Kōrero: Te whakakata

Whārangi 2. Te whakakata i te rautau 1900

Ngā whakaahua

Māori tinihanga

E rongonui ana a Ngāti Porou o te Tai Rāwhiti mō ā rātou mahi tinihanga ki te hunga tauiwi hoki. E kī ana ngā kōrero a te iwi, tērā tētahi kaumātua o Ngāti Porou i tono nama i tētahi toa e āhei ai tana ohu mahi ki te whakangao purapura otaota mō te hoko. Tino harakoa te kaihoko ki te nui o te nama ka tukuna atu ki te Māori rā. Kātahi te koroua ka tuhi i tōna ingoa ko Kawehe-ite-rekareka, ko tōna wāhi noho ko Haere oti atu, me tōna marae ko Waingaromia.1

Te whakaari Māori

Kāore i tino piri tahi te Māori me te Pākehā i ngā tau tīmatanga o te rautau 1900, ka mutu ka tātā tētahi i tētahi atu mā ngā kōrero whakakata.

I te roanga o te rautau 1900 ko tā tauiwi he whakaari i ngā Māori kūare, hātekēhi hoki. I te tau 1910 ka whakaputa a Alfred Grace i tana kohikohinga pakiwaituhi mō Hone Tiki, arā he Māori heahea ka kōrero mō ngā tikanga Pākehā me tōna reo tapepe. He nui ngā pakiwaituhi a Trevor Lloyd i tāngia pēnei mō te Herora o Nu Tireni e whakaari ana i te ‘Māori o te ao hou’ hei touareare, hei kūare, hei matapiko. 

Ngā pēne Māori

He tino rerekē rawa atu ēnei mahi ki ngā whakangahau ake a te Māori. Heoi nā te noho wehewehe tonu a te Māori me te Pākehā i te rautau 1900, koinei anake te ‘whakangahau Māori’ i mōhiotia ai e te Pākehā. Ka noho ēnei mahi hei tauira mā ngā kaiwhakaari Māori o te ngahuru tau 1950 me te 1960, pērā i te Howard Morrison Quartet.

Ngā tuhinga hātakēhi i te reo Pākehā

Mai i te tekau tau 1960 ka tīmata te puta mai o ngā tauira whakakata a te Māori ake, kaua kē hei whakaū noa i te whakaaro kaikiri ngahau a te Pākehā. Ahakoa i roto kē ēnei mahi i te reo Pākehā, he Māori tonu te whakaaro, ā, he whakakata te rerekētanga o te ao tawhito me tea o hou. Ko te tauira ko te rotarota a Hone Tūwhare i te tau 1972, arā te ingoa ko ‘To a Maori figure cast in bronze outside the chief post office, Auckland’ anō nei he kōrero pāparakāuta kē. Ko tētahi atu ko te kaituhi a Arapera Blank i tana tuhinga mō ngā kōtiro Māori noho taone e hoki ripitiki ana ki ō rātou wā kāinga, ka kīa rātou e ō rātou whanaunga he kai kiko mata kē te mahi.

Ngā kaimahi whakakata

Mai i te tau 1981 ka mahuta ake ko Billy T. James nō roto i ngā pēne Māori hei kaiwhakangahau rongonui o te motu. Nā tōna kata ngehingehi ka hurihia e ia ngā whakaaro kaikiri a te Pākehā ki te Māori, ko te nuinga hoki o ana whakaari nā te Māori kē i tinihanga ngā āpiha Pākehā. Nō tērā wā he nui atu ngā kaimahi whakakata Māori pēnei i a Mike King rāua ko Pio Terei i huri i ngā whakaaro kaikiri a te Pākehā hei whakakatanga mā te katoa.

Kupu tāpiri
  1. Tiaki Hikawera Mitira (J. H. Mitchell), Tākitimu. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: A. H & A. W. Reed, 1972, pp. 253–254. Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Mark Derby, 'Te whakakata - Te whakakata i te rautau 1900', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-whakakata/page-2 (accessed 20 August 2019)

Story by Mark Derby, published 5 Sep 2013