Kōrero: Te ture – Māori and legislation

Whārangi 1. Tikanga Māori tūturu

Ngā whakaahua

Ture Māori ki te tau 1840

I te wā o te hainatanga o te Tiriti o Waitangi, ka noho te Māori ki raro i ōna anō ture. Ko ēnei ture ka takea mai i ēnei ariā:

  • te mana
  • te tapu
  • te rāhui
  • te utu
  • te muru.

Te whakatika

Kia oti katoa te tikanga o te whakawā, ka neke ki te wāhi o te muru. Me whakaae, me noho puku ngā tāngata e murua ana. Kei te rangatira o Taranaki a Te Rangi Hīroa ngā whakamārama mō tōna whai wāhi ki tētahi taua muru:

‘Ka whiu kōrero ā mātou rangatira ki runga ki te iwi kāinga he mahi karihika tā ētahi ō rātou. Ko ngā kinaki he waiata hahani i te iwi kāinga. I te whakahokitanga, ka whakaae ngā rangatira o taua iwi kua hē rātou, ā, ka horaina te pounamu, te papanga kākahu, te moni pāuna tonu hei utu mō tō rātou hara...kātahi ka hongi ngā taha e rua, ka rere ngā pahupahu. I muri mai ka kai hākari, ā, ka hoki ki te kāinga.’

Te whakaae ki te ture Māori

I te tau 1839 nā Rore Normanby (o te Tari Koroni o Peretānia) te tohutohu ki a Te Hopihana (Kāpene William Hobson)  me whāia e ia te tuku whakaaetanga o te Māori ki te tuku i te rangatiratanga ki tō rātou whenua. Ko te utu ia, ka oatitia e te Karauna ētahi painga pērā i ‘ngā manaakitanga a Peretānia me ngā ture ka whakaritea e ngā kaiwhakawā Peretānia’.

Ka kite ngā apataki o Peretānia me whakauru ko ngā ture Māori e whai wāhanga ai te ture Pākehā. Ko tā te kaitohutohu o te Tari Koroni a James Stephen mā ‘ngā ture me te ritenga Māori’ ka āhei ai ngā ture Pākehā ki Aotearoa. Nō te tau 1842 ka mairangitia e te hēkeretari koroni o Peretānia, a Rore Stanley, kia whai wāhi ki te pūnaha ture ētahi tikanga Māori, pērā i te tapu.

Te whakamahi o ētahi ture i te tikanga Māori

I hangaia ētahi ture kia whai whakaaro ki ngā tikanga Māori:

  • Nā runga  i te Ture Native Exemption Ordinance 1844 me te Ture Kaiwhakawā Takiwā 1867 ki te whānako te Māori me utu ia i te pārurenga – he momo muru tēnei.
  • I runga i te Ture Kaiwhakawā Kōti Takiwā 1846, mā te Māori anō āna kōwhetewhete e whakatau, ā, kia rangona e te kaiwhakawā takiwā me ngā rangatira Māori e rua. Kei ngā rangatira anō te kōrero mutunga. 
  • E ai ki te wāhanga 71 o te Ture Constitution Act 1852 ka wāhia ētahi takiwā Māori kia noho i raro anō i ngā tikanga me ngā ture Māori. Heoi kāore i kōkiritia ēnei wāhanga o te ture.

Te Ture Tāmi Tohunga 1907

Kua tau noa atu te whakaaro a te Pākehā kāore e roa ka whakarērea ngā ture Māori, kia tū kē mai ko te ture a tauiwi. Ko te pōhēhē a ngā apataki koroni he wā tōna ka korehāhā te iwi Māori, ka whenumia anō hoki ki roto ki te ao Pākehā, ā, ka noho ko ngā ture Pākehā kei runga, me ngā ture Māori kei raro. 

He mea whakakore, whakahou rānei ngā ture i meatia ake, ā, ka whakanoho ōrite te Māori me tauiwi. I muri mai ka rāhuitia e ētahi ture ngā tikanga Māori. Nā te Ture Tāmi Tohunga 1907 i whakatapu te mahi a ngā tohunga Māori. Heoi kāore noa iho i whai niho tērā ture. 

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Rāwiri Taonui, 'Te ture – Māori and legislation - Tikanga Māori tūturu', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-ture-maori-and-legislation/page-1 (accessed 23 October 2017)

Story by Rāwiri Taonui, published 20 Jun 2012