakawhānau ana te wahine, kua tuku karakia te tohunga. I uaua anō te whānautanga mai o Hineteiwaiwa. Ko te karakia nāna i whakamāmā ‘Ko te tuku o Hineteiwaiwa’. I tākina anō tēnei karakia mō te wahine o Whakaue i a Rangiuru i te whānautanga mai o Tūtānekai.

Ko te pito ka herea ake ki te muka me te tātā o te mākahakaha. Ka miria te pito i kotia ki te hinu o te tītoki hei whakamahu ake.

Ngā momo whānautanga

E toru ngā momo whānautanga: ko te rauru nui, arā he whānautanga ngāwari; te rauru whiria, arā he whānautanga e roa e whakamamae ana; me te rauru maruaitu, arā he aituā he tamaiti kahu. I pā te mate kahu pēnā ka tānoanoatia te tapu, i te mākutu rānei.

Mana me te tapu

He mea tuku iho te mana me te tapu. I roto i te kōrero mō Paikea, ka riri te rangatira a Uenuku tērā i whakamahia e Ruatapu (he pōriro) te heru o tērā o ana tama i a Kahutiaterangi (he ariki). Ka whakataurekareka a Uenuku i a Ruatapu ki te tama meamea i aitia i runga i te ‘moenga rau-kawakawa’, hāunga anō tāna mō Kahutiaterangi, ‘I aitia ki runga i te takapau wharanui.’

Footnotes
    • I takoto ki Hugh Laracy, ‘The French connection’, New Zealand Listener, 27 Hui-tanguru–5 poutū-te-rangi 2010, wh. 24. Back

Rites and baby care

Whenua

E rua anō ngā aronga mō te kupu, whenua. Ko te wāhi e pā ai te iho ki te tinana koirā te pito. Ko te wāhanga e pā ana ki te whenua, koirā te rauru. Kei waenganui ko te iho.

Whai muri i te whānautanga, ka kawea te whenua ā, ka tanua ki runga i ngā whenua papatipu o te tamaiti rā. E haere tonu ana tēnei tikanga i ētahi whānau. Ko te iho he mea waiho ki te kōrua o te rākau tapu, ki te take rānei o tētahi pou rāhui. Ko tētahi rākau e tanua ai ngā iho, ko te rākau hīnau nei a Te Iho-o-Kātaka.

He ekenga tamarikitanga

Ka kīa te tamaiti kātahi nei ka ako ki te takaporepore, he owhaowha, i eke ai te kōrero, ‘Kia owhaowha te tamaiti, kātahi ka tohia.’

Ngā mana tuku iho

He maha ngā tūmomo kawa i tākina mō te tamaiti. I roto i te kawa o te tohi ka tāuwhiuwhia te tamaiti ki te wai. Me he tāne ka tohia ki a Tūmatauenga, ki a Rongo rānei, heoi me he wahine ka tohia ki a Hineteiwaiwa. Whai muri i tēnei ko te kawa o te pure. Whai muri i ngā karakia me ngā whaikōrero, kātahi ka taki hākari ngā pakeke me te whānau. Ka wetea ngā tapu i runga i taua hunga mahi rā i te karakia whakanoa.

Ahakoa i haere te tikanga o te ure haea ki Te Moananui-a-Kiwa, ka whakarērea tērā tikanga i te taenga mai ki Aotearoa.

‘Tū reiti’ – Ariki o Tūwharetoa

Ko tā ētahi iwi he whakatangi i te pūtātara i te whānautanga mai o te tama mātaamua. I te whānautanga mai o te mātaamua a Horonuku Te Heuheu rāua ko Tahuri Te Tuaki, ka whakatangihia te pūtātara i te pōhēhē kua whānau mai he tamaiti tāne – heoi he wahine kē te tamaiti. I te whānautanga mai o te tama ka tapaina ia ko Tureiti Te Heuheu, arā, nā te mea i whānau tōmuri mai.

Te opeope tamariki

Ka whakamahia te angiangi me te kohukohu i mua i te hangā o te kope. Ko te moenga wahakura o te tamaiti ka whakairohia i te harakeke.

Ka waha haere anō te whaea i tana tamaiti ki runga i te tua.

Whāngai ū

E rongohia ake ana ngā pōhewa mō te wai ū me te whāngai ū ki roto i ngā tuhinga me ngā mahi toi a te Māori, atu i te mōteatea ki te whare whakairo.

I mua i te taenga mai o tauiwi, i whāngaia ngā pēpē ki te wai ū anake. He maha ngā painga o te whāngai ū atu i tērā o te hononga o te māmā ki tana tamaiti.

I mua i te whakawhānau kua miria ngā ū o te whaea hei whakangāwari i a ia mō te whāngai i tana pēpē. Hei āta whakamakere i te tamaiti i te wai ū, kua pania te ū ki te wai kawakawa.

E pakari ai ia ki te ngau kai, ka ngaungauhia e te whaea te taro, te kūmara rānei, ā, ka tuhaina mai mā tana tamaiti. He karakia anō mō ngā tamaiti e whakaputa ana i o rātou niho.

Oriori

Ko te oriori he waiata mō te tamaiti. He hōhonu noa ake tōna tikanga, ina rā kei roto e kōrerohia ana ngā whakapapa me ngā kōrero tuku iho o tōna whānau. Kei te haere tonu tēnei tikanga o te tito oriori mō te tamaiti.

Pēnā ka hua te whānautanga o tētahi tamaiti rangatira hei whakakotahi i ētahi iwi, kua whakanuia ki roto i ngā kupu o te oriori. Ko ētahi oriori e rongonuitia ana ko ‘Pō Pō!’, nā Enoka Te Pakaru o Te Aitanga-a-Māhaki i tito me ‘Pinepine te kura’, te oriori mō Te Umurangi o Ngāti Kahungunu. Ka heke mai te tipuna nei i a Te Whatuiapiti.

Whāngai

E haere tonu ana te tikanga o te whāngai i roto i te ao Māori. He mea whakapūmau tēnei i te matemateāone o te whānau me te iwi. Ka whakatipuhia ēnei tamariki ki waenganui tonu i ngā aroaro o ngā pakeke tūturu.


Baby care, 20th and 21st centuries

Ngā tatauranga

I waenga i ngā tau o te 2005 me te 2007, neke atu i te 60,000 te huhua o ngā tamariki i whānau mai ki Aotearoa. O ngā tamariki tokorima ka whānau mai kotahi te Māori. I taua wā anō, e 2.78 te rahi o ngā tamariki mō ia whaea Māori, heoi mō ngā Pākehā e 2.05 te tauritenga. He iti iho te pakeke o ngā wāhine Māori e whakawhānau ana i tō ngā wāhine Pākehā, ā, he kaha ake rātou ki te whakawhānau tamariki me te kore poka, kore whakamahi rānei i ngā rongoā whakangāwari whakawhānau, pērā i te epidural.

Te mate ohorere pēpē

He kaha rawa te mate ohorere pēpē (SIDS) i waenganui i ngā nohinohi Māori. He nui ngā mahi āwhina ki ngā hapori Māori hei whakaheke i tēnei tatauranga me ngā mahi whakatūpato mō te mate ohorere me te whakatairanga i ngā āraitanga mō tēnei mate, pērā i te noho auahi kore, me te kore whakatakoto i a pēpē i runga i tōna puku. I te tau 1997, ka paheke te mate ohorere i te 25 ōrau i waenganui i te iwi Māori, heoi kei te teitei rawa tonu ngā tatauranga. I te tau 2003, o ngā tamariki mate ohorere e 51 te maha e 37 he Māori.

Wahakura

He moenga te wahakura mō te tamaiti e ono marama te pakeke, paku iho. He mea tauira tēnei i ngā hanga ō mua, ā, he tikanga i whakarauorahia ake e te rata Māori e David Tīpene-Leach. Ka rarangatia te wahakura. Mā konei, ka ora tonu te tikanga Māori o te moe tahi, ā, noho haumaru tonu ai a pēpē. Kāre e pai te moe tahi me ngā tamariki i te wā e tino nohinohi ana rātou.

Whai wāhi ki ngā rongoā mate

I te tau 1937, 17 ōrau noa iho te nui o ngā whakawhānau ki rō hōhipera he Māori, heoi taka mai ki te tau 1947 ka kake ki te 50 ōrau. Nō te tau 1959, kua piki ki te 90 ōrau.

Kei te kaha ake te aro mai o ngā hōhipera ki ngā tikanga Māori, pērā i te pupuri i te whenua.

He maha ngā tāpuhi Māori i ēnei rā. Ko te rōpū tāpuhi wāhine Māori ko Ngā Maia o Aotearoa me Te Waipounamu.

Buck, Peter. The coming of the Maori. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Maori Purposes Fund Board; Whitcombe & Tombs, 1950.Calman, Ross. Reed book of Māori mythology. Tāmaki-makau-rau: Reed Books, 2004.Makereti. The old-time Maori. Tāmaki-makau-rau: New Women’s Press, 1986.http://www.maorisids.org.nz/He pae tukutuku e pā ana ki te mate SIDS.http://rsnz.natlib.govt.nz/volume/rsnz_37/rsnz_37_00_000230.htmlTe rongoā Māori e ai ki a W. H. Goldie, he kōrero i tukuna i te tau 1903.http://www.ngamaia.co.nz/He pae tukutuku e pā ana ki ngā tāpuhi Māori.


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

More suggestions and sources


How to cite this page: Hope Tupara, 'Te whānau tamariki – pregnancy and birth', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-whanau-tamariki/print (accessed 16 August 2020)

He kōrero nā Hope Tupara, i tāngia i te 5 May 2011, updated 1 Jun 2017